Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (BOR) was an agency of the United States Department of the Interior with the mission of planning outdoor recreation opportunities for the Interior Department and assisting private, local, and state organizations with their recreation planning. BOR was founded by Secretarial Order in April 1962, and formally established with the passage of the National Outdoor Recreation Act (Public Law 88-29) in May 1963. The functions of Nationwide Planning and Cooperative Services were transferred from the National Park Service to BOR after its establishment. The Bureau was absorbed into a new agency, the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, in 1977.
In 1956, Mission 66 was established to help accommodate users during a period of increasing usage of recreation sites. After the Great Depression, many parks became more accessible as bad roads were replaced by the US highway system, which in turn was more usable because of the increasing availability of automobiles. A series of tests performed for Mission 66 indicated several opportunities for preservation of parks, parkways, and seashores. In 1958, Congress created the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) to determine recreation needs, inventory recreation resources, and to recommend policies and programs to "...ensure that the needs of the present and future are adequately and efficiently met." ORRRC released its report in 1962, recommending the establishment of the BOR to help bring structure to outdoor recreation programs.
Land and Water Conservation Fund
The Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) was created in 1965 by the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (LWCFA.The ORRRC recommended this act to help the states in meeting the rising demand for outdoor recreation. This act allowed the fund that the LWCF earned to be distributed back into the recreation agencies to help the development of the program by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. This act provided a very broad authority from the U.S. Congress to charge entrance fees and use fees for recreation. Also this act required that states submit State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans (SCORPS) to the BOR before they could get LWCF grants.
State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans
State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans (SCORP) were studies that the states prepared and submitted to the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation before they could qualify for LWCF grants. SCORP has raised awareness of outdoor recreation across the nation by having hundreds of scientists, who would not have normally been working on outdoor recreation projects, involved in the studies. Once studies about outdoor recreation began a ripple affect happened. Scientists at colleges and universities began doing more research going past the requirements for SCORP which then stimulated more people to outdoor recreation.
Area Classification Plan
The Area Classification Plan used different types of lands to classify them as either
- Class I: High-Density Recreation Areas
- Class II: General Outdoor Recreation Areas
- Class III: Natural Environment Areas
- Class IV: Unique Natural Areas
- Class V: Primitive Areas
- Class IV: Historic and Cultural Sites
This system was in place until the early 1980s, when the recreation opportunity spectrum system replaced it.
in 1977 the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (HCRS) was created to enforce the New Heritage Program, and the service absorbed the responsibilities of the BOR. HCRS resulted from the consolidation of over 30 different laws and focused on the identification and protection of the nation's significant natural, cultural, and recreational resources. In 1981 HCRS was abolished as an agency; its responsibilities were transferred to the National Park Service.
- Stewart Udall. "Parks for America". Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- National Park Service. "National Park Service History Collection RG 37". Retrieved September 2, 2008.
- Dilsaver, Lary. "Americas National Park Service The Critical Documents". Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Moore, Roger (2005). Introduction to Outdoor Recreation. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-892123-25-1.
- Russell, Carl. "NATIONAL PARK SERVICE HISTORY". Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Roger L. Moore, B.L. Driver. Introduction to Outdoor Recreation: Providing and Managing Natural Resource Based Opportunities (Venture Publishing, Inc., 2005)