Bullying is the use of force or coercion to abuse or intimidate others. The behavior can be habitual and involve an imbalance of social or physical power. It can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion and may be directed repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing. The victim of bullying has been referred to as a "target".
Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, while some U.S. states have laws against it. Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal, and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from simple one-on-one bullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.
Definitions and etymology
Bullying may be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person, physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person.
'exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons'. He says negative actions occur 'when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways.'
The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning "sweetheart", applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother", probably diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother", of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle "lover"). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow", "blusterer", to "harasser of the weak". This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute", which was one sense of "bully" (though not specifically attested until 1706). The verb "to bully" is first attested in 1710.
High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usually receive most media attention, but lower-level forms of violence such as bullying have only in recent years started to be addressed by researchers, parents and guardians, and authority figures. It is only in recent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as a separate and distinct offence, but there have been well documented cases that have been recorded over the centuries. The Fifth Volume of the Newgate Calendar contains at least one example where Eton Scholars George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith were charged, at Aylesbury Assizes, with killing and slaying the Hon. F. Ashley Cooper on February 28, 1825 in an incident which might today be described as "lethal hazing". The Newgate calendar contains several other examples that, while not as distinct, could be considered indicative of situations of bullying. Virginia Woolf considered fascism to be a form of bullying, and wrote of Hitler and the Nazis in 1934 as "these brutal bullies".
In the 2000s and 2010s, a cultural movement against bullying gained popularity in the English-speaking world. The first National Bullying Prevention Week was conceived of in Canada in 2000 by Canadian educator and anti-bullying activist Bill Belsey. The charity Act Against Bullying was formed in the UK in 2003. In 2006, National Bullying Prevention Month was declared in the United States. The Suicide of Phoebe Prince in 2010 brought attention to the issue in Massachusetts, and sparked reforms in state education. The It Gets Better Project was started in 2010 to combat gay teen suicides, and Lady Gaga announced the Born This Way Foundation in partnership with Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society in 2011.
A 2012 paper from the Berkman Center, "An Overview of State Anti-Bullying Legislation and Other Related Laws," notes that, as of January 2012, 48 U.S. states had anti-bullying laws, though there is wide variation in their strength and focus. Sixteen states acknowledge that bullies often target their victims based on "creed or religion, disability, gender or sex, nationality or national origin, race, and sexual orientation." Each of the 16 employs a wide array of additional parameters, the paper notes, ranging from age and weight to socioeconomic status. Of the 38 states that have laws encompassing electronic or "cyberbullying" activity, 32 put such offenses under the broader category of bullying and six states define this type of offense separately, the authors report.
Of bullying in general
Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal, and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying behavior may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion.
U.S. National Center for Education Statistics suggested in 2001 that bullying can be classified into two categories:
- direct bullying, and
- indirect bullying (which is also known as social aggression).
Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression, such as shoving and poking, throwing things, slapping, choking, punching and kicking, beating, stabbing, pulling hair, scratching, biting, scraping, and pinching.
He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by attempting to socially isolate the victim. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques, including spreading gossip, refusing to socialize with the victim, bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim, and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including the victim's race, religion, disability, sex, or sexual preference, etc.). Ross outlines an array of nonviolent behavior which can be considered "indirect bullying", at least in some instances, such as name calling, the silent treatment, arguing others into submission, manipulation, gossip/false gossip, lies, rumors/false rumors, staring, giggling, laughing at the victim, saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event, and mocking. The UK based children's charity, Act Against Bullying, was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills.
It has been noted that there tend to be differences in how bullying manifests itself between the sexes. Males tend to be more likely to be physically aggressive whereas females tend to favour exclusion and mockery, though it has been noticed that females are becoming more physical in their bullying. There can be a tendency in both sexes to opt for exclusion and mockery rather than physical aggression when the victim is perceived to be too strong to attack without risk, or the use of violence would otherwise cause problems for the bullies such as criminal liability, or the bullies see physical aggression as immature (particularly when bullying occurs among adults).
Clayton R. Cook and co-authors from the University of California at Riverside examined 153 studies from the last 30 years. They found that boys bully more than girls, and bullies and victims both have poor social problem-solving skills. More than anything else, poor academic performance predicts those who will bully.
Of bullies and bully accomplices
Studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Research on the self-esteem of bullies has produced equivocal results. While some bullies are arrogant and narcissistic, bullies can also use bullying as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self-esteem: by demeaning others, the abuser feels empowered. Bullies may bully out of jealousy or because they themselves are bullied. Some have argued that a bully reflects the environment of his home, repeating the model he learned from his parents.
Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depression and personality disorders, as well as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. A combination of these factors may also be causes of this behavior. In one recent study of youth, a combination of antisocial traits and depression was found to be the best predictor of youth violence, whereas video game violence and television violence exposure were not predictive of these behaviors.
According to some researchers, bullies may be inclined toward negativity and perform poorly academically. Dr. Cook says that "a typical bully has trouble resolving problems with others and also has trouble academically. He or she usually has negative attitudes and beliefs about others, feels negatively toward himself/herself, comes from a family environment characterized by conflict and poor parenting, perceives school as negative and is negatively influenced by peers".
Contrarily, some researchers have suggested that some bullies are "psychologically strongest" and have "high social standing" among their peers, while their victims are "emotionally distressed" and "socially marginalized". Other researchers also argued that a minority of the bullies, those who are not in turn bullied, "enjoy going to school, and are least likely to take days off sick".
It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood. As a child who is inclined to act as a bully ages, his or her related behavior patterns may also become more sophisticated. Schoolyard pranks and "rough-housing" may develop into more subtle activities such as administrative end-runs, planned and orchestrated attempts at character assassination, or other less obvious, yet equally forceful forms of coercion.
Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarian personalities, combined with a strong need to control or dominate. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view of subordinates can be a particularly strong risk factor.
Of typical bystanders
Often bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support of the majority present that instills the fear of "speaking out" in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group. Unless the "bully mentality" is effectively challenged in any given group in its early stages, it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm within the group. 
In such groups where the "bully mentality" has been allowed to become a dominant factor in the group environment, injustice and abuse often become regular and predictable parts of the group experience. Bystanders to bullying activities are often unable or unwilling to recognize the true costs that silence regarding the bullying can have, both to the victim or victims, and to the group. Bystanders often feel unwilling to empathize with the victim, regardless of their feelings towards the bully. The reversal of a culture of bullying within a group is usually an effort which requires much time, energy, careful planning, coordination with others, and usually requires some undertaking of "risk" by group members.
It is the general unwillingness of bystanders to expend these types of energies and to undertake this type of risk that bullies often rely upon in order to maintain their power. Unless action is taken, a "culture of bullying" is often perpetuated within a group for months, years, or longer. 
Bystanders who have been able to establish their own "friendship group" or "support group" have been found to be far more likely to opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those who have not. 
Dr. Cook says that "A typical victim is likely to be aggressive, lack social skills, think negative thoughts, experience difficulties in solving social problems, come from a negative family, school and community environments and be noticeably rejected and isolated by peers".
Effects of bullying on those who are targeted
Mona O'Moore of the Anti-Bullying Centre at Trinity College in Dublin, has written, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide". Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. Bullying has also been shown to cause maladjustment in young children, and victims of bullying who were also bullies themselves exhibit even greater social difficulties. In the long term it can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder and an inability to form relationships.
Serial killers were frequently bullied through direct and indirect methods as children or adolescents. Henry Lee Lucas, a serial killer and diagnosed psychopath, said the ridicule and rejection he suffered as a child caused him to hate everyone. Kenneth Bianchi, a serial killer and member of the Hillside Stranglers, was teased as a child because he urinated in his pants and suffered twitching, and as a teenager was ignored by his peers.
Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons and instil strength. Helene Guldberg, a child development academic, sparked controversy when she argued that being a victim of bullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boost their ability to interact with others", and that teachers should not intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullying themselves:
- "[I]f boys or girls are able to stand up for themselves, being attacked by enemies can help their development. Studies have shown that children become more popular among, and respected by, teachers and fellow pupils if they repay hostility in kind. They remember such experiences more vividly than friendly episodes, helping them to develop healthy social and emotional skills".
Despite occasional assertions that bullying can be positive and even productive, the avowed normative consensus is that bullying is a form of abuse and is wholly negative.
Despite the large number of individuals who do not approve of bullying, there are very few who will intervene on behalf of a victim. Most people remain bystanders, and may accept the bullying or even support the bully. In 85% of bullying incidents, bystanders are involved in teasing the victim or egging on the bully. When the bully encounters no negative response from observers, it encourages continuation of the behavior.
There are many reasons why individuals choose not to intervene. They may be relieved that the victim of a normal and generally-present danger is someone else, they may take vicarious satisfaction in the bullying, or they may worry that they risk becoming the next victim through intervention. An intuitive understanding that others will be similarly unwilling to assist them if they do become the next victim likely strengthens the motivation to remain passive.
Researchers have been considered the just-world belief theory to explore a posited decline in anti-bullying attitudes. "This is the idea that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get". The study determined that children do seek to understand, justify, and rectify the different injustices they come across in everyday life. However, further research is needed to link the two together.
US Federal intervention
In 2010, under the leadership of then Assistant Deputy Secretary Kevin Jennings and Education Secretary Arne Duncan, the U.S. Department of Education held the first "Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention Summit," bringing together over 150 researchers, parents, students and executive leadership from both non-profit and corporate organizations involved in bullying prevention efforts. In October, 2010, the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights released a letter clarifying the overlap between bullying and harassment covered under several Federal Civil Rights Laws that require schools to adequately address the behavior. With increasing public attention in late 2010 and early 2011, President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama hosted the first ever White House Conference on Bullying Prevention on March 10, 2011 to "dispel the myth that bullying is just a harmless rite of passage or an inevitable part of growing up". At that Conference, the U.S. Federal Government's central repository on bullying prevention, StopBullying.gov officially launched. Together with the Departments of Health and Human Services, Justice, Defense, Agriculture, the Interior, as well as the National Council on Disability, the FTC and the White House Initiative on AAPI, which made up the Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention, the Department of Education hosted two additional summits in 2011 and 2012, again bringing together the growing anti-bullying field. In April, 2012, StopBullying.gov was relaunched to include additional information as well as a map tracking state anti-bullying laws. In October, 2012 the Departments of Education and Health and Human Services launched a PSA campaign with the Ad Council and other partners targeted at parents to talk to their kids about being "more than a bystander". After Secretary Jennings left the U.S. Department of Education in July, 2011, many of these efforts were spearheaded by Research and Policy Coordinator for Bullying Prevention Initiatives, Deborah Temkin, who was recognized for her work with a nomination for the Samuel J. Heyman Service to America Medals.
Chronic bullying cycle
While on the surface, chronic bullying may appear to be simply the actions of an "aggressor" (or aggressors) perpetrated upon an unwilling "targeted individual" (or individuals), on a certain deeper level, for it to succeed, the bullying-cycle must also be viewed as necessarily including a certain chronic inadequate response on the part of the target (or targets). That is, a response that is seen by both the bully and the target as insufficient to prevent the chronic bullying-cycle from repeating itself between the given individuals. A suitable response to any given attempt at bullying varies with the occasion, and can range from ignoring a bully to turning a prank around so that it makes a "pranksteree" out of the would be prankster, to even summoning legal intervention. In any case, the targeted individual must necessarily somehow demonstrate to the would-be bully that one will not allow one's self to be daunted, intimidated, or otherwise "cowed" by the bully. Those individuals or groups who are capable of reacting to initial bullying attempts in ways that tend to sufficiently discourage potential bullies from repeated attempts are less likely to be drawn into this destructive cycle. Those individuals or groups who most readily react to stressful situations by perceiving themselves as "victims" tend to make the most suitable candidates for becoming the "targets" of chronic bullying.
Under some circumstances, targets may be chosen in what may be a completely random or arbitrary process, especially in groups in which the "bully mentality" may have already succeeded in achieving domination within the group. In such groups, the defense mechanisms of the entire group may have already been "broken down", and therefore the targeting of individuals no longer requires the seeking out of "certain personality types" to become the "next target". The reversal of such chronic and well entrenched bullying behavior in such groups sometimes requires a much more carefully planned, coordinated, determined, and multi-individual response from a would-be target than in a group in which either the "bully mentality" may not (yet) prevail, or ideally in a group that may have already taken a pro-active preventative approach towards bullying. 
Typically, the bullying-cycle must include both an act of aggression on the part of a potential bully, and a response by a potential target that is perceived by both as a certain sign of submission. The cycle is only set in motion when both of these two essential elements are present. Once both of these two elements manifest themselves, the bullying cycle often proceeds to feed on itself over time, and may last for months, years, or even decades. The cycle is most easily broken at its initial onset; however, it can also be broken at any later point in its progression by simply removing either one of its two essential ingredients. While group involvement may seem to complicate bullying activities, the act is most often an implied agreement in principle between a chief bully or instigator and the target that the one has "submitted" to the other. In the act of bullying, the bully attempts to make a public statement to the effect of: "See me and fear me, I am so powerful that I have the ability to inflict pain upon the intended target at the time and manner of my choice without having to pay any consequences". Should an intended target exhibit a "defeated attitude" in response to chronic bullying, then the bullying is likely to continue. In circumstances where a "bullying pattern" has not yet fully established itself, should the intended target respond with a clear attitude of self-confidence that somehow demonstrates that the bully's attempt to dominate is futile, then the bullying attempt will often quickly diminish or end all-together. Established patterns of bullying may require greater and more persistent effort to reverse. Institutions and organs of society often reinforce bullying, often by implying to or telling targets of bullies that they are responsible for defending themselves, and then punishing victims if they fight back.  
In different contexts
Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. Cyber bullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using email, instant messaging, text messaging, websites, social networking sites, etc. Particular watch dog organizations have been designed to contain the spread of cyber-bullying.
It has been noted that disabled people are disproportionately affected by bullying and abuse, and such activity has been cited as a hate crime. The bullying is not limited to those who are visibly disabled such as wheelchair-users or physically deformed such as those with a cleft lip but also those with learning disabilities such as autism and dyspraxia In the latter case, this is linked to a poor ability in physical education, and this behaviour can be encouraged by the unthinking physical education teacher. Abuse of the disabled is not limited to schools. There are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a "care institution", such as the case revealed in a BBC Panorama programme on a Castlebeck care home (Winterbourne View) near Bristol which led to its closure and the suspension and sacking of some of the staff.
There is an additional problem that those with learning disabilities are often not as able to explain things to other people so are more likely to be disbelieved or ignored if they do complain.
Gay bullying and gay bashing are expressions used to designate verbal or physical actions that are direct or indirect in nature by a person or group against a person who is gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT), or of questionable sexual orientation, or one who is perceived to be so, because of rumors or fitting gay stereotypes.
In eastern countries like India and China, to bully the person people spit in his way, yell silently and show a hand gesture to say "go away" diplomatically.
Legal bullying is the bringing of a vexatious legal action to control and punish a person. Legal bullying can often take the form of frivolous, repetitive, or burdensome lawsuits brought to intimidate the defendant into submitting to the litigant's request, not because of the legal merit of the litigant's position, but principally due to the defendant's inability to maintain the legal battle. This can also take the form of SLAPPs. It was partially concern about the potential for this kind of abuse that helped to fuel the protests against SOPA and PIPA in the United States in 2011 and 2012.
Some argue that this behaviour should be allowed, due to ways in which "soldiering" is different from other occupations. Soldiers expected to risk their lives should, according to them, develop strength of body and spirit to accept bullying. This attitude can be seen as paralleled by the training expected by the Ancient Greek city state of Sparta.
However, the role of a soldier has widened to peace-keeping where overt aggression is usually counterproductive and services auxiliary to the military often do some soldiering as well as another role such as engineering.
Parents who may displace their anger, insecurity, or a persistent need to dominate and control, upon their children in excessive ways have been proven to increase the likelihood that their own children will in turn become overly aggressive or controlling towards their peers. The American Psychological Association advises on its website that parents who may suspect that their own children may be engaging in bullying activities amongst their peers, should carefully consider the examples which they themselves may be setting for their own children, regarding how they typically interact with their own peers, colleagues, and children. Do the parents typically motivate their peers and their children with positive and self-confidence building incentives, or do they most often attempt to motivate their peers and children with certain "threats" of one form of "punishment" or "reprisal" or another (emotional or physical blackmail)? 
Another environment known for bullying is a country's prison service. This is almost inevitable when many of the people incarcerated are there for aggressive crimes and many were bullies at school. An additional complication is the staff and their relationships with the inmates. Thus the following possible bullying scenarios are possible:
- Inmate bullies inmate (echoing school bullying);
- Staff bullies inmate;
- Staff bullies staff (a manifestation of workplace bullying);
- Inmate bullies staff.
Bullying can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, though it may occur more frequently in physical education classes and activities, recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and while waiting for buses, and in classes that require group work and/or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. These bullies may taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target. Bystanders may participate or watch, sometimes out of fear of becoming the next victim.
Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: There is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse (relational aggression or passive aggression), humiliation, or exclusion — even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.
Sexual bullying is "any bullying behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person's sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls - although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person's face, behind their back or through the use of technology."
According to the Workplace Bullying and Trauma Institute workplace bullying is "repeated, health-harming mistreatment, verbal abuse, or conduct which is threatening, humiliating, intimidating, or sabotage that interferes with work, or some combination of the three". Statistics show that bullying is 3 times as prevalent as illegal discrimination and at least 1,600 times as prevalent as workplace violence. Statistics also show that while only one employee in every 10,000 becomes a victim of workplace violence, one in six experiences bullying at work. Bullying is a little more common than sexual harassment but not verbal abuse which occurs more than bullying.
Unlike the more physical form of school bullying, workplace bullying often takes place within the established rules and policies of the organization and society. Such actions are not necessarily illegal and may not even be against the firm's regulations; however, the damage to the targeted employee and to workplace morale is obvious.
Bullying in academia is workplace bullying of scholars and staff in academia, especially places of higher education such as colleges and universities. It is believed to be common, although has not received as much attention from researchers as bullying in some other contexts.
In blue collar jobs
Bullying has been identified as prominent in blue collar jobs including on the oil rigs and in mechanic shops and machine shops. It is thought that intimidation and fear of retribution cause decreased incident reports. This is also an industry dominated by males, typically of little education, where disclosure of incidents are seen as effeminate, which, in the socioeconomic and cultural milieu of such industries, would likely lead to a vicious circle. This is often used in combination with manipulation and coercion of facts to gain favour among higher ranking administrators.
In information technology
A culture of bullying is common in information technology (IT), leading to high sickness rates, low morale, poor productivity, and high staff turnover. Deadline-driven project work and stressed-out managers take their toll on IT workers.
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee doctors and of nurses. It is thought that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession, which may result in a bullying cycle.
Bullying has been identified as being particularly prevalent in the nursing profession although the reasons are not clear. It is thought that relational aggression (psychological aspects of bullying such as gossipping and intimidation) are relevant. Relational aggression has been studied amongst girls but not so much amongst adult women.
In other areas
As the verb to bully is defined as simply "forcing one's way aggressively or by intimidation", the term may generally apply to any life experience where one is motivated primarily by intimidation instead of by more positive goals such as mutually shared interests and benefits. As such, any figure of authority or power which may use intimidation as a primary means of motivating others, such as a neighborhood "protection racket don", a national dictator, a childhood ring-leader, a terrorist, a terrorist organization, or even a ruthless business CEO, could rightfully be referred to as a bully. According to psychologist Pauline Rennie-Peyton, we each face the possibility of being bullied in any phase of our lives.
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- Williams, K. D., Forgás, J. P. & von Hippel, W. (Eds.) (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, & Bullying. Psychology Press: New York, NY.
- Arsenault, Louise PhD; Walsh, Elizabeth MD; Trzesniewski, Kali PhD; et al. (July 2006). "Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 118 (1): 130–138. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2388. ISSN 4005 0031 4005. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Kim YS, Leventhal B; Leventhal (2008). "Bullying and suicide. A review". International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 20 (2): 133–54. doi:10.1515/IJAMH.2008.20.2.133. PMID 18714552.
- Statistics on bullying
- Jessica Haffer Memorial page
- Hamed Nastoh Memorial Page
- April Himes Memorial Page
- Boodman, Sandra G. (May 16, 2006). "Gifted and Tormented". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "What Makes Serial Killers Tick?". truTV.com. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- "Child Development Academician says Bullying is beneficial to Kids". 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-03.
- Hamilton, Fiona. The Times (London) http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article7133986.ece
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- Liepe-Levinson, Katherine and Levinson, Martin H. (2005). A General Semantics Approach to School-Age Bullying. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 62(1), 4-16.
- E. D. Nelson and R. D. Lambert, "Sticks, Stones and Semantics: The Ivory Tower," Qualitative Sociology, 2001: 83-106
- Chandler, Michael Alison (August 8, 2012). Bullying-prevention official Temkin nominated for Heyman medal. The Washington Post.
- "RWN's Favorite Quotations From Winston Churchill". 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. Famous quotes from Winston Churchill. See especially quote #2 regarding Lady Astor.
- "Problem Solving to Prevent Bullying". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. Discussion of typical psychological profiles of both bullies and their targets.
- "Bullying and Hazing: What Can We Do About These Problems?". 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. Attorney Fred Schultz discussion of hazing and hazing law
- "Safe schools: Breaking the cycle of violence". 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27. Discussion of pro-active anti-bullying school plans by certified mediator, Meadow Clark.
- "Jay Banks NBC TV-10 "STAMP Out Bullying"". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. Youtube video of NBC report on Jay Banks' anti-bullying program, advising targets to "project self-confidence".
- "Jay Banks Productions Youtube Homepage". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. Compilation of anti-bullying videos by anti-bullying expert, Jay Banks
- Bolton, José, and Stan Graeve. "No Room for Bullies: from the Classroom to Cyberspace". Boys Town, Neb.: Boys Town, 2005.
- Quarmby, Katharine. "Scapegoat: Why we are failing disabled people". Portobello, 2011.
- Sainsbury, Clare. "Martian in the Playground: Understanding the schoolchild with Asperger's syndrome". Paul Chapman Publishing, 2000.
- Attwood, Tony. "The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome". Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2007, pp 95–111.
- Kirby, Amanda. "Dyspraxia: The Hidden Handicap". Souvenir Press, 1999, pp 106–113.
- Brookes, Geoff. "Dyspraxia". Continuum, 2005, 2007 (second edition), pp 43–46.
- "Four arrests after patient abuse caught on film". BBC News. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2011-09-03. Consequences of the BBC undercover report
- The Values and Standards of the British Army – A Guide to Soldiers, Ministry of Defence, UK March 2000, paragraph 23.
- Social Psychology of the Individual Soldier, Jean M. Callaghan and Franz Kernic 2003 Armed Forces and International Security: Global Trends and Issues, Lit Verlag, Munster. The Military said that the rituals that are performed like Hazing is a way for the soldiers to build their characters and roughness that they need to be able to perform in their daily jobs.
- "Parental Bullying Creates Bullies". 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-28. Study exploring the impact of frequent parental spankings on a child's ability to interact non-violently with his or her peers.
- "Bullying (Make Your Home Bully-Free: article sub-section)". 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-08. Discussion of how parents can best set positive examples, thus improving their children's social skill sets, and reducing the likelihood that they might become engaged in bullying behavior patterns.
- Ellen deLara; Garbarino, James (2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2899-5.[page needed]
- Whitted, K.S. (2005). Student reports of physical and psychological maltreatment in schools: An under-explored aspect of student victimization in schools. University of Tennessee.
- Whitted, K. S.; Dupper, D. R. (2007). "Do Teachers Bully Students?: Findings From a Survey of Students in an Alternative Education Setting". Education and Urban Society 40 (3): 329. doi:10.1177/0013124507304487.
- "The NSPCC working definition of Sexual Bullying". NSPCC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- Namie, Gary and Ruth Workplace Bullying Institute Definition
- Keashly L Faculty Experiences with Bullying in Higher Education Causes, Consequences, and Management - Administrative Theory & Praxis Volume 32, Number 1 March 2010
- Notelaers, Guy. "Exploring Risk Groups and Risk Factors for Workplace Bullying (Guy Notelaers) - Academia.edu". Unimaas.academia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Marcello C Perceptions of Workplace Bullying Among IT Professionals: A correlational analysis of workplace bullying and psychological empowerment of Workplace Bullying Among IT Professionals (2010)
- Thomson R IT profession blighted by bullying Computer Weekly 3 April 2008
- Richards A, Edwards SL A Nurse's Survival Guide to the Ward (2008)
- Dellasega, C Bullying Among Nurses AJN, American Journal of Nursing: January 2009 - Volume 109 - Issue 1 - p 52–58
- Karim, Nadiya (2010-01-15). "Bullying in Universities: It exists". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2011-05-28. Discussion of bullying problem in universities and beyond.
- Kohut MR The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping Bullies & Bullying: A Complete Guide for Teachers & Parents (2007)
- Bullies and Victims in Schools: a guide to understanding and management by Valerie E. Besag (1989)
- The Fight That Never Ends by Tim Brown
- Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls" by Rachel Simmons ISBN 0-15-602734-8
- Bullycide, Death at Playtime by Neil Marr and Tim Field ISBN 0-9529121-2-0
- Bullycide in America: Moms Speak Out about the Bullying/Suicide Connection – by Brenda High, Bullycide.org
- A Journey Out of Bullying: From Despair to Hope by Patricia L. Scott
- "Peer Abuse Know More! Bullying From A Psychological Perspective" By Elizabeth Bennett
- New Perspectives on Bullying by Ken Rigby
- Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. The Free Press: New York NY.
- Joanne Scaglione, Arrica Rose Scaglione Bully-proofing children: a practical, hands-on guide to stop bullying 2006
- Why Is Everybody Always Picking on Me: A Guide to Handling Bullies for Young People. by Terrence Webster-Doyle. Book and Teaching curriculum.
- "Why Nerds are Unpopular", by Paul Graham. This essay is an example of how even medium differences, in a hierarchical, zero-sum, or negative environments, can lead to ostracism or persecution.
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding (1954). A famous work describing how a group of schoolboys trapped on an island descends into savagery.
|Look up bullying in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Bullying. No Way! (Australian Education Authorities)
- Bullying in schools (UK – schools)
- PBSKids.org "Great Books About Bullies"
- Be Brave Against Bullying, a UFT project
- U.S. Department of Education's Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)