||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Business logic layer. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2010.|
Scope of business logic 
- models real life business objects (such as accounts, loan, itineraries, and inventories)
- prescribes how business objects interact with one another
- enforces the routes and the methods by which business objects are accessed and updated
Business logic comprises:
- business rules that express business policy (such as channels, location, logistics, prices, and products); and
- workflows that are the ordered tasks of passing documents or data from one participant (a person or a software system) to another.
Business logic 
In single-tier applications, business logic, presentation logic, and CRUD are often used, with each having intimate knowledge of, or being strongly coupled to, the others. This is seen as problematic, since changes to one result in changes to both of the others, requiring retesting and revalidation of the entire system for a single change. The interweaving also limits the extent to which the CRUD and the business logic can be reused.
Tools for handling business logic 
- Steven Minsky (2005-03-27). "The Challenge of BPM Adoption". eBizQ.
- Khawar Zaman Ahmed and Cary E. Umrysh (2001-10-17). "Introduction to Enterprise Software". Developing Enterprise Java Applications with J2EE and UML. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-73829-5.
- James Owen (2003-09-19). "Bring business logic to light: JRules 4.5 tames business rules with friendly tools". JavaWorld.
Further reading 
- Brett McLaughlin (March 2002). "Business Logic, Part 1". Building Java Enterprise Applications, Vol I: Architecture. O'Reilly and Associates. ISBN 0-596-00123-1. — McLaughlin discusses the façade pattern for implementing the business layer of an application.
- Kathy Bohrer (November 1997). "Middleware isolates business logic". Object Magazine (New York, USA: SIGS Publications, Inc.) 7 (9): 41–46;. ISSN 1055-3614.
- Harumi Kuno, Mike Lemon, Alan Karp, and Dorothea Beringer (2001). Conversations + Interfaces = Business Logic. In F. Casati, D. Georgakopoulos, and M.-C. Shan. "Technologies for E-Services: Second International Workshop, TES 2001, Rome, Italy, September 14–15, 2001, Proceedings". Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2193 (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg). ISSN 0302-9743.
- Volker Turau (2002). "A framework for automatic generation of web-based data entry applications based on XML". Proceedings of the 2002 ACM symposium on Applied computing, Madrid, Spain: Web and e-business application. ACM Press. pp. 1121–1126. ISBN 1-58113-445-2. — Turau presents an application framework implemented using Java Servlets and JavaServer Pages that enables the separation between business logic and presentation logic, allowing development of each to proceed in parallel along relatively independent but cooperating tracks.
- Pau, L-F. and Vervest, P.H.M. (2003-12-08). Network-based business process management: embedding business logic in communications networks. ERIM Report Series Research in Management. Erasmus University. hdl:1765/1070. — Pau and Vervest develop an approach for the embedding of business logic into the communications network that underlies a distributed application with a multiplicity of actors, in order to optimise the allocation of business resources from a network point of view.