Buran (spacecraft)

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This article is about the spacecraft. For the reusable space program, see Buran programme.
Buran
Буран
Buran (spacecraft)
Buran on launch pad 110/37 in November 1988
Country Soviet Union
Named after "Snowstorm"[1]
Status Decommissioned; program halted in 1993; 1K1 destroyed in a 2002 hangar collapse, 2K1 in storage in Baikonur; 1K2 at Zukhovsky Airport; 2 others barely started when cancelled. Test articles in various exhibitions.[2]
First flight 1K1
15 November 1988[1]
Last flight 1K1
15 November 1988[1]
Number of missions 1[1]
Crew members 0[1]
Time spent in space 3 hours, 36 minutes
Number of orbits 2[1]

The Buran spacecraft (Russian: Бура́н, IPA: [bʊˈran], Snowstorm or Blizzard), GRAU index 11F35 K1 was a Soviet orbital vehicle analogous in function and design to the US Space Shuttle, developed by Chief Designer Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy of RKK Energia. Buran completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988 and remains the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space; the Buran programme was cancelled in 1993 following the dissolution of the USSR.

It was treated as a Soviet space shuttle but only the plane itself was theoretically reusable, and while it was recovered successfully after its first orbital flight it was never reused. The expendable Energia rocket served as its launch vehicle.

The only Buran to actually fly in space was destroyed in 2002 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, when the hangar it was stored in collapsed.[3]

Overview[edit]

Main article: Buran program
Soyuz, Space Shuttle and Energiya-Buran comparison

The Buran orbital vehicle program was developed in response to the U.S. Space Shuttle program, which in the 1980s raised considerable concerns among the Soviet military and especially Defense Minister Dmitriy Ustinov. An authoritative chronicler of the Soviet and later Russian space programs, the academic Boris Chertok, recounts how the program came into being.[4][full citation needed] According to Chertok, after the U.S. developed its Space Shuttle program, the Soviet military became suspicious that it could be used for military purposes, due to its enormous payload, several times that of previous U.S. launch vehicles. The Soviet government asked the TsNIIMash (ЦНИИМАШ, Central Institute of Machine-building, a major player in defense analysis) for an expert opinion. Institute director, Yuri Mozzhorin, recalls that for a long time the institute could not envisage a civilian payload large enough to require a vehicle of that capacity.[citation needed]

Buran at Le Bourget airshow. (1989)

Officially, the Buran spacecraft was designed for the delivery to orbit and return to Earth of spacecraft, cosmonauts, and supplies. Both Chertok and Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy suggest that from the beginning, the program was military in nature; however, the exact military capabilities, or intended capabilities, of the Buran program remain classified. Commenting on the discontinuation of the program in his interview to New Scientist, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov confirms their accounts:

Buran being carried by the Antonov An-225 in 1989.

Like its American counterpart, the Buran, when in transit from its landing sites back to the launch complex, was transported on the back of a large jet aeroplane — the Antonov An-225 Mriya transport aircraft, which was designed in part for this task and remains the largest aircraft in the world to fly multiple times.[6][full citation needed]. Before the Mriya was ready (after the Buran had flown), the Myasishchev VM-T Atlant, a variant on the Soviet Myasishchev M-4 Molot (Hammer) bomber (NATO code: Bison), fulfilled the same role.

The software for the spacecraft and the supporting ground systems were written in several high-level programming languages which were developed as part of the Buran programme.

Flight into space[edit]

The only orbital launch of Buran occurred at 3:00 UTC on 15 November 1988 from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 110/37. It was lifted into orbit, on an unmanned mission, by the specially designed Energia rocket. Unlike the NASA Shuttle, which was propelled by a combination of solid boosters and the Shuttle's own liquid-fuel engines fueled from a large fuel tank, the Energia-Buran system used thrust from the rocket's four RD-170 liquid oxygen/kerosene engines developed by Valentin Glushko and another four RD-0120 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines.[citation needed]

Rear view of the orbiter. (1989)

Even though the program was delayed by several years, Buran was the first space shuttle to perform an unmanned flight, including landing in fully automatic mode. The Buran automated launch sequence performed as specified, and the Energia rocket lifted the vehicle into a temporary orbit before the orbiter separated as programmed. After boosting itself to a higher orbit and completing two revolutions around the Earth, ODU (engine control system) engines fired automatically to begin the descent into the atmosphere. Exactly 206 minutes[7] into the mission, the Buran orbiter landed, having lost only eight of its 38,000 thermal tiles over the course of the flight.[8] The automated landing took place on a runway at Baikonur Cosmodrome where, despite a lateral wind speed of 61.2 kilometres per hour (38.0 mph), it landed only 3 metres (9.8 ft) laterally and 10 metres (33 ft) longitudinally from the target mark.[7]

Specifically, as Buran approached Baikonur Cosmodrome and started landing, spacecraft sensors detected the strong crosswind and "the robotic system sent the huge machine for another rectangular traffic pattern approach, successfully landing the spacecraft on a second try."[8]

Projected flights and related development[edit]

In 1989, it was projected that Buran would have an unmanned second flight by 1993, with a duration of 15–20 days.[9] Because the project was cancelled after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, this never took place. Several scientists looked into trying to revive the Buran program, especially after the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.[10]

Discussions of a Russian successor[edit]

In 2010 the director of Moscow's Central Machine Building Institute said the Buran project would be reviewed in the hope of restarting a similar manned spacecraft design, with rocket test launches as soon as 2015.[11] Russia also continues work on the PPTS but has abandoned the Kliper program, due to differences in vision with its European partners.[12][13][14]

In late 2013, on the 25th anniversary of Buran, a new super heavy lift launch vehicle was announced for development by Roscosmos.[15]

Destruction[edit]

On 12 May 2002,[3] a hangar housing Buran collapsed during a massive storm in Kazakhstan, as a result of poor maintenance. The collapse killed eight workers and destroyed the craft as well as a mock-up of an Energia carrier rocket.[16][17][18]

Commemoration[edit]

On the 25th anniversary of the Buran flight in November 2013, Oleg Ostapenko, the new head of Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency, proposed that a new heavy lift launch vehicle be built for the Russian space program. The rocket would be intended to place a payload of 100 tonnes (220,000 lb) in a baseline low Earth orbit and is projected to be based on the Angara launch vehicle technology.[15]

Shuttle travels and locations[edit]

Most of the geo-location below show the shuttle bodies on the ground; in some cases Google earth's History facility is required to see the shuttle within the dates specified.[19][20]

Soviet space shuttles
Designation Name Function Location Geo-location Approximate dates Notes
OK-1K1 Buran ("Blizzard") First flight article, first shuttle series Launch pad 110/37 (L) at Baikonur 45°57′53″N 63°18′18″E / 45.96486°N 63.30496°E / 45.96486; 63.30496 Shuttle not visible; no available satellite photos. 15 November 1988 Launched on an unmanned, remote controlled flight; two orbits and landing (with heavy crosswinds and a self-initiated fly-around) at Yubileiniy (Jubilee) Airport, Baikonur.
MIK building, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 45°55′42″N 63°17′53″E / 45.92836°N 63.29809°E / 45.92836; 63.29809 Shuttle not visible; shadows. 1988 to present Housed in MIK building in area 112, Baikonur with an Energia booster mockup and other Energia hardware, destroyed in a roof collapse on 12 May 2002, which killed eight workers.
OK-2K1 Ptichka ("Little Bird") Second fight article, first series, 95-97% complete MIK building, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 45°55′42″N 63°17′53″E / 45.92836°N 63.29809°E / 45.92836; 63.29809 Shuttle not visible, in building. 1988 to 2002 Housed adjacent to the Buran.
MZK building 80, area 112a, Baikonur 45°56′26″N 63°19′06″E / 45.94046°N 63.31841°E / 45.94046; 63.31841 Shuttle not visible; in building. 2002 to present Moved to the MZK after the roof collapse in the MIK.
OK-1K2 Baikal (place name) First fight article, second series, 30-50% complete inside Tushino Plant, Moscow, Russia 1988 to 2006
Car park on Kimki Reservoir, near plant. 55°50′29″N 37°27′59″E / 55.84136°N 37.46625°E / 55.84136; 37.46625 Need history. 2006 to 2011 Moved outdoors.
Ramenskoye Airport, near Moscow, Russia on 15 August 2011 55°33′47″N 38°08′50″E / 55.5631°N 38.14716°E / 55.5631; 38.14716; need history. 2011 to 2014, to present? An exhibit in the MAKS-2011 and later air shows. Ramenskoye Airport is the site of the Gromov Flight Research Institute, and has become a large outdoor flight museum. Other sightings: on 15 March 2012: 55°33′56″N 38°08′42″E / 55.56565°N 38.14491°E / 55.56565; 38.14491, on 31 July 2012 and 8 May 2013 55°33′47″N 38°08′50″E / 55.56309°N 38.14714°E / 55.56309; 38.14714, on 4 June and 29 July 2014 55°33′06″N 38°08′41″E / 55.55179°N 38.14463°E / 55.55179; 38.14463.
OK-2K2 Second flight article, second series, 10-20% complete. Tushino plant, Moscow, Russia 1988–present Some pieces of 3K2, like heat tiles, have found their way onto eBay.[21]
OK-3K2 Third flight article, second series, very small assembly Scattered. 1988 to present All parts have been scattered and are unidentifiable.
OK-1M
OK-M
OK-ML-1
Airframe and shake test bed article Outdoor pad, area 112, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 45°55′11″N 63°18′36″E / 45.91963°N 63.30996°E / 45.91963; 63.30996 Need history. 1988 to January, 2007 Deteriorated considerably.
Gagarin Museum, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 45°54′35″N 63°19′04″E / 45.90963°N 63.31789°E / 45.90963; 63.31789 January 2007 to present Refurbished in 2007, now on outdoor display.
OK-2M
OK-GLI
Buran aerodynamic analogue Atmospheric test article, two extra jet engines in rear to facilitate take-off.[22] Pyrmont Island, Sydney harbor, Australia 33°51′50″S 151°11′48″E / 33.86392°S 151.19662°E / -33.86392; 151.19662 Need history to see shelter; shuttle not visible. February 2000 to September 2000; afterwards stored nearby until 2005 25 test flights. Sold and sent in 2000 to the Sydney, Australia 2000 Olympic Games. Displayed inside a light structure, stored in parking lot outdoors afterwards, for five years.
Manama harbor, Bahrain 26°11′54″N 50°36′09″E / 26.19826°N 50.60243°E / 26.19826; 50.60243 Need history. 2005 to 2011 Stored outdoors in Bahrain while the ownership of the shuttle was legally fought.
Technik Museum, Speyer, Germany 49°18′43″N 8°26′47″E / 49.31185°N 8.44628°E / 49.31185; 8.44628 Shuttle not visible; in building. 2011 to present Purchased from the Russian space agency when it won the legal battle, displayed indoors.
OK-3M
OK-KS
Electrical test article. Checkout and Test Building (KIS), RKK Energia Plant, Korolev, Russia 55°55′17″N 37°47′57″E / 55.92132°N 37.79929°E / 55.92132; 37.79929 Not visible, in building. This is a half-scale memorial. 2006 to 15 October 2012 Stored inside.
Grounds of the RKK Energia Plant 55°55′01″N 37°47′58″E / 55.91685°N 37.79937°E / 55.91685; 37.79937 15 October 2012 to present Stored outside 15 October 2012 to be placed on permanent display.[23]
OK-4M
OK-MT
OK-ML-2
Engineering mockup MZK building, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 45°56′26″N 63°19′06″E / 45.94046°N 63.31841°E / 45.94046; 63.31841 Shuttle not visible; in building. 1988 to present
OK-5M Environmental test parts from forward fuselage unknown 1988 to present
OK-6M
OK-TVI
Environmental test article NIIKhimMash rocket test area, near Moscow, Russia 1988 to present
OK-7M
OK-TVA
Structural test article Gorky Park, Moscow, Russia 55°43′44″N 37°35′49″E / 55.72876°N 37.59688°E / 55.72876; 37.59688 Need history. 1995 to July, 2014 Served as a not-as-popular-as-expected attraction, a small restaurant, and bicycle storage.
outside Pavillion 20 about 250 meters south of the Vostok rocket, VDNKh/VVT (All-Russia Exhibition Center) 55°49′56″N 37°37′22″E / 55.83219°N 37.62291°E / 55.83219; 37.62291 May need history. July 2014 to present Moved to VDNKh on 5 July 2014, assembled by 21 July.[24] The shuttle acquisition is part of VDNKh refurbishment.
OK-8M Components used for static thermal and vacuum tests. scattered

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Buran". NASA. 12 November 1997. Archived from the original on 4 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-15. ; Buran at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 January 2008)
  2. ^ Eight feared dead in Baikonur hangar collapse, RSpaceflkight Now .
  3. ^ a b "Buran". Russian Space Web. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  4. ^ Chertok, Boris (2005); Rockets and People
  5. ^ Paul Marks (2011-07-07). "Cosmonaut: Soviet space shuttle was safer than NASA's". 
  6. ^ "Antonov An-225 Mryia (Cossack)". The Aviation Zone. 
  7. ^ a b Chertok, Boris (2005). Asif A. Siddiqi, ed. Raketi i lyudi (trans. "Rockets and People") (PDF). NASA History Series. p. 179. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 
  8. ^ a b "Russia starts ambitious super-heavy space rocket project". Space Daily. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2013-12-13. Buran could stay in orbit for 30 days, while the American shuttle had a 15-day time limit. It could deliver into orbit 30 tonnes of cargo, compared to the US shuttle's 24 tonnes of cargo. It could carry a crew of 10 cosmonauts, while the American shuttle could carry seven astronauts. Preparation for the Energia/Buran launch at Baikonur Cosmodrome only took 15 days. However, it took one month of preparations before the US shuttle was launched from Cape Canaveral. The Energia rocket booster could be used to launch various payloads into orbit, whereas the American shuttle's booster was one-task. A year and a half before the Buran launch, Energia was launched with a full-scale mock-up of the Skif-DM orbital combat laser platform weighing 77 tonnes, measuring 37 meters long, and over four meters in diameter. Though the mock-up failed to reach the desired orbit and fell into the Pacific, the Energia booster did its job fine, delivering the huge space platform into intermediate orbit, 110 kilometers above the earth's surface. But the most important difference from the American model was that the Soviet spaceship could perform the flight and landing in totally automatic mode, which it brilliantly demonstrated on November 15, 1988. Buran's American counterpart used to land with switched-off engines, meaning it could make only one landing attempt. The Soviet spacecraft could take several tries if needed. When Buran approached Baikonur Cosmodrome and started landing in 1988, its sensors registered too strong side winds and the robotic system sent the huge machine for another rectangular traffic pattern approach, successfully landing the spacecraft on a second try. The Buran shuttle was designed to perform 100 flights to space, while its engines were ready to do 66 flights without replacement. During its flight, it lost just eight of its unique thermal-insulation tiles out of 38,800. 
  9. ^ "Экипажи "Бурана" Несбывшиеся планы" (in Russian). RU: Buran. Retrieved 2006-08-05. 
  10. ^ Birch, Douglas (2003). "Russian space program is handed new responsibility" (URL). Sun Foreign Staff. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  11. ^ "Russia To Review Its Space Shuttle Project". Space Daily. Xinhua. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  12. ^ "Soviet space shuttle could bail out NASA". Current.com. 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  13. ^ "Soviet space shuttle could bail out NASA". Russia Today. Retrieved 2009-07-15. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Russia, Europe abandon joint space project — Roscosmos". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  15. ^ a b "Russia starts ambitious super-heavy space rocket project". Space Daily. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  16. ^ Whitehouse, David (2002-05-13). "Russia's space dreams abandoned". bbc.co.uk (BBC). Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  17. ^ Buran.ru: Photo of collapsed hangar
  18. ^ Buran.ru: Remains of Buran photo with right front windscreen still visible under the debris
  19. ^ Petrovitch, Vasili. "Buran-Energia". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  20. ^ Zak, Anatoliy. "Buran". Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  21. ^ "Space shuttle Buran heat shield thermal black tile excellent condition". 
  22. ^ labeling on the display in the museum and http://speyer.technik-museum.de/en/en/spaceshuttle-buran
  23. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Buran reusable shuttle". Russian Space WEB. Retrieved 22 February 2015. See the last line of the cronology.
  24. ^ "Buran: The Abandoned Russian Space Shuttle". Urban Ghost Media. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Energiya-Buran: The Soviet Space Shuttle, Bart Hendrick and Bert Vis, Springer-Praxis, 2007, pp. 526, ISBN 978-0-387-69848-9.
  • Heinz Elser, Margrit Elser-Haft, Vladim Lukashevich: Buran — History and Transportation of the Russian Space shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer, two Languages: German and English, 2008, ISBN 3-9809437-7-1

External links[edit]