Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others. The behavior is often repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, and such acts may be directed repeatedly towards particular targets. Justifications and rationalizations for such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body language, personality, reputation, lineage, strength, size or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing. "Targets" of bullying are also sometimes referred to as "victims" of bullying.
Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, while some U.S. states have laws against it. Bullying consists of four basic types of abuse – emotional (sometimes called relational), verbal, physical, and cyber. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from simple one-on-one bullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.
A bullying culture can develop in any context in which human beings interact with each other. This includes school, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, "the strongest predictor was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player's life would approve of the bullying behavior".
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Etymology
- 3 History
- 4 Characteristics
- 5 Effects
- 6 Dark triad
- 7 Projection
- 8 Emotional intelligence
- 9 In different contexts
- 9.1 Cyberbullying
- 9.2 Disability bullying
- 9.3 Gay bullying
- 9.4 Legal bullying
- 9.5 Military bullying
- 9.6 Parental bullying of children
- 9.7 Prison bullying
- 9.8 School bullying
- 9.9 Sexual bullying
- 9.10 Workplace bullying
- 9.11 In other areas
- 10 Prevention
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Bullying may be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person, physically, mentally or emotionally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. It can be classified into four types:
- Physical (hitting, punching, or kicking)
- Verbal (name-calling or taunting)
- Relational (destroying peer acceptance and friendships)
- Cyber-bullying (using electronic means to harm others)
Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier in preschool. Cyber-bullying, arguably the most destructive and common form today, is more common in secondary school than in primary school.
Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons". He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways."
The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning "sweetheart", applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother", probably diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother", of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle "lover"). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow", "blusterer", to "harasser of the weak". This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute", which was one sense of "bully" (though not specifically attested until 1706). The verb "to bully" is first attested in 1710.
High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usually receive most media attention, but lower-level forms of violence such as bullying have only by the 2000s started to be addressed by researchers, parents and guardians, and authority figures. It is only in recent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as a separate and distinct offence, but there have been well documented cases that have been recorded over the centuries.[which?] Virginia Woolf considered fascism to be a form of bullying, and wrote of Hitler and the Nazis in 1934 as "these brutal bullies".
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Of bullies and accomplices
Studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Research on the self-esteem of bullies has produced equivocal results. While some bullies are arrogant and narcissistic, bullies can also use bullying as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self-esteem: by demeaning others, the abuser feels empowered. Bullies may bully out of jealousy or because they themselves are bullied.
Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depression and personality disorders, as well as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. A combination of these factors may also be causes of this behavior. In one recent study of youth, a combination of antisocial traits and depression was found to be the best predictor of youth violence, whereas video game violence and television violence exposure were not predictive of these behaviors.
Bullying may also result from a genetic predisposition or a brain abnormality in the bully. While parents can help a toddler develop emotional regulation and effortful control to restrict aggressive behavior, some children fail to develop these skills due to insecure attachment with their families, ineffective discipline, and environmental factors such as a stressful home life and hostile siblings. Moreover, according to some researchers, bullies may be inclined toward negativity and perform poorly academically. Dr. Cook says that "a typical bully has trouble resolving problems with others and also has trouble academically. He or she usually has negative attitudes and beliefs about others, feels negatively toward himself/herself, comes from a family environment characterized by conflict and poor parenting, perceives school as negative and is negatively influenced by peers".
Contrarily, some researchers have suggested that some bullies are "psychologically strongest" and have "high social standing" among their peers, while their targets are "emotionally distressed" and "socially marginalized". Peer groups often promote the bully's actions, and members of these peer groups also engage in behaviors, such as "mocking, excluding, punching, and insulting one another" as a source of entertainment. Other researchers also argued that a minority of the bullies, those who are not in turn bullied, "enjoy going to school, and are least likely to take days off sick".
Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarian personalities, combined with a strong need to control or dominate. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view of subordinates can be a particularly strong risk factor.
Of typical bystanders
Often bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support of the majority present that instills the fear of "speaking out" in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group. Unless the "bully mentality" is effectively challenged in any given group in its early stages, it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm within the group.
It is the general unwillingness of bystanders to expend these types of energies and to undertake this type of risk that bullies often rely upon in order to maintain their power. Unless action is taken, a "culture of bullying" is often perpetuated within a group for months, years, or longer.
Bystanders who have been able to establish their own "friendship group" or "support group" have been found to be far more likely to opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those who have not.
In addition to communication of clear expectations that bystanders should intervene and increasing individual self-efficacy, there is growing research that suggests interventions should build on the foundation that children’s belief that bullying is morally wrong.
Among adults, being a bystander to workplace bullying was linked to depressive symptoms, particularly for women.
Dr. Cook says that "A typical victim is likely to be aggressive, lack social skills, think negative thoughts, experience difficulties in solving social problems, come from a negative family, school and community environments and be noticeably rejected and isolated by peers". Victims often have characteristics such as being physically weak as well as being easily distraught emotionally. They may also have physical characteristics that make them easier targets for bullies such as being overweight or having some type of physical deformity. Boys are more likely to be victims of physical bullying while girls are more likely to be bullied indirectly.
The results of a metanalysis conducted by Cook and published by the American Psychological Association in 2010 concluded the main risk factors for children and adolescents being bullied, and also for becoming bullies, are the lack of social problem-solving skills.
Children who are bullied often show physical or emotional signs such as; being afraid to attend school, complaining of headaches or a loss of appetite, a lack of interest in school activities and spending time with friends or family, and having an overall sense of sadness.
Children who bully show characteristics as well. The typically show signs of an aggressive behavior, a need to dominate others, and have a positive attitude towards violence. http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/bullying_warning_signs.page
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Mona O'Moore of the Anti-Bullying Centre at Trinity College in Dublin, has written, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide". Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. Bullying has also been shown to cause maladjustment in young children, and targets of bullying who were also bullies themselves exhibit even greater social difficulties.
Even though there is evidence that bullying increases the risk of suicide, bullying alone does not cause suicide. Depression is one of the main reasons why kids who are bullied commit suicide. It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide every year in the UK alone, because they are being bullied. Certain races and genders are at a higher risk for suicide than others such as; American Indian, Alaskan Native, Asian American, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. When someone is unsupported by his or her family or friends, it can make the situation much worse for the victim.
While some people find it very easy to ignore a bully, others may find it very difficult and reach a breaking point. There have been cases of apparent bullying suicides that have been reported closely by the media. These include the deaths of Ryan Halligen, Phoebe Prince, Dawn-Marie Wesley, Kelly Yeomans, Jessica Haffer, Hamed Nastoh, April Himes, Cherice Moralez and Rebecca Ann Sedwick.
Serial killers were frequently bullied through direct and indirect methods as children or adolescents. Henry Lee Lucas, a serial killer and diagnosed psychopath, said the ridicule and rejection he suffered as a child caused him to hate everyone. Kenneth Bianchi, a serial killer and member of the Hillside Stranglers, was teased as a child because he urinated in his pants and suffered twitching, and as a teenager was ignored by his peers.
Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons and instill strength. Helene Guldberg, a child development academic, sparked controversy when she argued that being a target of bullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boost their ability to interact with others", and that teachers should not intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullying themselves:
Despite the fact that the majority of those who may find themselves to be the targets of bullying behavior may ultimately feel "harmed" by such targeting, a few studies have pointed up some potentially positive outcomes from bullying behavior. These studies have found that with some individuals, as a result of their having been targeted with bullying behavior, this certain minority of former bullying "targets" have actually experienced being "enabled" through their experiences with bullying to develop various coping strategies which included "standing up for themselves" in ways which acted to "re-balance" former imbalances of power. Such former bullying targets have reported such things as "becoming a better person" as a result of their former bullying ordeals. The teaching of such anti-bullying coping skills to "would-be-targets" and to others has been found to be an effective long term means of reducing bullying incidence rates and a valuable skill-set for individuals.
A bully may project his/her own feelings of vulnerability onto the target(s) of the bullying activity. Despite the fact that a bully's typically denigrating activities are aimed at the bully's targets, the true source of such negativity is ultimately almost always found in the bully's own sense of personal insecurity and/ or vulnerability. Such aggressive projections of displaced negative emotions can occur anywhere from the micro-level of interpersonal relationships, all the way up through to the macro-level of international politics, or even international armed conflict.
Bullying is abusive social interaction between peers which can include aggression, harassment, and violence. Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim. A growing body of research illustrates a significant relationship between bullying and emotional intelligence. Mayer et al., (2008) defines the dimensions of overall EI as: "accurately perceiving emotion, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotion, and managing emotion". The concept combines emotional and intellectual processes. Lower emotional intelligence appears to be related to involvement in bullying, as the bully and/or the victim of bullying. EI seems to play an important role in both bullying behavior and victimization in bullying; given that EI is illustrated to be malleable, EI education could greatly improve bullying prevention and intervention initiatives.
In different contexts
Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. Cyber bullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using email, instant messaging, text messaging, websites, social networking sites, etc. Particular watch dog organizations have been designed to contain the spread of cyber-bullying.
It has been noted that disabled people are disproportionately affected by bullying and abuse, and such activity has been cited as a hate crime. The bullying is not limited to those who are visibly disabled such as wheelchair-users or physically deformed such as those with a cleft lip but also those with learning disabilities such as autism and developmental coordination disorder. In the latter case, this is linked to a poor ability in physical education, and this behaviour can be encouraged by the unthinking physical education teacher. Abuse of the disabled is not limited to schools. There are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a "care institution", such as the case revealed in a BBC Panorama programme on a Castlebeck care home (Winterbourne View) near Bristol which led to its closure and the suspension and sacking of some of the staff.
There is an additional problem that those with learning disabilities are often not as able to explain things to other people so are more likely to be disbelieved or ignored if they do complain.
Gay bullying and gay bashing are expressions used to designate verbal or physical actions that are direct or indirect in nature by a person or group against a person who is gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT), or of questionable sexual orientation, or one who is perceived to be so, because of rumors or fitting gay stereotypes. Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying.
Legal bullying is the bringing of a vexatious legal action to control and punish a person. Legal bullying can often take the form of frivolous, repetitive, or burdensome lawsuits brought to intimidate the defendant into submitting to the litigant's request, not because of the legal merit of the litigant's position, but principally due to the defendant's inability to maintain the legal battle. This can also take the form of SLAPPs. It was partially concern about the potential for this kind of abuse that helped to fuel the protests against SOPA and PIPA in the United States in 2011 and 2012.
Some argue that this behaviour should be allowed, due to ways in which "soldiering" is different from other occupations. Soldiers expected to risk their lives should, according to them, develop strength of body and spirit to accept bullying.
Parental bullying of children
Parents who may displace their anger, insecurity, or a persistent need to dominate and control, upon their children in excessive ways have been proven to increase the likelihood that their own children will in turn become overly aggressive or controlling towards their peers. The American Psychological Association advises on its website that parents who may suspect that their own children may be engaging in bullying activities amongst their peers, should carefully consider the examples which they themselves may be setting for their own children, regarding how they typically interact with their own peers, colleagues, and children. Do the parents typically motivate their peers and their children with positive and self-confidence building incentives, or do they most often attempt to motivate their peers and children with certain "threats" of one form of "punishment" or "reprisal" or another (emotional blackmail or physical blackmail)?
Another environment known for bullying is a country's prison service. This is almost inevitable when many of the people incarcerated are there for aggressive crimes and many were bullies at school. An additional complication is the staff and their relationships with the inmates. Thus the following possible bullying scenarios are possible:
- Inmate bullies inmate (echoing school bullying);
- Staff bullies inmate;
- Staff bullies staff (a manifestation of workplace bullying);
- Inmate bullies staff.
Bullying can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, though it may occur more frequently in physical education classes and activities, recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and while waiting for buses, and in classes that require group work and/or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next target. These bullies may taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target. Bystanders may participate or watch, sometimes out of fear of becoming the next target.
Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: There is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse (relational aggression or passive aggression), humiliation, or exclusion — even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.
Sexual bullying is "any bullying behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person's sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls - although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person's face, behind their back or through the use of technology."
The Workplace Bullying and Trauma Institute defines workplace bullying as "repeated, health-harming mistreatment, verbal abuse, or conduct which is threatening, humiliating, intimidating, or sabotage that interferes with work, or some combination of the three". Statistics show that bullying is 3 times as prevalent as illegal discrimination and at least 1,600 times as prevalent as workplace violence. Statistics also show that while only one employee in every 10,000 becomes a target of workplace violence, one in six experiences bullying at work. Bullying is a little more common than sexual harassment but not verbal abuse which occurs more than bullying.
Unlike the more physical form of school bullying, workplace bullying often takes place within the established rules and policies of the organization and society. Such actions are not necessarily illegal and may not even be against a firm's regulations; however, the damage to the targeted employee and to workplace morale is obvious.
Bullying in academia is workplace bullying of scholars and staff in academia, especially places of higher education such as colleges and universities. It is believed[by whom?] to be common, although has not received as much attention from researchers as bullying in some other contexts.
In blue collar jobs
Bullying has been identified[by whom?] as prominent in blue collar jobs including on oil rigs and in mechanic shops and machine shops. It is thought that intimidation and fear of retribution cause decreased incident reports. In industry sectors dominated by males, typically of little education, where disclosure of incidents are seen as effeminate, reporting in the socioeconomic and cultural milieu of such industries would likely lead to a vicious circle. This is often used[by whom?] in combination with manipulation and coercion of facts to gain favour among higher-ranking administrators.
In information technology
A culture of bullying is common in information technology (IT), leading to high sickness rates, low morale, poor productivity, and high staff-turnover. Deadline-driven project work and stressed-out managers take their toll on IT workers.
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee doctors and of nurses. It is thought[by whom?] that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession, which may result in a bullying cycle.
Even though The American Nurses Association believes that all nursing personnel have the right to work in safe, non-abusive environments, bullying has been identified as being particularly prevalent[quantify] in the nursing profession although the reasons are not clear. It is thought[by whom?] that relational aggression (psychological aspects of bullying such as gossipping and intimidation) are relevant. Relational aggression has been studied amongst girls but not so much amongst adult women.
In other areas
As the verb to bully is defined as simply "forcing one's way aggressively or by intimidation", the term may generally apply to any life experience where one is motivated primarily by intimidation instead of by more positive goals such as mutually shared interests and benefits. As such, any figure of authority or power which may use intimidation as a primary means of motivating others, such as a neighborhood "protection racket don", a national dictator, a childhood ring-leader, a terrorist, a terrorist organization, or even a ruthless business CEO, could rightfully be referred to as a bully. According to psychologist Pauline Rennie-Peyton, we each face the possibility of being bullied in any phase of our lives.
Bullying prevention is the collective effort to prevent, reduce, and stop bullying. Many campaigns and events are designated to bullying prevention throughout the world. Bullying prevention campaign and events include (but are not limited to): Anti-Bullying Day, Anti-Bullying Week, International Day of Pink, International STAND UP to Bullying Day, and National Bullying Prevention Month.
School connectedness is the positive relationship between students, teachers, administrators, and educational support professionals. Studies have shown that, bullying programs set up in schools with the help and engagements of staffs and faculty have shown to reduce peer victimization and bullying. Incidence of bullying is noticeably reduced when the students themselves disapprove of bullying.
Research indicates that methods such as "increasing awareness, instituting zero tolerance for fighting, or placing troubled students in the same group or classroom" are ineffective in reducing bullying while other measures, including increasing empathy for victims, adopting a program with a "whole school" approach which includes all teachers, students, and parents, and student-led anti-bullying efforts, have shown significant progress and success.
A review of all research regarding anti-bullying efforts in schools summarizes the most successful ways:
- Everyone in the school must change, not only the identified bullies.
- Intervention must begin in early grades.
- Evaluation of the programs in place is critical since some programs may increase bullying rather than reduce it.
- The Bully: A Discussion and Activity Story (book)
- Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
- Hate crime
- Passive aggression
- Police brutality
- Psychological manipulation
- Psychological trauma
- Relational aggression
- Social exclusion
- Social isolation
- Social undermining
- Victim blaming
- Victim playing
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- Statistics on bullying[dead link]
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- "Hamed Nastoh". Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Caruso, Kevin. "April Himes Memorial". Suicide.org. Suicide.org. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- McLaughlin, Elliot C. (2013-08-30). "U.S.". "Montana teen loved pit bulls, poetry before rape and suicide". CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Pearce, Matt (2013-09-12). "U.S.: Nation Now". "Florida girl, 12, found dead after bullies said 'kill yourself'". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles Times). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Boodman, Sandra G. (2006-05-16). "Health". "Gifted and Tormented". The Washington Post (The Washington Post). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "What Makes Serial Killers Tick?". Crime library. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. A Time Warner Company. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Tanya (2009-02-02). "News". "Child Development Academician Says Bullying Is Beneficial To Kids". Med India (Medindia). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Study describing how "learning to fight back" can help students to mature.
- Positive Anti-Bullying Strategies by Melissa Graham
- Chabrol H., Van Leeuwen N., Rodgers R., Séjourné S.; Van Leeuwen; Rodgers; Séjourné (2009). "Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency". Personality and Individual Differences 47 (7): 734–39. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020.
- Paul Gilbert, Overcoming Depression (1999) p. 185–6
- Carl G. Jung ed., Man and his Symbols (London 1978) p. 181–2
- Mayer,J.D., Roberts, R.D & Barasade, S.G. (2008) Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. The Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646
- Tolegenova, A.A., Jakupov, S.M., Man Cheung Chung, Saduova, S. & Jakupov, M.S (2012) A theoretical formation of emotional intelligence and childhood trauma among adolescents. “Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences”, 69, 1891-1894. International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.142
- Mckenna, J. & Webb, J. (2013) Emotional intelligence. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(12), 560.
- Jose Bolton; Stan Graeve (2005). No Room for Bullies: From the Classroom to Cyberspace. Boys Town Press. ISBN 978-1-889322-67-4. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Katherine Quarmby (2011). Scapegoat: Why We Are Failing Disabled People. Portobello Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-84627-321-6. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Clare Sainsbury (30 September 2009). Martian in the Playground: Understanding the Schoolchild with Asperger's Syndrome. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4462-4398-5. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Tony Attwood (2006). The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-1-84310-495-7. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Amanda Kirby (1 October 2002). Dyspraxia: The Hidden Handicap. Souvenir Press. pp. 106–113. ISBN 978-0-285-63512-8. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Geoff Brookes (January 2005). Dyspraxia. Continuum. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-0-8264-7581-7. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "UK". "Four arrests after patient abuse caught on film". BBC News (BBC). 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Berlan, Elise D.; Corliss, Heather L.; Field, Alison E.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Austin, S. Bryn (2010-01-28). "Sexual Orientation and Bullying Among Adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study". Journal of Adolescent Health (Elsevier) 46 (4): 366–371. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.015. PMC 2844864. PMID 20307826. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Dannatt, Sir Richard (2008). "Lawful: Paragraph 20". "Values and Standards of the British Army". the British Army. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Jean M. Callaghan; Franz Kernic (2003). "Chapter 2: "Social Psychology" of the Individual Soldier". Armed Forces and International Security: Global Trends and Issues. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-3-8258-7227-4. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Priesnitz, Wendy. "Parental Bullying Creates Bullies". Natural Child Magazine. Wendy Priesnitz. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Bullying: How parents, teachers, and kids can take action to prevent bullying". American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- James Garbarino; Ellen deLara (2 September 2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-2899-2. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Witted, Kathryn Suzanne (2005), Student Reports of Physical and Psychological Maltreatment in Schools: An Under Explored Aspect of Student Victimization in Schools, PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee, retrieved 2013-10-29
- Whitted, K. S.; Dupper, D. R. (2007). "Do Teachers Bully Students?: Findings From a Survey of Students in an Alternative Education Setting". Education and Urban Society 40 (3): 329. doi:10.1177/0013124507304487.
- "The NSPCC working definition of Sexual Bullying". NSPCC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "The WBI Definition of Workplace Bullying". Workplace Bullying Institute. Workplace Bullying Institute. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Keashly, Loraleigh; Neuman, Joel H. (2010). "Faculty Experiences with Bullying in Higher Education - Causes, Consequences, and Management". Administrative Theory & Praxis (Public Administration Theory Network) 32 (1): 48–70. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806320103. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Notelaers, Guy; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Baillien, Elfi; Einarsen, Ståle; De Witte, Hans (2011). "Exploring Risk Groups Workplace Bullying with Categorical Data". Industrial Health (Industrial Health) 49 (1): 73–88. doi:10.2486/indhealth.ms1155. PMID 20823631. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Thomson, Rebecca. "IT profession blighted by bullying". ComputerWeekly.com: Feature. TechTarget. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Ann Richards; Sharon L. Edwards (2008). A Nurse's Survival Guide to the Ward. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-06897-3. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- . http://www.nursingworld.org/Bullying-Workplace-Violence Workplace Violence Statistics Dellasega, Cheryl A. (2009). "Bullying Among Nurses". American Journal of Nursing (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 109 (1): 52–58. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000344039.11651.08. PMID 19112267. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Karim, Nadiya (2010-01-15). "News: Education: Higher". "Bullying in Universities: It exists". The Independent (The Independent). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Ben Shapiro, Bullies: How the Left's Culture of Fear and Intimidation Silences America (ISBN 1476710015). Threshold Editions: 2013
- O’Brennan, L. M., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2014). Strengthening bullying prevention through school staff connectedness. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 870-880. doi:10.1037/a0035957
- Guerra, Nancy G.; Williams, Kirk R. (2010). "Implementing bullying prevention in diverse settings: Geographic, economic, and cultural influences". Oxford University Press.
- Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2007). "Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten?". Developmental Review.
- Kohut MR The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping Bullies & Bullying: A Complete Guide for Teachers & Parents (2007)
- Bullies and Victims in Schools: a guide to understanding and management by Valerie E. Besag (1989)
- The Fight That Never Ends by Tim Brown
- Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls" by Rachel Simmons ISBN 0-15-602734-8
- Bullycide, Death at Playtime by Neil Marr and Tim Field ISBN 0-9529121-2-0
- Bullycide in America: Moms Speak Out about the Bullying/Suicide Connection – by Brenda High, Bullycide.org
- A Journey Out of Bullying: From Despair to Hope by Patricia L. Scott
- "Peer Abuse Know More! Bullying From A Psychological Perspective" By Elizabeth Bennett
- New Perspectives on Bullying by Ken Rigby
- Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. The Free Press: New York NY.
- Joanne Scaglione, Arrica Rose Scaglione Bully-proofing children: a practical, hands-on guide to stop bullying 2006
- Why Is Everybody Always Picking on Me: A Guide to Handling Bullies for Young People. by Terrence Webster-Doyle. Book and Teaching curriculum.
- "Why Nerds are Unpopular", by Paul Graham. This essay is an example of how even medium differences, in a hierarchical, zero-sum, or negative environments, can lead to ostracism or persecution.
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding (1954). A famous work describing how a group of schoolboys trapped on an island descends into savagery.
|Library resources about
|Look up bullying in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Bullying. No Way! (Australian Education Authorities)
- Bullying in schools (UK – schools)
- PBSKids.org "Great Books About Bullies"
- Be Brave Against Bullying, a UFT project
- U.S. Department of Education's Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)