|Busan Metropolitan City|
|• Revised Romanization||Busan Gwangyeoksi|
|• McCune-Reischauer||Pusan Kwangyŏksi|
Montage of Busan
Map of South Korea with Busan highlighted
|• Mayor||Suh Byung-soo (Saenuri)|
|• Council||Busan Metropolitan Council|
| • National Representation
- National Assembly
6.0% (total seats)|
7.3% (constituency seats)
|• Metropolitan City||767.35 km2 (296.28 sq mi)|
|• Metropolitan City||3,525,913|
|• Density||4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Postal code||600-010, 619-963|
|Area code(s)||(+82) 051|
Busan (부산 or 釜山(Korean pronunciation: [busʰan]), officially Busan Metropolitan City), Latinized Pusan before 2000,[nb 1] is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of approximately 3.6 million. The population of the metropolitan area, including the adjacent cities of Gimhae and Yangsan, is approximately 4.6 million. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the world's fifth busiest seaport by cargo tonnage. The city is located on the southeastern-most tip of the Korean peninsula. The most densely built up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong River and Suyeong River, with mountains separating some of the districts. Administratively, it is designated as a Metropolitan City. The Busan metropolitan area is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single county.
Busan was the host city of the 2002 Asian Games and APEC 2005 Korea. It was also one of the host cities for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and is a center for international conventions in Korea. On November 14, 2005, the city authorities officially announced its bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics Games. After Pyeongchang's successful bid for the 2018 Winter Olympics, the city is considering its bid to host the 2032 or 2036 Summer Olympics.
- 1 History
- 2 Names
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Economy
- 6 Educational facilities
- 7 Culture and attractions
- 8 Religion
- 9 Communications
- 10 Sports
- 11 Festivals and events
- 12 Medical facilities
- 13 Transportation
- 14 International relations
- 15 See also
- 16 Notes
- 17 References
- 18 External links
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2009)|
Geochilsan-guk existed in the second and 3rd and 4th centuries as a chiefdom of Jinhan. It was absorbed by Silla and renamed Geochilsan-gun. The word Geochilsan means rough mountain, probably referring to Hwangnyeongsan, located at the center of the city.
The grave goods excavated from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dong indicate that a complex chiefdom ruled by powerful individuals was present in the Busan area just as the Three Kingdoms of Korea were forming, c. AD 300–400. The mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day Dongnae-gu and Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron weapons and ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong.
In 757, Geochilsan-gun was again renamed Dongnae, which it is still called.
From the beginning of the 15th century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished later, but the Busan settlement, called Waegwan at the time, continued until Japan invaded Korea in 1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in Japan were established in 1607, and Busan Waegwan was permitted to be reconstructed. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang later, continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876. In 1876, Busan became the first international port in Korea.
During the Japanese rule, Busan (known in Japanese also as Busan) developed into a hub trading port with Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway before electrification was introduced in 1924.[verification needed]
During the Korean War, Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea not captured by the North Korean army within the first three months of the War, as a result the city became a refugee camp site for Koreans during the war, along with Daegu.
As Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the control of South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since then, like Seoul, the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong urban character.
In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City (Jikhalsi). In 1983, the provincial capitol of Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from Busan to Changwon.
In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City (Gwangyeoksi).
The city was originally called Busanpo. It was named after the shape of the mountain behind Busan Port. Korean bu (hangul: 부, hanja: 釜) means a cauldron, san (hangul: 산, hanja: 山) means a mountain, and po (hangul: 포, hanja: 浦) means a harbor. It may be said that a harbor is located at the foot of a mountain resembling a cauldron. Since the late 15th century, the current name Busan (hangul: 부산, hanja: 釜山) has been widely used.
Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula. It is located on the coast, which determined the development of the whole city itself. It is the nearest of South Korea's six largest cities to Japan. The distance as the crow flies from Busan to Tsushima Island, Japan, is about 49.5 km (31 mi), to Fukuoka, Japan, about 180 km (112 mi), and by contrast, to Seoul about 314 km (195 mi). Busan borders low mountains on the north and west, and the seas on the south and east. The Nakdong River Delta is located on the west side of the city, and Geumjeongsan, the highest mountain in the city, on the north. The Nakdong River, South Korea's longest river, flows through the west and empties into the Korea Strait.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan has a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa). Extremely high or low temperatures are rare. May to July, late Springs and early Summers, are usually cooler than inland regions because of the ocean effect. Late Summer and early Autumn, August and September, are generally hot and humid and the city may experience typhoons at that time and be generally rainy. On September 15, 1959, Super Typhoon Sarah passed by the coast of the city and caused catastrophic damage. An unusually severe storm on September 12, 2003, Typhoon Maemi, also caused damage to ships and buildings and resulted in over 48 fatalities.
October and November are generally the most comfortable, with clear skies and pleasant temperatures. Winters are cold and comparatively dry with high winds, but much milder than other parts of Korea except Jeju-do and several islands of the southern coast. Busan and the nearby area has the least amount of snow compared to other regions of Korea due to its location. Snow falls on an average of only about 6 days per year. Even a little accumulation of snow can effectively shut down this seaport city because of the hilly terrain and unfamiliarity of motorists with driving on snow.
|Climate data for Busan (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||34.4
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.5||6.2||8.4||9.1||9.4||10.4||13.6||11.5||9.3||5.2||5.5||4.2||98.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||199.0||182.5||193.0||210.0||221.7||179.7||165.8||200.9||167.2||208.9||194.4||204.3||2,327.3|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
In 1957 Busan adopted a division system with the creation of 6 gu: Busanjin-gu, Dong-gu, Dongnae-gu, Jung-gu, Seo-gu, and Yeongdo-gu.
Today, Busan is divided into 15 gu (districts) and 1 gun (county).
|Name of Gu (districts) & Gun (county)||Area (km²)||Population|
|Buk District (북구; 北區)||39.44||313,553|
|Busanjin District (부산진구; 釜山鎭區)||29.69||398,174|
|Dong District (동구; 東區)||9.78||102,859|
|Dongnae District (동래구; 東萊區)||16.63||283,636|
|Gangseo District (강서구; 江西區)||180.24||66,269|
|Geumjeong District (금정구; 金井區)||65.17||257,662|
|Haeundae District (해운대구; 海雲臺區)||51.46||429,477|
|Jung District (중구; 中區)||2.82||50,555|
|Nam District (남구; 南區)||26.77||301,904|
|Saha District (사하구; 沙下區)||40.96||362,697|
|Sasang District (사상구; 沙上區)||36.06||261,673|
|Seo District (서구; 西區)||13.88||127,068|
|Suyeong District (수영구; 水營區)||10.20||179,208|
|Yeongdo District (영도구; 影島區)||14.13||148,431|
|Yeonje District (연제구; 蓮堤區)||12.08||213,453|
|Gijang County (기장군; 機張郡)||218.04||103,762|
Busan is the fifth busiest seaport in the world, with transportation and shipping among the most high profile aspects of the local economy. Since 1978, Busan has opened three container ports including Jaseungdae, Shinsundae, and Gamman. Busan has one of the world's largest ports and can handle up to 13.2 million TEU shipping containers per year.
The Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone Authority, one of two such administrations in Korea, was created to reassert Busan's status as a traditional international trading centre. The port attracts ships from all over the globe and the surrounding area aspires to become a regional financial centre.
Korea Exchange (KRX), Korea's sole securities exchange operator, is headquartered in Busan.
Busan is the home of the headquarters of Renault Samsung Motors, Hanjin Heavy Industries, Busan Bank, Air Busan, Hi Investment & Securities, Woori Aviva Life Insurance, Korea Technology Finance Corporation, Korea Asset Management Corporation, Korea Housing-Finance Corporation, Korea Securities Depository, Korea Housing Guarantee Company, Korea Southern Power Company.
Jagalchi Fish Market is the largest fish market in Korea.
Busan was ranked the 27th among 83 cities and top 8 Asia/Pacific centres of the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) published by UK-based Z/Yen Group in March 2014.
Shopping and commerce
Commercial areas are dispersed throughout the city near busy intersections and adjacent to university campuses, but the two largest central business districts in Busan are Seomyeon and Gwangbok-dong/Nampo-dong. There are also four substantial shopping areas of note: Seomyeon, Gwangbok-dong, Busan Dae Hakap in Jangjeon-dong, and Centum City in Haeundae-gu.
Seomyeon is the crossroads of Busan. The local subway station serves two lines and is one of the busiest in the city. The local head offices of Korean and international banks are located in Seomyeon. It is recognized as the ascendant shopping and entertainment district. It is also home to "Seomyeon Medical Street", the district encompassing the 1 km-radius range around Lotte Department Store in Seomyeon and the Buam subway station. The Street is home to a total of 160 cosmetic and other medical clinics, including those specializing in cosmetic surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology and dentistry. Directly adjacent to Seomyeon is Bujeon Market, the largest traditional market in the city. Other companies with offices here include Yeolmae Food.
The Gwangbok-dong, Nampo-dong, and Jungang-dong areas form the old central business district. Some of the restaurants in this district use family recipes passed down the generations. Jagalchi Market, a large seafood market, is located in this area. The Gukje Market is also nearby. Jungang-dong is the home of many international law offices, the old Immigation Office, and the international ferry terminal serving Japanese routes. Lotte World II is currently under construction along the water between Jungang-dong 7-Ga and 8-Ga.
Centum City, an industrial complex, is a popular new shopping area with luxury department stores.
Major department stores
|Store||Places of Branch in Busan|
|Lotte Department Store||Seomyeon (Busan Main), Gwangbok, Dongnae, Centum City|
|Shinsegae Department Store||Centum City|
|Hyundai Department Store||Beomil-dong|
|Lotte Premium Outlets||Gimhae|
|Shinsegae Simon Premium Outlets||Gijang|
Major large discount stores
Universities with graduate schools
- Busan University of Foreign Studies (BUFS)
- Busan Jangsin University
- Busan National University of Education
- Catholic University of Pusan
- Dongmyung University
- Dongseo University
- Dong-A University
- Dong-eui University
- Inje University – Pusan Campus
- Kosin University
- Korea Maritime University
- Kyungsung University
- Pukyong National University (PKNU)
- Pusan National University (PNU)
- Silla University
- Youngsan University
Other institutes of higher education
- Busan Arts College
- Busan College of Information Technology
- Busan Kyungsang College
- Busan Polytechnic College
- Daedong College
- Dong-Pusan College
- Dongju College
- Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology
- Busan International Foreign School  (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade)
- Busan Foreign School  (Pre-Kindergarten through 12th Grade)
Culture and attractions
Busan not only features a variety of antique and souvenir shops, but also unique restaurants, attractions and accommodations.
Parks, beaches, and resorts
Geumjeongsan to the west is a popular weekend hiking spot for Busan residents. To the north, the neighborhoods around Pusan National University (also known as PNU, which is one of the most highly recognized national institutes of higher education in Korea) have student theaters, cafes, bars and restaurants, as well as open-air cultural street performances on weekend nights. Nearby is Beomeosa, the city's main Korean Buddhist temple.
Yongdusan Park occupies 69,000 square meters/17 acres (7 ha) and is home to the Busan Tower, Yongdusan Art Gallery, and the Busan Aquarium. The park supports approximately seventy different species of trees and is a favorite tourist destination, with various cultural events throughout the year.
Dongnae-gu is a wealthy and traditional residential area. Dongnae Oncheon is a natural spa area with many baths, tourist hotels, restaurants, clubs and shopping areas. Many restaurants in the area use family recipes. Chungnyeolsa is a Confucian shrine for soldiers who died during the 16th century battle against the Japanese at Dongnae Fortress.
Busan is called the summer capital of Korea since it attracts tourists from all over the country to its six beaches. Luxury hotels and a carnival boardwalk line the beach at Haeundae. Gwangalli Beach has cafes, bars, and restaurants along the beach, and the Grand Gwangan Bridge. The area around Pukyong National University and Kyungsung University has many cafes, bars and restaurants attracting college students and youth.
The area known as the "Foreigners' Shopping Street", but commonly referred to as "Texas Street" near part of the Port of Busan, and adjacent to the front entrance to the Busan Train Station (부산역) has many businesses that cater to the local Russian population, as well as the crews of foreign ships. The area was originally the location of the local Chinatown and still contains a Chinese school.
Busan Aquarium, located in Haeundae Beach, is the largest aquarium in South Korea. Haedong Yonggung temple is one of three sacred places related to the Goddess Buddha. It is located right next to the sea. It lies in a mountain in the front and the sea at the back.
Temples, religious and historical sites
- Beomeosa Temple
- Busanjinjiseong Fortress (or Jaseongdae)
- Cheonseongjinseong Fortress
- Chungnyeolsa Shrine
- Dongnaeeupseong Fortress
- Dongnae Hyanggyo Confucian shrine-school
- Dongnaebu Dongheon
- Dongsam-dong Shell Mound
- Fortress site of Jwasuyeong
- Geumjeongsanseong Fortress
- Haedongyonggungsa Temple
- Jeongongdan Altar
- Samgwangsa Temple
- Songgongdan Altar
- Tumuli in Bokcheon-dong, Dongnae
- United Nations Memorial Cemetery
- Waeseong in Jukseong-ri, Gijang
- Yeongdo Bridge
- Yeonggadae Pavilion
- Yungongdan Altar
Busan hosts the Busan International Film Festival (BIFF)—one of the most popular international film festivals in Asia—at the Busan Cinema Center every fall. It is also the home of the Busan Biennale, an international contemporary art biennale which takes place every two years.
- Bokcheon Museum
- Busan Modern History Museum
- Busan Museum
- Busan Museum of Modern Art
- Busan National University Museum
- Dongsam-dong Shell Midden Museum
- Dong-A University Museum
- Dong-eui University Museum
- Kyungsung University Museum
- National Maritime Museum
- Regular Pa-jeon Museum
- Silly Pa-Jeon Museum
Busan was once a center of military affairs in the southern region of the peninsula and therefore was an important site for diplomatic relationships with Japan; high-ranking officers and officials from the court frequently visited the city. Special foods were prepared for the officers such as Dongnae pajeon (동래파전), a variant of pajeon (Korean savory pancakes), made with whole scallions, sliced chili peppers, and various kinds of seafood in a thick batter of wheat flour, glutinous rice flour, eggs, salt and water.
During the Korean War, Busan was the biggest refugee destination on the peninsula; people from all regions of Korea came there. Some of these refugees stayed and adapted and adjusted the recipes of their local specialties. One of these foods is milmyeon (밀면) (lit. 'wheat noodle') a version of naengmyeon, cold buckwheat noodle soup, but using wheat flour instead. (Naemyeon is originally a specialty food of Hamhung and Pyongyang, the northern regions of the Korean peninsula, now part of North Korea.) Dwaeji gukbap (돼지국밥) (lit. 'pork/pig soup rice') is also a result of Korean War. It is a hearty pork soup and is becoming more popular nation-wide.
Hot spring resorts and spas
Busan has the largest hot spring resorts and facilities in Korea.
- Spa Land (Haeundae-Gu)
- HurShimChung Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Town (Dongnae-Gu)
- Haeundae Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Towns (Haeundae-Gu)
- Dongnae Hot Spring Resorts and Spa Towns (Dongnae-Gu)
- Gwangalli Spa Towns (Suyeong-Gu)
According to the census of 2005, of the people of Busan 39.2% follow Buddhism and 17.8% follow Christianity (10.4% Protestantism and 7.4% Catholicism). 43% of the population is mostly not religious or follow other indigenous religions.
|Station or Newspaper||Types|
|Busan KBS||TV, Radio|
|Busan MBC||TV, Radio|
|Busan eFM||English Radio|
|Busan Ilbo||Daily Newspaper|
|Kookje Shinmun||Daily Newspaper|
Sports teams and facilities
|Club||League||Stadium||Stadium Capacity||Sports Type|
|Lotte Giants||KBO||Sajik Baseball Stadium||28,500||Baseball|
|Busan I'Park||K-League Classic||Busan Asiad Stadium||53,864||Football|
|Busan KT Sonicboom||KBL||Sajik Arena||14,099||Basketball|
Since 1982, the city has been home to the Lotte Giants, who play in the Korea Professional Baseball league. In Korea, Busan is known as the capital of baseball and has a reputation for very enthusiastic baseball fans. For the first few years, the Lotte Giants utilized Gudeok Baseball Stadium as their home. In the mid-1980s, they moved to Sajik Baseball Stadium, which was built as part of a sports complex for the 1986 Asian Games.
The city is home to a K-League football team, the Busan I'Park. The team was formerly known as the Daewoo Royals and was a strong team during the 1990s in the K-league. Busan is also home to a National League football club, the Busan Transportation Corporation.
Bicycle Racing is held at "Busan Cydrome," the velodrome in Geumjeong Sports Park, every weekend.
Festivals and events
Busan celebrates festivals all year round.
|Month||Annual Festivals and Events|
|January||New Year Festival in Busan, Polar Bear Swimming Contest|
|February||Haeundae Moontan Road Festival|
|March||Busan International Performing Arts Festival|
|April||Gwangalli Fishery(Eobang) Festival|
|May||Busan Motor Show, Busan Port Festival, Busan Contents Market, Busan International Short Film Festival|
|June||Haeundae Sand Festival, Busan International Dance Festival|
|July||Gijang Town Festival|
|August||Busan Sea Festival, Busan International Rock Festival, Busan International Magic Festival, Busan International Kids' Film Festival, Busan International Advertising Festival, Busan International Comedy Festival|
|September||Busan Biennale, Busan Sea Art Festival, Busan Maru International Music Festival|
|October||Busan International Film Festival, Busan International Fireworks Festival, Busan Jagalchi Festival|
|November||Busan Port Lighting Festival, G-Star-Global Game Exhibition, Busan Choral Festival & Competition|
|December||Busan Christmas Tree Festival|
Busan has many hospitals and clinics. Many cosmetic surgery, dermatological, ophthalmic, dental clinics are concentrated in Seomyeon medical street.
Major medical centers
|Name of Hospital||Number of beds|
|Pusan National University Hospital at Yangsan||1720 |
|Pusan National University Hospital at Busan||1180 |
|Inje University Paik Hospital at Haeundae||1004 |
|Dong-A University Hospital||920 |
|Kosin University Hospital||912 |
|Busan St. Mary's Medical Center||716 |
|Dong-eui Medical Center||640 |
|Busan Baptist Hospital||608 |
|Busan Medical Center||591 |
|Maryknoll Medical Center||501 |
|Inje University Paik Hospital at Busan||898 |
|Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center||304 |
Major express bus lines link Busan with other cities in Korea at two primary bus terminals, Nopodong Bus Terminal (at the northern terminus of Subway Line 1) and Seobu Bus Terminal at Sasang Station on Subway Line 2.
134 routes of urban buses service every part of Busan Metropolitan City. (Busan Urban Bus)
Ferries leaving from the International Ferry Terminal on Busan Port Pier 1 connect Busan to the Japanese ports of Izuhara and Hitakatsu on Tsushima Island, as well as the cities of Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, and Osaka on Japan's mainland.
- PanStar operates the PanStar Ferry between Busan and Osaka.
- The Seaflower 2, the ferry to Tsushima operated by Dae-a Express Shipping, carries passengers only between Busan and Hitakatsu in 1 hour 40 minutes and between Busan and Izuhara in 2 hours 40 minutes.
- The Seonghee, operated by Pukwan Ferry, links Busan to Shimonoseki.
- One of the ferries to Fukuoka is the Camellia, operated by Camellia Line. The Camellia makes the trip to Fukuoka overnight in 7 hours 30 minutes, and trip back in the afternoon in 5 hours 30 minutes.
- The other ferry service to Fukuoka is assumed by the Beetles and the Kobees, 2 fleets of high-speed hydrofoils operated by Miraejet. About five departures from each city are scheduled every day. By hydrofoil it only takes 2 hours 55 minutes to cross the Korea Strait to Fukuoka. The Beetles are owned by JR Kyushu.
This is administered by the Busan Port Authority.
Busan lies on a number of rail lines, of which the most important is the Gyeongbu Line which connects it to other major cities such as Seoul, Daejeon, and Daegu. All classes of trains run along the Gyeongbu Line, including the superhigh speed KTX trains which provide frequent services to Seoul in approximately 150 minutes. The Gyeongbu Line terminates at Busan Station. Other lines include the Donghae Nambu Line which connects Ulsan, Pohang and Gyeongju.
The Busan Subway network contains four lines: 1, 2, 3, and 4. All four lines are operated by the Busan Transportation Corporation. The Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit line connects from Sasang Station (Line 2), Busan to Samgye Station, Gimhae.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Shenzhen, China (2007)
- Tianjin, China (2007)
- Osaka, Japan (2008)
- Chongqing, China (2010)
- Bangkok, Thailand (2011)
- – Port of Southampton, United Kingdom (1978)
- – Port of Miami, USA (1981)
- – Port of Osaka, Japan (1985) 
- – Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands (1985)
- – Port of New York & New Jersey, USA (1988)
- – Port of Shanghai, China (1994)
- Busan International Film Festival
- Busan–Geoje Fixed Link
- Centum City, urban complex
- Gwangan Bridge
- Index of Korea-related articles
- List of cities in South Korea
- List of East Asian ports
- Lotte Giants, local baseball team
- Pusan Newport International Terminal
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- "Kosin University Gospel Hospital". Kosinmed.or.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "부산성모병원". Bsm.or.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "Dong-Eui Medical Center - Busan, Korea". Demc.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "침례병원". wmbh.co.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "Busan Medical Center". Eng.busanmc.or.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "메리놀병원". Maryknoll.co.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "인제대학교 부산백병원 - 환자중심의 병원, 내집처럼 편안한 병원". Paik.ac.kr. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "Dongnam Inst. Of Radiological". Dirams.re.kr. 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- International Ferry Terminal
- PanStar Ferry, Korean operator of the ferry linking to Osaka, Japan.
- (Korean) Dae-a Express Shipping, operator of the ferry linking to Tsushima Island, Japan.
- Pukwan Ferry, operator of the ferry linking to Shimonoseki, Japan.
- (Japanese) Camellia Line, (Korean) Korea Ferry
- Kobee and Beetle, ferries linking to Fukuoka, Japan.
- List of Busan's sister cities, Busan Metropolitan City; , (Korean) 
- "Barcelona internacional – Ciutats agermanades" (in Spanish). © 2006–2009 Ajuntament de Barcelona. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI TPHCM". mofahcm.gov.vn. October 9, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
- Port of Busan, Sister Ports, Busan
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Busan.|
- Busan Metropolitan Government
- City of Busan
- All About Busan – The Official Korea Tourism Guide Site
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