The elections were among a number of provisions agreed on 27 January 1947 between Burmese nationalist Aung San on a visit to London and British Prime MinisterClement Attlee guaranteeing Burma's independence from Britain within a year.
Turnout was generally low. In 56 non-communal constituencies, candidates from the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) ran unopposed, and in constituencies where challenges took place, turnout was around 50%.U Saw, leader of the Myochit Party (Burmese Nationalists), accused the AFPFL of intimidation and corruption during the election campaign and boycotted the election, as did Ba Sein and his party, accusing the AFPFL of being a "stooges" of British imperialism. Reasons given for the low turnout included the instability left by the Japanese occupation of Burma and the struggle for independence. Other candidates in the election included a few independents and communists. The election was certified as free and fair.
On 19 July 1947, Aung San was assassinated along with six other members of the party and the leadership of the AFPFL was taken over by U Nu. A constitution was approved on 24 September 1947 and independence granted on 4 January 1948.