|Taco de harina|
|Place of origin:|
|Flour tortillas, meat and refried beans|
|Recipes at Wikibooks:|
|Media at Wikimedia Commons:|
A burrito (US English //, buˈrito (help·info)), or taco de harina ['tako ðe a'ɾina], is a type of Mexican-American food. It consists of a wheat flour tortilla wrapped or folded into a cylindrical shape to completely enclose the filling. (In contrast, a taco is generally formed by simply folding a tortilla in half around a filling, leaving the semicircular perimeter open.) The flour tortilla is usually lightly grilled or steamed, to soften it and make it more pliable. In Mexico, meat and refried beans are sometimes the only fillings.
In the United States, burrito fillings generally include a combination of ingredients such as Mexican-style rice or plain rice, refried beans or beans, lettuce, salsa, meat, guacamole, cheese, and sour cream, and the size varies. Typically, American-style burritos are stuffed with more ingredients than the primary meat and/or vegetable filling.
The word burrito means "little donkey" in Spanish, as a diminutive form of burro, or "donkey". The name burrito as applied to the food item possibly derives from the appearance of a rolled up wheat tortilla, which vaguely resembles a body part of its namesake animal, or from bedrolls and packs that donkeys carried.
Before the development of the modern burrito, the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico used tortillas to wrap foods, with fillings of chili peppers, tomatoes, mushrooms, squash, and avocados. The Pueblo people of the Southwestern United States also made tortillas with beans and meat sauce fillings prepared much like the modern burrito.
The precise origin of the modern burrito is not known. It may have originated with vaqueros in northern Mexico in the nineteenth century; farmworkers in the fields of California's Central Valley, in Fresno and Stockton; or with northern Sonoran miners of the 19th century. In the 1895 Diccionario de Mexicanismos, the burrito was identified as a regional item from Guanajuato and defined as "Tortilla arrollada, con carne u otra cosa dentro, que en Yucatán llaman coçito, y en Cuernavaca y en Mexico, taco" (A rolled tortilla with meat or other ingredients inside, called 'coçito' in Yucatán and 'taco' in the city of Cuernavaca and in Mexico City).
An often-repeated folk history is that of a man named Juan Méndez who sold tacos in a street stand in the Bella Vista neighborhood of Ciudad Juárez, using a donkey as a transport for himself and the food, during the Mexican Revolution period (1910–1921). To keep the food warm, Méndez wrapped it in large homemade flour tortillas underneath a small tablecloth. As the "food of the burrito" (i.e., "food of the little donkey") grew in popularity, "burrito" was eventually adopted as the name for these large tacos.
Another creation story comes from 1940s Ciudad Juárez, where a street food vendor created the tortilla-wrapped food to sell to poor children at a state-run middle school. The vendor would call the children his burritos, as burro is a colloquial term for dunce or dullard. Eventually, the derogatory or endearing term for the children was transferred to the food they ate.
In 1923, Alejandro Borquez opened the Sonora cafe in Los Angeles, which later changed its name to the El Cholo Spanish Cafe. Burritos first appeared on American restaurant menus at the El Cholo Spanish Cafe during the 1930s. Burritos were mentioned in the U.S. media for the first time in 1934, appearing in the Mexican Cookbook, a collection of regional recipes from New Mexico authored by historian Erna Fergusson.
Development of regional varieties
Burritos are a traditional food of Ciudad Juárez, a city in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua, where people buy them at restaurants and roadside stands. Northern Mexican border towns like Villa Ahumada have an established reputation for serving burritos. Authentic Mexican burritos are usually small and thin, with flour tortillas containing only one or two ingredients: some form of meat or fish, potatoes, rice, beans, asadero cheese, chile rajas, or chile relleno. Other types of ingredients may include barbacoa, mole, refried beans and cheese, and deshebrada (shredded slow-cooked flank steak). The deshebrada burrito also has a variation with chile colorado (mild to moderately hot) and salsa verde (very hot). The Mexican burrito may be a northern variation of the traditional taco de Canasta, which is eaten for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
Although burritos are one of the most popular examples of Mexican cuisine outside of Mexico, in Mexico they are only popular in the northern part of the country. However, they are beginning to appear in some nontraditional venues in other parts of Mexico. Wheat flour tortillas used in burritos are now often seen throughout much of Mexico (possibly due to these areas being less than optimal for growing maize), despite at one time being particular to northwestern Mexico, the Southwestern US Mexican American community, and Pueblo Indian tribes.
Burritos are commonly called tacos de harina (wheat flour tacos) in central and southern Mexico and burritas (feminine variation, with 'a') in northern-style restaurants outside of northern Mexico proper. A long and thin fried burrito similar to a chimichanga is prepared in the state of Sonora and vicinity, and is called a chivichanga.
The origins of the Mission burrito can be traced back to Mission District taquerias of the 1960s and 1970s. This type of burrito is produced on a steam table assembly line, characterized by a large stuffed tortilla, wrapped in aluminum foil, which may include fillings such as carne asada (beef), Mexican style rice, whole beans (non refried), sour cream and light onion.
Febronio Ontiveros claims to have offered the first retail burrito in San Francisco at El Faro (The Lighthouse) in 1961, a corner grocery store on Folsom Street. Ontiveros claims credit for inventing the "super burrito" style leading to the early development of the "San Francisco style". This innovation involved adding rice, sour cream and guacamole to the standard meat, bean and cheese burrito. The Mission burrito emerged as a regional culinary movement during the 1970s and 1980s. The popularity of San Francisco-style burritos has grown locally, with Mission Street taquerias like El Farolito, and nationally with chains such as Chipotle Mexican Grill, Illegal Pete's, Freebirds World Burrito, Qdoba, and Barberitos. In 1995, World Wrapps opened in San Francisco's Marina District, bringing a burrito-inspired sandwich wrap style to the restaurant industry.
San Diego-style burritos include California and carne asada burritos. The style has been described as an "austere meal of meat, cheese and salsa", in contrast to the Mission-style burrito, which is typically larger and contains more ingredients. A significant subgenre of Mexican restaurants in San Diego serves burritos described as "no-frills"; in contrast to Mission-style burritos, the assembly line is not used.:165 In the early 1960s, Roberto Robledo opened a tortilleria in San Diego and learned the restaurant business. Robledo began selling small bean burritos at La Lomita in the late 1960s, and by 1970, he had established the first Roberto's taco shop. By 1999, Roberto's had expanded to a chain of 60 taco shops offering fresh burritos known for their distinctive quality. Hoping to draw on the prestige of Roberto's, new taco shops in San Diego began using the "-bertos" suffix, with names such as Alberto's, Filiberto's, Hilberto's, among others.:166–169
The California burrito originated at an unknown -berto's named restaurant in San Diego in the 1980s.:165, 168 The earliest-known published mention was in a 1995 article in the Albuquerque Tribune. The California burrito typically consists of chunks of carne asada meat, French fries, cheese, and either cilantro, pico de gallo, sour cream, onion, or guacamole (or some combination of these five). The ingredients are similar to those used in the carne asada fries dish, and it is considered a staple of the local cuisine of San Diego. With its merging of French fries with more traditional burrito fillings, the California burrito is an example of fusion border food. Variants of this burrito add shrimp (surf and turf), or substitute carnitas or chicken for carne asada.
While not as recognizable as the San Diego- or Mission-style burrito, Los Angeles does possess a uniquely local burrito variety, exemplified by the versions at Mexican-American restaurants such as Al & Bea's, Lupe's #2, and Tonia's. These restaurants have often been in existence for decades and offer a distinctly Americanized menu compared with the typical taqueria. The burrito itself can take multiple forms, but is almost always dominated by some combination of refried beans, meat (often stewed beef or chili), and cheese (usually cheddar), with rice and other typical Mission burrito ingredients offered as add-ons if at all.
The most basic variant consists of only beans and cheese; beyond this there are the "green chile" and "red chile" burritos, which may simply mean the addition of chiles or a meatless chile sauce to the plain beans (as at Al & Bea's), or meat and/or cheese as well. Rice, again, is rarely included, which along with the choice of chiles is one of the style's most defining traits. The menu will then usually go on to list multiple other combinations, such as beef and bean, all-beef, a "special" with further ingredients, etc. If the restaurant also offers hamburgers and sandwiches it may sell a burrito version of one or more of these, such as a hot dog burrito.
The breakfast burrito, a variety of American breakfast, is composed of breakfast items wrapped inside a flour tortilla. This style was invented and popularized in several different regional American cuisines, most notably New Mexican cuisine, Southwestern cuisine, and Tex-Mex. Southwestern breakfast burritos may include scrambled eggs, potatoes, onions, chorizo, or bacon. Tia Sophia's, a Mexican café in Santa Fe, New Mexico, claims to have invented the original breakfast burrito in 1975, filling a rolled tortilla with bacon and potatoes, served wet with chili and cheese. Fast food giant McDonald's introduced their version in the late 1980s, and by the 1990s, more fast food restaurants caught on to the style, with Sonic Drive-In, Hardee's, and Carl's Jr. offering breakfast burritos on their menus.
A smothered (often called "wet" or enchilada style) burrito is smothered with a red chili sauce similar to enchilada sauce with melted shredded cheese on top. It is usually eaten off a plate with a fork and knife, rather than hand held. When served in a Mexican restaurant in the U.S., a melted cheese covered burrito is sometimes called a burrito suizo [bu.'ri.to su.'i.so] (suizo meaning Swiss, an adjective used in Spanish to indicate dishes topped with cheese or cream).
A burrito bowl is not technically a burrito, as it consists of burrito fillings served without the tortilla, with the fillings placed in a bowl, and a layer of rice at the bottom. It is not to be confused with a taco salad, which has a foundation of lettuce inside a fried tortilla.
Taco Bell research chef Anne Albertine experimented with grilling burritos to enhance portability. This grilling technique allowed large burritos to remain sealed without spilling their contents. This is a well known cooking technique used by some San Francisco taquerias and Northern Mexico burrito stands. Traditionally, grilled burritos are cooked on a comal (griddle).
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- Smith, Andrew F. (1999). "Tacos, Enchiladas and Refried Beans: The Invention of Mexican-American Cookery". In Mary Wallace Kelsey and ZoeAnn Holmes. Cultural and Historical Aspects of Foods. Corvallis: Oregon State University. pp. 183–203.
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- See for example: Berkmoes, Ryan; Sara Benson (2009). "California Iconic Trips: A Burrito Odyssey". California Trips. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74179-727-6.
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- Matthew Lombardi, Eric Wechter, ed. (2011). Fodor's Essential USA: Spectacular Cities, Natural Wonders, and Great American Road Trips. Fodor's Travel. p. 23. ISBN 0307480585.
- Carolynn Carreno (November 10, 2004). "The Wrap that Ate L.A.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 17, 2013. "For San Diegans, carne asada burritos are as integral to the experience of the place as a slice of pie is to a New Yorker".
- Weisbrod, Justin (2008-03-18). "Burritology 101: What lies beneath the tortilla". The Daily Aztec.
- Billing, Karen. "Roberto's restaurant provides beach burrito bliss." Del Mar Times, Aug. 17, 2007. (Partial version retrieved from http://www.robertos.us/articles.php, 15 Jan 2013.)
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- "What's an LA burrito?". allyourburritosarebelongtome.tumblr.com. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
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- Clinical Lipidology: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease, Christie M. Ballantyne, ed. 2009. p.228.
- The University of Pennsylvania Health System. Breakfast, Dinner or Anytime Burrito. Adapted from the Cancer Nutrition Information, LLC. Archive URL: Mar 25, 2006.
Further reading and resources
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burrito.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aztec cuisine.|
- Aft, Lawrence S. (2000). Work Measurement and Methods Improvement. Wiley-IEEE. ISBN 0-471-37089-4.
- Ellman, Mark; Barbara Santos (2003). Maui Tacos Cookbook. Pendulum Publishing. ISBN 0-9652243-3-3.
- Fox, Peter (1998-07-02). "Burrito Search" (RealMedia). All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
- Fox, Peter (1998-07-17). "Burrito Odyssey" (RealMedia). All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
- Fox, Peter (1998-07-31). "Burrito" (RealMedia). All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
- Fox, Peter (1998-08-12). "Burrito Trail" (RealMedia). All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
- Fox, Peter (1998-09-03). "End of the Burrito Trail" (RealMedia). All Things Considered. National Public Radio.
- Fox, Peter (1998-11-04). "Burritos: A Search For Beginnings". Food (The Washington Post). pp. E.01.
- Gold, Jonathan (2000). Counter Intelligence: Where to Eat in the Real Los Angeles. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-26723-1.
- Johnson, Lisa (2006). Mind Your X's and Y's: Satisfying the 10 Cravings of a New Generation of Consumers. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-7750-3.
- Sparks, Pat; Barbara Swanson (1993). Tortillas!. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-08912-0.
- Thomsen, David; Derek Wilson (1998). Burritos! Hot on the Trail of the Little Burro. Gibbs Smith Publishers. ISBN 0-87905-835-8.
- Young, Marc (2005-02-25). "Bringing the Burrito to Berlin". Culture & Lifestyle. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2008-02-18.