Buses in Adelaide
Buses in Adelaide comprise the most extensive service of the South Australian capital's public transport system, the Adelaide Metro. A large fleet of diesel and natural gas powered buses operate services which typically terminate in the city-centre or at a suburban interchange. Buses get priority on many roads and intersections, with dedicated bus lanes and 'B'-light bus only phases at many traffic lights. According to the 2008 State Budget, all buses that entered service during the 1980s will be withdrawn within the next 5 years and replaced with new buses.
- 1 History
- 2 Operators
- 3 System features
- 4 Experience with Contracted Bus Operations
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Buses in Adelaide has been known under several names. The State Transport Authority was formed in 1974-5, combining the metropolitan rail operations of the former South Australian Railways Commission, and the bus and tram operations of the former Municipal Tramways Trust (MTT). In July 1994, the STA was abolished and government public transport services were transferred to TransAdelaide, a publicly owned corporation.
In 1995-96, there was a partial tendering out of bus services. TransAdelaide retained 3 contract regions, Serco, in its first Australian bus operation, won 2 contract regions, and Hills Transit, a TransAdelaide company, won the Adelaide Hills operating contract. Services were run and marketed under each operator's name, presenting a disjointed network to the public.
The 2000 round of tenders saw the end of TransAdelaide's (and therefor the Government's) direct operation of bus services in Adelaide, although it retained tram and rail services. Serco won the North-South, Outer North, and Outer North-East contract areas, Torrens Transit the East-West contract area and City Free services, Australian Transit Enterprises (ATE) trading as SouthLink the Outer South contract area, and Transitplus, a joint venture between ATE and TransAdelaide, the Hills Contract area. At this time the Adelaide Metro brand was implemented across all transport operators , appearing to the public as a unified network, with common livery, timetable designs and a city Information Centre.
The Adelaide Metro buses are operated by:
- Torrens Transit - East-West contract area (includes City Free)
- SouthLink - Outer South, Outer North and Hills contract areas.
- Light-City Buses - North-South and Outer North East contract areas (includes the 300 suburban connecter and O-Bahn services).
Companies which had operated Adelaide Metro services in the past but which no longer operate in Adelaide are:
- Transitplus - following the abolition of joint owner TransAdelaide in late 2010, Transitplus services were taken over by joint owner Australian Transit Enterprises's SouthLink.
- Serco - Serco ended its contract in 2004, at the contracted half-term break-point.
Many arterial roads leading towards the CBD have several routes servicing them, allowing for high frequency "Go-Zones", with a maximum wait of 15 minutes on weekdays. These are:
There is a Mega Go Zone on the O-Bahn which has a maximum 10 minute wait on weekdays and 15 minutes on weekends. Go Zones branching off the O-Bahn have a 15 minute maximum wait. These include:
- O-Bahn Busway to:
- Para Hills via Nelson Road and Kelly Road
- Golden Grove via Golden Grove Road
- Tea Tree Gully via Smart Road
- Surrey Downs via Hancock Road
- Hope Valley via Lower North East Road
The Roam Zone concept began operation in the Hallett Cove, Sheidow Park and Trott Park area in September 2001. At specified times passengers can be dropped off or picked up away from bus stops, taking them to their door (or as near as the bus could get). Having done this, the roaming bus returns to its scheduled route. Roam Zones have bright blue bus stops located throughout. Adelaide Metro now features six Roam Zones:
- Golden Grove (weekdays 10.00am-3.00pm and from 7.40pm; weekends from 7.00pm)
- Holden Hill (daily from 7.30pm)
- Hallett Cove, Sheidow Park and Trott Park (daily from 7.00pm)
- Aberfoyle Park (weekdays 3.30pm-7.00pm)
- Athelstone (daily from 7:30pm)
- Davoren Park, Smithfield and Andrews Farm (daily from 7.00pm) 
Limited Stop Services
Limited stop services combine limited stops with express services to reach the outer metropolitan areas of Adelaide. Limited stop services include:
- Noarlunga Centre via South Road
- Noarlunga Centre via South Road and Southern Expressway
- Seaford via South Road and Panatalinga Road
- Mount Barker via South Eastern Freeway
- Nairne via South Eastern Freeway
- Aldgate via South Eastern Freeway and Stirling
JetBus services were introduced in August 2005. These are direct daily routes that link Adelaide Airport with the city and other key destinations. JetBus routes are:
- City to Glenelg via Adelaide Airport and Harbour Town
- City to Harbour Town via Adelaide Airport and West Beach.
- Westfield West Lakes to Westfield Marion via Adelaide Airport
- 98C and 98A : Bi-directional loop via North Terrace, Currie Street, Hutt Street, Halifax Street, Sturt Street, Grote Street, Morphett Street, Jeffcott Street, Ward Street, Hill Street, Tynte Street, Finiss Street and Frome Road 
- 99C and 99A: Bi-directional loop via North Terrace, Currie Street, Hutt Street, Halifax Street, Sturt Street, Grote Street, Victoria Square, King William Street. This service operated under the '99C' only and it was only in 2014 that the name change took place. The 99C is a clockwise loop while the 99A is anti-clockwise.
After Midnight Services
Available only on Saturday nights, these services run from midnight until 4AM Sunday morning - departing the City every hour.
- Golden Grove Village via O-Bahn Busway and Golden Grove Road
- Marion Shopping Centre via Goodwood Road and Sturt Road
- Aberfoyle Hub via Goodwood Road and Marion Shopping Centre
- Wattle Park via The Parade
- West Lakes Mall via Henley Beach Road and Trimmer Parade
- Newton via Payneham Road
- Ingle Farm via North East Road and Hampstead Road
- Gawler via Mawson Central, Phillip Highway and Main North Road
- Semaphore via Torrens Road, Arndale Shopping Centre and Port Adelaide
- Marion Shopping Centre via Anzac Highway and Glenelg
- Salisbury Interchange via O-Bahn Busway and Paradise Interchange
- Fairview Park via O-Bahn Busway and Hancock Road
- Moana via Marion Shopping Centre and Reynella
- Mount Barker via South Eastern Freeway, Crafers, Aldgate
SA Lotteries Footy Express
Adelaide Metro provide services to and from AAMI Stadium to areas across South Australia. Match day passes act as your ticket for the bus. Most services offer early arrival times and some routes will have services that leave an hour after the final siren. The locations in metropolitan Adelaide include:
- Golden Grove Village via Golden Grove Road, Tea Tree Plaza Interchange and Adelaide O-Bahn
- St Agnes via Tea Tree Plaza Interchange and Adelaide O-Bahn
- Centro Arndale Clovercrest Shopping Centre via Ingle Farm, North East Road, Regency Road and
- Elizabeth Interchange via Brahma Lodge and Elder Smith Road
- Playford Alive Oval via Salisbury Interchange and Salisbury Highway
- Salisbury North via Whites Road, Settlers Farm Shops, Paralowie, Hollywood Plaza and Martins Road
- Davoren Park via Smithfield Interchange, Munno Para Shopping Centre, Elizabeth Downs, Elizabeth Park, Para Hills Community Club and Gepps Cross Hotel
- Alberton Oval via Frederick Road (Port Adelaide games only)
- Port Adelaide via Victoria Road, Outer Harbour and Military Road
- Coopers Stadium via The Parade
- Magill via Magill Road
- Aldgate via Stirling, Crafers and Glen Osmond Road
- Mount Barker via Cameron Road, Hahndorf, Verdun and Bridgewater
- Belair via Blackwood Interchange, Shepherds Hill Road, Pasadena Green, and Goodwood Road
- Torrens Park via Belair Road and Unley Shopping Centre
- Adelaide Shores Holiday Park via Military Road and Henley Square
- Morphettville via Park Holme Shopping Centre, Marion Road and Henley Beach Road
- Hickinbotham Oval via Main South Road, Old Reynella, Panatalinga Road, Westfield Marion and Glenelg Oval
- Seaford via Beach Road, Gulfview Road, Hallet Cove Shopping Centre, Brighton Station and Glenelg Oval
- Aberfoyle Park via Black Road, Flagstaff Road, Castle Plaza, and South Road
- Woodcroft via Happy Valley, Castle Plaza, South Road and Thebarton Oval
- City via Port Road
- Mawson Lakes via Main North Road
The Adelaide Metro's most frequented route is the O-Bahn guided busway to Modbury carrying around 9 million passengers a year. It is the world's fastest and until 7 August 2011 the world's longest guided busway, with a maximum permitted speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) and a length of 12 km (7.5 mi). It has three stations, Klemzig Station, Paradise Interchange, and Tea Tree Plaza Interchange at the Modbury end. Buses leave the track at Paradise or Tea Tree Plaza to continue services on normal roads, eliminating the need for passenger transfer.
Experience with Contracted Bus Operations
The tendering out of bus operations has been a bumpy ride for Adelaide commuters. The original 1996 partial service tendering saw services run and marketed under each operator's name, presenting a disjointed network to the public. The Adelaide Metro brand was created in 2000 to restore a unified face to the public.
Contract holder Serco withdrew in 2004, at the contracted half-term break-point, after failing to renegotiate its contract on better terms. Serco had previously informed the Minister for Transport that it was not willing to continue to operate the bus services for a further five years on the terms contained in the then existing Contract. Serco had made a submission to the Department of Transport and Urban Planning proposing to operate the bus services in the contract areas on new terms and conditions. This submission was rejected by the Department of Transport and Urban Planning. The company unsuccessfully rebid for the contract in the subsequent competition.
Light-City Buses was awarded two Adelaide's six public bus contract regions commencing operation in October 2011, taking over the North South and Outer North East Contract Areas from Torrens Transit. These two contract regions cover 43% of the bus services in Adelaide, valued at $567 million over the eight-year life of the contracts. The contracts are in place for an initial eight-year term, from 2 October 2011 to 30 June 2019 with an option to extend for a further four years, subject to government approval. Since the start of operations of bus services by Light-City Buses in October 2011 service interruptions and delays which were initially dismissed as teething problems have continued to frustrate commuters.  Transfield has claimed most of the problems have been resolved and they are working on resolving the rest, however in May 2012, Transport Services minister Chloë Fox imposed a fine of $121,000 for failing to meet Performance Benchmark Targets:
- Transfield has performed "significantly worse" than the other two companies (SouthLink & Torrens Transit) operating contracted buses in Adelaide in reaching its contractual benchmarks.
- The number of Transfield buses running on time from 1 January – 31 March 2012 ranged from as low as 51.6%on Transfield North South contract region to 66.9% on the Outer North East region. Transfield was fined $121,345 for late running buses services as a result.
- In the 1 April – 30 June 2012 period Transfield, on-time running increased only marginally to 52.2% for the North South contract region and 71.3% for the Outer North East contract region. Transfield was fined $70,000 for its poor on-time running performance.
Transfield have said that new timetables in July 2012 should help get buses running on time.
The negative experience following this latest change of operators reflects the advice given to the Government in 2009, when it was recommended that contracts should be extended by negotiation, rather than re-tendered. The expert advice was based on:
- the efficiency of existing tender prices
- the incumbent operators' service quality performance
- the incumbent operators' entrepreneurship in regards to service development 
The expert advice stated that:
- there are significant risks in any transition from one operator to another, including public uncertainty and staff unrest,
- there would be difficulties inherent in ‘unpicking’ the then current network structure and timetables,
- any change in operators was likely to present considerable risks, such as reduced service quality, reduced patronage growth, and limited benefits.
The South Australian Government went ahead with tenders in 2010. As noted above, the resultant change of operator from the incumbent Torrens Transit to Light-City Buses in the North South and Outer North East Contract Areas has seen many of the warnings given come to fruition.
Professor David Hensher, Director of the Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies at the University of Sydney, has commented that while three rounds of competitive tendering in Adelaide had ironed out the cost inefficiencies and lack of service incentives under the previous public monopoly model,
|“||all the research on competitive tendering versus negotiated performance-based contracts is showing that one cannot squeeze any more out of the cost efficiency stone after three rounds and the risk of declines in service quality is real if this is pushed||”|
—David Hensher, 
It is not just service performance which is suffering; Government data shows a steady increase in patronage over the first two complete rounds of competitive tendering, followed by a sharp drop-off in the past two years.
Contracted Adelaide Bus Companies
- "State Transport Authority". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Wallis, Ian; Bray, David (June 2001). "Competitive Tendering for Bus Services: The Improved Adelaide Model". Thredbo Series. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Morgan, Peter (2000-04-21). "A new deal on the buses". The Advertiser.
- Minister for Transport - Report on the Adelaide Metro Bus Service Contracts, August 2011, retrieved 2011-12-03.
- "SouthLink". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Previously known as The Connector, the service makes also makes use of a Solar Bus, Tindo (Tindo stands for solar in the local Aboriginal language); the 99C service is a clockwise loop while the 99A is anti-clockwise.<http://yoursay.adelaidecitycouncil.com/city-connector-bus
- Kain, Peter. 019-2009-08-24-Kain-Australian-and-British-Experiences-with-Competitive.pdf "AUSTRALIAN AND BRITISH EXPERIENCES WITH COMPETITIVE TENDERING IN RAIL OPERATIONS". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Transfield Services awarded $567 million Adelaide metropolitan bus contract, Friday, 29 April 2011, retrieved 2011-12-03.
- Kelton, Sam (27 October 2011). "Minister admits there are still 'teething problems' with Adelaide's bus service". AdelaideNow. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
- "Major issues with new Bus Operator Transfield". Senstaional Adelaide Web Forum. October to December 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
- Kelton, Sam (6 October 2011). "Bus operator Transfield criticised for late and absent services". The Australian. Retrieved 2012-01-22.
- Fox, Chloë (2 May 2012). "BUS CONTRACTORS PENALISED FOR PERFORMANCE". Government of South Australia. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- Milnes, Michael (17 August 2012). "Buses on schedule just half of the time". Adelaide Now. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Washington, David. "No more blood out of this stone". Flinders Indaily. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- Wallis, Ian; Bray, D, Webster, H (September 2009). "TO COMPETITIVELY TENDER OR TO NEGOTIATE - WEIGHING UP THE CHOICES IN A MATURE MARKET". 11TH CONFERENCE ON COMPETITION AND OWNERSHIP IN LAND PASSENGER TRANSPORT.
- Washington, David. "Government bus strategy wrong: researcher". Retrieved 4 October 2012.