Burmese names

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Burmese names lack the serial quality of most modern names. The Burmese people have no customary patronymic or matronymic system and thus there is no surname at all. In Burmese culture, people can change their name at will, often with no government oversight, to reflect a change in the course of their lives. Also, many Burmese names use an honorific, given at some point in life, as an integral part of the name. However, in modern Burma many of these traditions are changing.[1]

Traditional and Western-style names[edit]

Burmese names were originally one syllable, as in the cases of U Nu and U Thant ("U" being an honorific). In the mid 20th century, many Burmese started using two syllables, albeit without any formal structure. In the late 1890s, British scholars observed that the Arakanese commonly adopted three syllable names, whereas the Bamar were still using one or two at most.[2] As they become more familiar with Western culture, Burmese people are gradually increasing the number of syllables in their children's names, by use of various structures. Today, names with up to four syllables are common for males and up to five for females.

Scholars such as Thant Myint-U have argued that the rise of complex Burmese personal names resulted from the collapse of the Burmese monarchy, which ended the sophisticated system of Pali-Burmese styles, crown service and gentry titles, leaving the majority of Burmese with single syllable names.[3] Former titles, such as min (မင်း; "leader") were re-appropriated as part of personal names.[3]

For example, Burmese nationalist Aung San's parents were named Pha (ဖာ) and Suu (စု), both of which are single syllable names. His birth name was Htain Lin (ထိန်လင်း), but he changed his name to Aung San (အောင်ဆန်း) later in life. His child is named Aung San Suu Kyi (အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်). The first part of her name, "Aung San", is from her father's name at the time of her birth. "Suu" comes from her grandmother. "Kyi" comes from her mother, Khin Kyi (ခင်ကြည်). The addition of the father or mother's name in a person's name is now quite frequent, although it does not denote the development of a family name. Other nomenclature systems are used as well.

The use of the names of one's parents and relatives in personal names has been criticized as an un-Burmese adoption of seriality, although it differs from historical Western practices.

Bamar names commonly include Pali-derived words combined with native Burmese words, including:

  • Male:
    • thura (သူရ "bravery," from sura)
    • thiha (သီဟ "lion," from siha)
    • zeya (ဇေယျာ "victory," from jaya)
    • wunna (ဝဏ္ဏ "gold," from vanna)
  • Female:
    • sanda (စန္ဒာ "moon," from chanda)
    • thanda (သန္တာ "coral," from santa)
    • thiri (သီရိ "splendour," from sri)
    • hayma (ဟေမာ, "forest", compare Himalaya)

Burmese people who marry into the West or immigrate to countries that use surnames may use their name as if part of it represented a family name. For example, Tun Myint's wife changed her last name to Myint, but Myint is part of his personal name.

Honorifics[edit]

As above, honorifics supplement a given name, and can be the normal form of address used both in writing and in speech, especially with a name of one or two syllables. Widespread use of honorifics is found within all cultures in the Burmese region. Although some ethnic groups have special honorifics, these words are recognized and applied by other groups (rather than being translated).

For example, Aung San's parents are more generally known as U Pha and Daw Suu. These can be translated as "Mr. Pha" and "Ms. Suu" but are often used more informally.

Below are some common honorifics used in Burmese names:

Honorific Burmese Translation Notes
Ashin အရှင် or အသျှင် Lord Used by monks, nobles, and rarely, for women
Binnya, Banya ဗညား or ဗညာ Used to indicate royalty and nobility, from Mon ဗညာ /pəɲɛ̀a/)[4]
Bo, Bogyoke ဗိုလ်/ဗိုလ်ချုပ် Commander/General/Leader Used for military officers (e.g., Bogyoke Aung San)
Daw ဒေါ် Aunt/Ms Used for mature women or women in a senior position (e.g. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)
Duwa ဒူးဝါး Chief Used for Kachin chiefs
Khun ခွန် Mr Used by Shan men (of Kengtung ancestry; e.g., Khun Htun Oo)
Ko ကို Brother (older) Used for men of similar age (e.g., Ko Mya Aye)
Ma Sister/Ms Used for young women or women of similar age
Mahn မန်း Used by Karen men (e.g., Mahn Win Maung)
Mai, Me မယ် Used by some young women in lieu of , but exceedingly rare
Maung (abbr. Mg) မောင် Brother (younger) for boys Sometimes used as part of given name
Mi မိ Ms Used by some young women, usually as a nickname (e.g., Mi Swe)
Mi မိ Ms Used by Mon women
Min မင်း King Used as a suffix (e.g., Mindon Min)
Minh မင်း Used by Mon boys; equivalent to Maung, from Mon မာံ (/mèm/)[4]
Nai နိုင် Mr Used by Mon men; equivalent to U (e.g., Nai Shwe Kyin), from Mon နဲာ (/nài/)[4]
Nang နန်း Ms Used by Shan women, from Shan ၼၢင်း (/naaŋ/)[5]
Naw နော် Ms Used by Karen women
Nga Used as a prefix for men, now derogatory
Sai စိုင်း Mr Used by Shan men (e.g., Sai Htee Saing), from Shan ၸၢႆး (/tsaaj/[5]
Salai ဆလိုင်း Used by Chin men
Sao စဝ် Lord Used by Shan royalty (e.g., Sao Shwe Thaik), from Shan ၸဝ်ႈ (/tsaw/)[5]
Saw စော Lord Used by Shan royalty (Burmanized form of Sao) (e.g., Saw Mon Hla)
Saw စော Mr Used by Karen men (e.g., Saw Bo Mya)
Sawbwa စော်ဘွား Chief Burmese approximation of Shan 'saopha' (ၸဝ်ႈၽႃႉ, /tsaw pʰaa/), used as a suffix for Shan chiefs (e.g., Nyaungshwe Sawbwa Sao Shwe Thaik)[5]
Saya ဆရာ Teacher Used for males of senior rank or age
Sayadaw ဆရာတော် Royal Teacher Used for senior monks (e.g., Sayadaw U Pandita)
Sayama ဆရာမ Teacher Used for females of senior rank or age
Shin ရှင် or သျှင် Lord Used by monks and noble men and women (Archaic; e.g., Shin Arahan, Shin Ye Htut, Yawei Shin Htwe)
Tekkatho တက္ကသိုလ် University Used by writers (Archaic; e.g., Tekkatho Phone Naing)
Thakin သခင် Master Used by the members of Dobama Asiayone (Archaic; e.g., Thakin Kodaw Hmaing)
Theippan သိပ္ပံ Science Used by writers (Archaic; e.g., Theippan Maung Wa)
U ဦး Uncle/Mr Used for mature men or men in a senior position and monks (e.g., U Thant, U Ottama)

Astrology-based naming system[edit]

Many Burmese Buddhists also use astrology (which is determined by the child's day of birth in the traditional 8-day calendar) to name their children. For instance, a Monday-born child may have a name beginning with the letter "k" (က). The following is a traditional chart that corresponds the day of birth with the first letter used in a child's name, although this naming scheme is not universally used today:

Day Letters
Monday (တနင်္လာ) က (ka), (hka), (ga), (ga), (nga)
Tuesday (အင်္ဂါ) (sa), (hsa), (za), (za), (nya)
Wednesday morning (ဗုဒ္ဓဟူး) (la), (wa)
Wednesday afternoon (ရာဟု) (ya), (ya, ra)
Thursday (ကြာသာပတေး) (pa), (hpa), (ba), (ba), (ma)
Friday (သောကြာ) (tha), (ha)
Saturday (စနေ) (ta), (hta), (da), (da), (na)
Sunday (တနင်္ဂနွေ) (a)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burmese Names: A Guide. Mi Mi Khaing. The Atlantic. February 1958
  2. ^ Houghton, Bernard (July 1897). "The Arakanese Dialect of the Burman Language". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland): 454. 
  3. ^ a b Thant Myint-U (2001). The Making of Modern Burma. Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 9780521799140. 
  4. ^ a b c Shorto, H.L. (1962). Dictionary of Modern Spoken Mon. Oxford University Press. 
  5. ^ a b c d Moeng, Sao Tern (1995). Shan-English Dictionary. ISBN 0-931745-92-6.