rail replacement bus service uses buses to replace a passenger train service either on a temporary or permanent basis. The train service that is replaced may be of any type such as light rail, tram, streetcar, commuter rail, regional rail or heavy rail intercity passenger service. The rail service may be replaced due to a breakdown of a train, a rail accident or closure for rail maintenance, or because the rail service is not economically viable. Terms for a rail replacement bus service include bustitution (a portmanteau of the words "bus" and "substitution") and [1 ] bus bridge. [2 ]
Examples [ edit ]
Australia [ edit ]
after the replacement of trams by buses, 1962
Australia a permanent or temporary rail-replacement service change is often referred to as bustitution. [3 ] [4 ] [5 ]
Britain [ edit ]
A rail replacement bus in England.
British Railways Board railway rationalisation in the 1960s known as the Beeching Axe, bus substitution was an official policy for replacing train services on closed lines. This policy was largely unsuccessful, however, as the bus services were usually far slower than the train services they replaced, causing many passengers to give up on public transport altogether. [6 ]
Rail replacement with buses by
Via Rail in Canada is referred to as bustitution. [1 ]
New Zealand [ edit ]
Auckland train services are sometimes replaced by a bus, termed a Rail Bus. Historically, [7 ] New Zealand Railways Road Services replaced many train routes with buses. [ ] citation needed
United States [ edit ]
Rail-replacement bus services occurred on a large scale following the dismantling of the
street railway systems of many cities in North America in the mid-20th century. [8 ] [9 ]
Temporary substitution of buses for trains may be done with
Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach service. [10 ]
Due to the
effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York, the New York City Subway required replacement bus service when subway lines were closed for repairs. This also happens because of regularly scheduled maintenance, as the subway runs 24/7/365 and thus interruptions in subway service require replacement bus service, even during off-peak hours, .
Political response [ edit ]
Substitution of rail services by buses can be unpopular and subject to criticism; in this context the term
bustitution is often used pejoratively [11 ] [12 ]
Similar concept [ edit ]
A similar concept in some ways is
motorization, though that term more broadly refers to the rise of the automobile as well as bus transportation.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Distinctive sign used in Germany reads
Rail replacement traffic
^ a b "Definition of bustitution". Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
^ ' Limited MTA service backj Thursday' on website, viewed 2013-07-09 New York Daily News
^ "BUSTITUTION OVER XMAS". Media Release - Newsletter (Action for Public Transport (New South Wales)) 1993 (1). February, 1993. ISSN 0155-8234 . Retrieved 2009-06-22.
^ An example from an Australian discussion board appears at: "Railpage Australia Thread review - RANT Velolia bustitution services suck." . Retrieved 2009-06-22.
^ Another example from Australia appears at: "Southern Highlands bustitution observations". March 2, 2005 . Retrieved 2009-06-22.
^ Henshaw, David (1994). The Great Railway Conspiracy. ISBN 0-948135-48-4.
^ ' How to use a railbus' on Auckland Transport website, viewed 2013-07-07
^ An example from Milwaukee, Wisconsin may be seen in a picture caption at: "Motor Coaches of The Brew City" . Retrieved 2009-06-21.
^ "Newark PCC 27 Arrives at the Museum". Shoreline Trolley Museum. October 14, 2001 . Retrieved 2009-06-21.
^ "Thruway Motorcoach Service and Accessibility". Amtrak . Retrieved 2009-06-21.
^ An example appears in a 2009 editorial. See: Parker, Christopher (January 19, 2009). "Statement on the bustitution of the Ethan Allen Express". Vermont Rail Action Network . Retrieved 2009-06-20.
^ In the dedication of an essay in favor of public transit, "bustitution" is equated with " abandonment" by Weyrich, Paul M. and William S. Lind (May, 1999). "Does Transit Work? A Conservative Reappraisal". American Public Transportation Association . Retrieved 2009-06-21.