Butanethiol

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Butanethiol
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model
Names
IUPAC name
Butane-1-thiol
Other names
Butyl mercaptan
n-Butyl mercaptan
1-Butanethiol
Thiobutyl alcohol
Mercaptobutane
n-Butanethiol
1-Mercaptobutane
Identifiers
109-79-5 YesY
ChemSpider 7721 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 8012
UNII 77OY909F30 YesY
Properties
C4H10S
Molar mass 90.19 g·mol−1
Appearance Nauseating clear liquid
Odor cabbage-like, skunk-like, garlic-like[1]
Density 0.83679 g/mL
Melting point −115.8 °C (−176.4 °F; 157.3 K)
Boiling point 98.2 °C (208.8 °F; 371.3 K)
Slightly soluble (0.06% at 20°C)[1]
Vapor pressure 35 mmHg (20°C)[1]
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 2 °C; 35 °F; 275 K [1]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
TWA 10 ppm (35 mg/m3)[1]
C 0.5 ppm (1.8 mg/m3) [15-minute][1]
500 ppm[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Butanethiol, also known as butyl mercaptan, is a volatile, clear to yellowish liquid with a fetid (extremely foul-smelling) odor, commonly described as "skunk" odor. In fact, butanethiol is structurally similar to several major constituents of a skunk's defensive spray but is not actually present in the spray.[3] The scent of butanethiol is so strong that the human nose can easily detect it in the air at concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion. The threshold level for 1-butanethiol is reported as 1.4 ppb[4]

Chemistry[edit]

Butanethiol is chemically classified among the thiols, which are organic compounds with molecular formulas and structural formulas similar to alcohols, except that sulfur-containing sulfhydryl group (-SH) replaces the oxygen-containing hydroxyl group in the molecule. Butanethiol's basic molecular formula is C4H9SH, and its structural formula is similar to that of the alcohol n-butanol. Butanethiol is prepared by the free radical catalyzed addition of hydrogen sulfide to 1-butene. Commercially, this is performed using ultraviolet light. Butanethiol is a thiol of low molecular weight, and it is highly flammable.

Uses[edit]

Butanethiol is used as an industrial solvent[citation needed], and as an intermediate for cotton defoliants.[5] It is sometimes placed in the "stink bombs" and "stink perfumes" for pranksters.

Safety[edit]

Butanethiol is a very noxious and caustic chemical compound, and at sufficiently high concentrations, it produces serious health effects in both humans and animals, especially as a result of prolonged exposure. Higher concentrations can lead to unconsciousness and coma after prolonged exposure. Contact with the skin and mucous membranes causes burns, and contact with the eyes can lead to blurred vision or complete blindness.[citation needed]

Inhalation may cause weakness, confusion, cough, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath. The substance irritates the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. It may cause effects on the thyroid and the nervous system and could cause lowering of consciousness.[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0083". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  2. ^ Merck Index, 12th Edition, 1611.
  3. ^ Andersen K. K., Bernstein D. T. (1978). "1-Butanethiol and the Striped Skunk". Journal of Chemical Education 55 (3): 159–160. doi:10.1021/ed055p159. 
  4. ^ Devos, M; F. Patte; J. Rouault; P. Lafort; L. J. Van Gemert (1990). Standardized Human Olfactory Thresholds. Oxford: IRL Press. p. 34. ISBN 0199631468. 
  5. ^ National Library of Medicine HSDB Database. "Merphos". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  6. ^ "n-BUTYL MERCAPTAN". International Chemical Safety Cards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved January 11, 2012. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]