Burmish languages

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Burmish
Geographic
distribution:
Burma
Linguistic classification: Sino-Tibetan
Subdivisions:
  • Burmic
  • Maruic
Glottolog: burm1266[1]
L1 speakers of Burmish languages and other Sino-Tibetan languages according to Ethnologue

The Burmish languages are Burmese, including Standard Burmese and the Burmese dialects, and non-literary languages spoken across Burma and southern China such as Achang, Măru, Lăshi, Taungyo, and Atsi.

Names[edit]

Many Burmish names are known by various names in different languages (Bradley 1997).

Names of Burmish languages
Autonym Jinghpaw name Burmese name Chinese name
Lawngwaw Maru Maru Làngsù 浪速
Tsaiwa Atsi Zi Zǎiwǎ 载瓦
Lachik Lashi Lashi Lāqí 喇期, Lèqí 勒期
Ngochang - Maintha Āchāng 阿昌
Pela - - Bōlā 波拉

In China, the Zaiwa 载瓦 (local Chinese exonym: 小山), Langsu 浪速 (local Chinese exonym: Lang'e 浪峨), Leqi 勒期 (local Chinese exonym: Chashan 茶山), and Bola 波拉 are officially classified as ethnic Jingpo (Bolayu Yanjiu). The local Chinese exonym for the Jingpo proper is Dashan 大山.

Dai Qingxia (2005:3) lists the following autonyms and exonyms for the various Burmish groups, with both Chinese character and IPA transcriptions (given in square brackets).[2]

Burmish autonyms and exonyms
Language Langsu people 浪速 Jingpo people 景颇 Zaiwa people 载瓦 Leqi people 勒期 Bola people 波拉
Langsu name 浪速语 Lang'e 浪峨 [lɔ̃˥˧˩vɔ˧˩] Bowo 波沃 [pʰauk˥vɔ˧˩] Zha'e 杂蛾 [tsa˧˥vɔ˧˩] Leqi 勒期 [lă˧˩tʃʰik˧˥] Buluo 布洛 [pă˧˩lɔ˧˩]
Jingpo name 景颇语 Moru 默汝 [mă˧˩ʒu˧˩] Jingpo 景颇 [tʃiŋ˧˩pʰoʔ˧˩] Aji 阿纪 [a˧˩tsi˥] Leshi 勒施 [lă˧˩ʃi˥] Boluo 波洛 [po˧˩lo˧˩]
Zaiwa name 载瓦语 Lelang 勒浪 [lă˨˩la̱ŋ˥˩] Shidong 石东 [ʃi˥tu̱ŋ˥] Zaiwa 载瓦 [tsai˧˩va˥˩] Leqi 勒期 [lă˨˩tʃʰi˥] Buluo 布洛 [pă˨˩lo˨˩]
Leqi name 勒期语 Langwu 浪悟 [laŋ˧˩vu˥˩] Puwu 铺悟 [pʰuk˥vu˥˩] Zaiwu 载悟 [tsai˧˩vu˥˩] Leqi 勒期 [lă˧˩tʃʰi˥˩] Buluo 布洛 [pă˧˩lɔ˥˩]
Bola name 波拉语 龙瓦 [lõ˧˩va˧˩] Baowa 泡瓦 [pʰauk˧˩va˧˩] Diwa 氐瓦 [ti˧˩va˧˩] Leqi 勒期 [lă˧˩tʃʰi˥] Bola 波拉 [po˧˩la˧˩]

Autonyms are:[2]

  • Langsu 浪速 (Lang'e 浪峨): lɔ̃˥˧˩vɔ˧˩
  • Jingpo 景颇: tʃiŋ˧˩pʰoʔ˧˩
  • Zaiwa 载瓦: tsai˧˩va˥˩
  • Leqi 勒期: lă˧˩tʃʰi˥˩
  • Bola 波拉: po˧˩la˧˩

The Chashan refer to themselves as ŋɔ˧˩tʃʰaŋ˥ (Echang 峨昌), the Jingpo as phuk˥, the Leqi as tsai˧wu˧˩ (tsai˧wu˥˩), the Langsu as lă˧˩laŋ˧˩, the Lisu as lji˧səu˧˩, and the Han Chinese as la˧˩xɛ˧˩ (Dai 2010:153).[3]

Languages[edit]

Lama (2012)[edit]

Based on innovations in their tonal systems, Lama (2012: 177–179) classifies the languages as follows:

Chashan, a recently discovered Burmish language, is closely related to Lashi.

Nishi (1999)[edit]

Based on distinct treatment of the pre-glottalized initials of proto-Burmish, Nishi (1999: 68-70) divides the Burmish languages into two branches, Burmic and Maruic. The Burmic languages changed voiceless preglottalized stops into voiceless aspirate stops and preglottalized voiced sonorants into voiceless sonorants. The Maruic languages in contrast reflect voiceless preglottalized stops and affricates as voiceless unaspirated stops and affricates with largyngealized vowels, and voiced preglottalized sonorants as voiced sonorants with laryngealized vowels. The Burmic Languages include Burmese, Achang, and Xiandao. The Maruic languages include Atsi (Zaiwa), Lashi (Leqi), Maru (Langsu), and Bola. Nishi does not classify Hpon and Nusu.

Burmic

Arakanese retains r- separate from y-, whereas the two fall together in most Burmese dialects and indeed most Burmish languages. Tavoyan has kept kl- distinct. No dialect has kept ry- distinct from r-, but this may be an independent innovation in the various dialects. Merguiese is apparently the least well studied Burmese dialect.

Maruic
  • Atsi (Zaiwa) (Burling 1967, Dai 1981, Yabu 1982, Xu and Xu 1984, Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Dai 1986, Huang et al. 1992, Wannemacher 1995-7, Wannemacher 1998)
  • Bola (Dai et al.: 1991; Huang et al. 1992, Edmondson 1992)
  • Lashi (Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Huang et al. 1992; Wannemacher 1995-7)
  • Maru (Lhao Vo) (Clerk 1911, Burling 1967, Luce 1985: Charts S, T, V; Okell 1988; Dai et al.: 1991; Huang et al. 1992; Wannemacher 1995-7)
  • Chashan also goes here

Mann (1998)[edit]

Mann (1998: 16, 137) in contrast groups together Achang, Bela (by which he probably means Bola), Lashi, Maru, and Atsi together as North Burmic.

Bradley (1997)[edit]

David Bradley places aberrant Ugong with Burmish rather than with Loloish:

  • Ugong–Burmish
    • Ugong
    • Burmish
      • Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Hpun
        • Core Burmish
          • Maru, Atsi
          • Lashi, Achang; Bola; Chintau (= Xiandao)

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Burmish". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ a b Dai Qingxia (2005). A study of Langsu [浪速语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House.
  3. ^ Dai Qingxia [戴庆厦] (2010). The Chashan people of Pianma and their language [片马茶山人及其语言]. Beijing: The Commercial Press [商务印书馆].

References[edit]

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  • Bernot, D. (1965). "The vowel systems of Arakanese and Tavoyan." Lingua 15: 463-474.
  • Burling, Robbins (1967). Proto Lolo–Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Clerk, F. V. (1911). A manual of the Lawngwaw or Măru language, containing: the grammatical principles of the language, glossaries of special terms, colloquial exercises, and Maru-English and English-Maru vocabularies. Rangoon: American Baptist mission press.
  • Dai, Qing-xia (1981). "Zai-wa-yu shi-dong fan-chou di xing-tai bian-hua" (Morphological changes in the Zaiwa causative-verb category), in Min-zu yu-wen 1981.4:36-41.
  • Dai, Qing-xia (1986). Zaiwa-yu (the Atsi language). 中國大百科全書: 民族 Zhong-guo da-bai-ke quan-shu: Min-zu. (Magna Encyclopedia Sinica: Ethnology Volume). Beijing : 中國大百科全書出版社 : 新華書店經銷 Zhongguo da bai ke quan shu chu ban she : Xin hua shu dian jing xiao
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