Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands (i// BRUFF) is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England, situated near the Solway Firth. The parish includes the village of Burgh by Sands along with Longburgh, Dykesfield, Boustead Hill, Moorhouse and Thurstonfield.
According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 1,143. The village is about seven miles (11 km) west of Carlisle city centre. The village has a primary school, a pub, a motor garage and a post office. It also has a statue of Edward I. Burgh was on the Carlisle Navigation canal from 1823 to 1853, after which it was served by the Port Carlisle railway, which was built on the bed of the canal, until its closure in 1932. From 1856 to 1964, railway trains operating on the Carlisle to Silloth line once again stopped at Burgh-by-sands station.
Hadrian's Wall runs through the village, and the site once was that of a Roman fort, Aballava. It has also been mooted as a possible site for the semi-mythical Avalon where King Arthur died and the legendary Excalibur was forged.
In the 12th century, the castle and lands of Burgh upon Sands belonged to a female-dominated line of feudal lords, among them Ada de Engaine. Her granddaughter's second marriage founded a younger branch of the de Multon family, a branch which held this castle in the 13th century. The Dacre lords inherited it in the 14th century via an heiress, their foremother.
The Church of St Michael is built with stone from the Roman wall on the site of a Norman church. It has a broad tower with a base dating from the mid 14th Century, and apart from the 18th century east windows, the rest is Early English. The tower, which can only be reached from within the church, is designed for defence and the ground floor is tunnel-vaulted. The top of the tower is probably 18th century.
Edward I 
Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, and his corpse lay at the village's 12th century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey. There is an impressive monument on the marshes erected in 1685 to mark the place where he died. It is 1¼ miles NNW of the village, is signposted and can be reached on foot.
See also 
- David Ramshaw The Carlisle Navigation Canal P3 publications 1997 ISBN 0-9522098-5-3
- Armstrong, A. M.; Mawer, A.; Stenton, F. M.; Dickens, B. (1950). The place-names of Cumberland. English Place-Name Society, vol.xx. Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 127.
- Pevsner N, Buildings of England; Cumberland and Westmorland ISBN 0-14-071033-7
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Burgh by Sands|
- Cumbria County History Trust: Burgh-by-Sands (nb: provisional research only - see Talk page)
- Burgh by Sands Parish Council