Butter

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Butter at the Borough Market, London

Butter is a dairy product that consists of butterfat, milk proteins, and water. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is used as a spread and a condiment—and in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying.

Commonly made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Producers sometimes add salt, flavorings, or preservatives. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat.

Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion that results from an inversion of the cream, an oil-in-water emulsion. The milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). The density of butter is 911 g/L (56.9 lb/ft3).[1] It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white.

Nutritional information

As butter is essentially just the milk fat, it contains only traces of lactose, so moderate consumption of butter is not a problem for the lactose intolerant.[n 1] People with milk allergies may still need to avoid butter, which contains enough of the allergy-causing proteins to cause reactions.[2]

It is a good source of Vitamin A equivalent.

Butter may play a useful role in dieting by providing satiety. A small amount added to low fat foods such as vegetables may ward off feelings of hunger.[3]

Butter, unsalted
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,999 kJ (717 kcal)
Carbohydrates 0 g
Fat 81 g
- saturated 51 g
- monounsaturated 21 g
- polyunsaturated 3 g
Protein 1 g
Vitamin A equiv. 684 μg (86%)
Vitamin D 60 IU (10%)
Vitamin E 2.32 mg (15%)
Cholesterol 215 mg
Fat percentage can vary.
See also Types of butter.
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Etymology

Butter is often served for spreading on bread with a butter knife.

The word butter derives (via Germanic languages) from the Latin butyrum,[4] which is the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον (boutyron).[5][6] This may have been a construction meaning "cow-cheese", from βοῦς (bous), "ox, cow"[7] and τυρός (tyros), "cheese",[8] but perhaps this is a false etymology of a Scythian word.[9][n 2] The root word persists in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese.

In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors. The word commonly is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed & nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is often applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are also known as "butters". In addition to the act of applying butter being called "to butter", non-dairy items that have a dairy butter consistency may use "butter' to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, and rock butter.

Production

Churning cream into butter using a hand held mixer.

Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules. These globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids (fatty acid emulsifiers) and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method creates butters with different consistencies, mostly due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, and undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter; butters with many crystals are harder than butters dominated by free fats.

Almost all commercially-made butter today begins with pasteurized cream, which is commonly heated to a relatively high temperature above 80 °C (180 °F). Before it is churned, the cream is cooled to about 5 °C (40 °F) and allowed to remain at that temperature for at least eight hours; under these conditions about half the butterfat in the cream crystallizes. The jagged crystals of fat inflict damage upon the fat globule membranes during churning, speeding the butter-making process.

Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream. This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; sometimes more buttermilk is removed by rinsing the grains with water. Then the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands. This consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets.

Commercial butter is about 80% butterfat and 15% water; traditionally made butter may have as little as 65% fat and 30% water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups.[12] Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl. The density of butter is 0.911 g/cm3 (0.527 oz/in3), about the same as ice.

Types

Before modern factory butter making, cream was usually collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter. During fermentation, the cream naturally sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product.[13] Today, cultured butter is usually made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria.

Chart of milk products and production relationships, including butter.

Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and then incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows as the butter is aged in cold storage. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes significantly more space than simply storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter; while this more efficient process is claimed to simulate the taste of cultured butter, the product produced is not cultured but is instead flavored.

Dairy products are often pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. Production of sweet cream butter first became common in the 19th century, with the development of refrigeration and the mechanical cream separator.[14] Butter made from fresh or cultured unpasteurized cream is called raw cream butter. While butter made from pasteurized cream may keep for several months, raw cream butter has a shelf life of roughly ten days.

Throughout continental Europe, cultured butter is preferred, while sweet cream butter dominates in the United States and the United Kingdom. Therefore, cultured butter is sometimes labeled "European-style" butter in the United States. Commercial raw cream butter is virtually unheard-of in the United States. Raw cream butter is generally only found made at home by consumers who have purchased raw whole milk directly from dairy farmers, skimmed the cream themselves, and made butter with it. It is rare in Europe as well.[15]

Several "spreadable" butters have been developed; these remain softer at colder temperatures and are therefore easier to use directly out of refrigeration. Some modify the makeup of the butter's fat through chemical manipulation of the finished product, some through manipulation of the cattle's feed, and some by incorporating vegetable oils into the butter. "Whipped" butter, another product designed to be more spreadable, is aerated via the incorporation of nitrogen gas—normal air is not used, because doing so would encourage oxidation and rancidity.

All categories of butter are sold in both salted and unsalted forms. Either granular salt or a strong brine are added to salted butter during processing. In addition to enhanced flavor, the addition of salt acts as a preservative.

The amount of butterfat in the finished product is a vital aspect of production. In the United States, products sold as "butter" are required to contain a minimum of 80% butterfat; in practice, most American butters contain only slightly more than that, averaging around 81% butterfat. European butters generally have a higher ratio, which may extend up to 85%.

Clarified butter

Clarified butter is butter with almost all of its water and milk solids removed, leaving almost-pure butterfat. Clarified butter is made by heating butter to its melting point and then allowing it to cool; after settling, the remaining components separate by density. At the top, whey proteins form a skin, which is removed. The resulting butterfat is poured off from the mixture of water and casein proteins that settle to the bottom.[16]

Ghee is clarified butter that is brought to higher temperatures of around 120 °C (250 °F) after the water evaporates, so the milk solids brown. This flavors the ghee, and also produces antioxidants that help protect it longer from rancidity. Because of this, ghee can keep for six to eight months under normal conditions.[16]

Cream can be skimmed from whey instead of milk, as a byproduct of cheese-making. Whey butter can be made from whey cream. Whey cream and butter have a lower fat content and taste more salty, tangy and "cheesy."[17] They are also cheaper than "sweet" cream and butter.

European butters

Several butters are produced in Europe with Protected geographical indications. These include:

History

Traditional butter-making in Palestine. Ancient techniques were still practiced in the early 20th century. National Geographic, March 1914.

The earliest butter would have been from sheep or goat's milk; cattle are not thought to have been domesticated for another thousand years.[18]

There is evidence of milkfat in stone age containers dating back to 6,500 BC. Perhaps because liquid milk doesn't leave evidence easily preserved, or because it spoils easily, this earliest evidence points to butter, cheese, and yogurt, as if they were used by humans before liquid milk.[n 3]

Cow's milk butter first shows up in ancient Mesopotamia in 2,500 BC, where a sumerian tablet illustrates its creation.

An ancient method of butter making, still used today in parts of Africa and the Near East, involves a goat skin half filled with milk, and inflated with air before being sealed. The skin is then hung with ropes on a tripod of sticks, and rocked until the movement leads to the formation of butter.

In the Mediterranean climate, unclarified butter spoils quickly— unlike cheese, it is not a practical method of preserving the nutrients of milk. The ancient Greeks and Romans seemed to have considered butter a food fit more for the northern barbarians. A play by the Greek comic poet Anaxandrides refers to Thracians as boutyrophagoi, "butter-eaters".[20] In Natural History, Pliny the Elder calls butter "the most delicate of food among barbarous nations", and goes on to describe its medicinal properties.[21] Later, the physician Galen also described butter as a medicinal agent only.[22]

Historian and linguist Andrew Dalby says most references to butter in ancient Near Eastern texts should more correctly be translated as ghee. Ghee is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a typical trade article around the first century CE Arabian Sea, and Roman geographer Strabo describes it as a commodity of Arabia and Sudan.[20] In India, ghee has been a symbol of purity and an offering to the gods—especially Agni, the Hindu god of fire—for more than 3000 years; references to ghee's sacred nature appear numerous times in the Rigveda, circa 1500–1200 BCE. The tale of the child Krishna stealing butter remains a popular children's story in India today. Since India's prehistory, ghee has been both a staple food and used for ceremonial purposes, such as fueling holy lamps and funeral pyres.

Middle Ages

The cooler climates of northern Europe let people store butter for a longer period before it spoiled. Scandinavia has the oldest tradition in Europe of butter export trade, dating at least to the 12th century.[23] After the fall of Rome and through much of the Middle Ages, butter was a common food across most of Europe, but one with a low reputation, and was consumed principally by peasants. Butter slowly became more accepted by the upper class, notably when the early 16th century Roman Catholic Church allowed its consumption during Lent. Bread and butter became common fare among the middle class, and the English, in particular, gained a reputation for their liberal use of melted butter as a sauce with meat and vegetables.[24]

In antiquity, butter was used for fuel in lamps as a substitute for oil. The Butter Tower of Rouen Cathedral was erected in the early 16th century when Archbishop Georges d'Amboise authorized the burning of butter instead of oil, which was scarce at the time, during Lent.[25]

Across northern Europe, butter was sometimes treated in a manner unheard-of today: it was packed into barrels (firkins) and buried in peat bogs, perhaps for years. Such "bog butter" would develop a strong flavor as it aged, but remain edible, in large part because of the unique cool, airless, antiseptic and acidic environment of a peat bog. Firkins of such buried butter are a common archaeological find in Ireland; the Irish National Museum has some containing "a grayish cheese-like substance, partially hardened, not much like butter, and quite free from putrefaction." The practice was most common in Ireland in the 11th–14th centuries; it ended entirely before the 19th century.[23]

Industrialization

Like Ireland, France became well known for its butter, particularly in Normandy and Brittany. By the 1860s, butter had become so in demand in France that Emperor Napoleon III offered prize money for an inexpensive substitute to supplement France's inadequate butter supplies. A French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine in 1869. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarine followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900.

Gustaf de Laval's centrifugal cream separator sped the butter-making process.

Until the 19th century, the vast majority of butter was made by hand, on farms. The first butter factories appeared in the United States in the early 1860s, after the successful introduction of cheese factories a decade earlier. In the late 1870s, the centrifugal cream separator was introduced, marketed most successfully by Swedish engineer Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval.[26] This dramatically sped up the butter-making process by eliminating the slow step of letting cream naturally rise to the top of milk. Initially, whole milk was shipped to the butter factories, and the cream separation took place there. Soon, though, cream-separation technology became small and inexpensive enough to introduce an additional efficiency: the separation was accomplished on the farm, and the cream alone shipped to the factory. By 1900, more than half the butter produced in the United States was factory made; Europe followed suit shortly after.

In 1920, Otto Hunziker authored The Butter Industry, Prepared for Factory, School and Laboratory,[27] a well-known text in the industry that enjoyed at least three editions (1920, 1927, 1940). As part of the efforts of the American Dairy Science Association, Professor Hunziker and others published articles regarding: causes of tallowiness[28] (an odor defect, distinct from rancidity, a taste defect); mottles[29] (an aesthetic issue related to uneven color); introduced salts;[30] the impact of creamery metals[31] and liquids;[32] and acidity measurement.[33] These and other ADSA publications helped standardize practices internationally.

Butter also provided extra income for farm families. They used wood presses with intricate decoration to press the butter into pucks or small bricks to sell at nearby markets or general stores. The decoration identified the farm that produced the butter. This continued until production was mechanized and butter was produced in a simple stick form.[34] Today butter presses remain in use for decorative purposes.

Per capita butter consumption declined in most western nations during the 20th century, in large part because of the rising popularity of margarine, which is less expensive and, until recent years, was perceived as being healthier. In the United States, margarine consumption overtook butter during the 1950s,[35] and it is still the case today that more margarine than butter is eaten in the U.S. and the EU.[36]

Size and shape of butter packaging

In the United States, butter is usually produced in 4-ounce sticks, wrapped in waxed or foiled paper and sold four to a one-pound carton. This practice is believed to have originated in 1907, when Swift and Company began packaging butter in this manner for mass distribution.[37]

Western-pack shape butter
PCC Dairy Butter, made from Carabao milk. (Philippine Carabao Center)

These sticks are commonly produced in two different shapes:

  • The dominant shape east of the Rocky Mountains is the Elgin, or Eastern-pack shape, named for a dairy in Elgin, Illinois. The sticks are 121 millimetres (4.8 in) long and 32 millimetres (1.3 in) wide and are typically sold stacked two by two in elongated cube-shaped boxes.[38]
  • West of the Rocky Mountains, butter printers standardized on a different shape that is now referred to as the Western-pack shape. These butter sticks are 80 millimetres (3.1 in) long and 38 millimetres (1.5 in) wide and are usually sold with four sticks packed side-by-side in a flat, rectangular box.[38] The shape was altered for the West Coast because of the higher average temperature; having a smaller surface-area-to-volume ratio allowed the stick of butter to remain on the counter longer without melting.[39]

Both sticks contain the same amount of butter, although most butter dishes are designed for Elgin-style butter sticks.[38]

The stick's wrapper is usually marked off as eight tablespoons (120 ml or 4.2 imp fl oz; 4.1 US fl oz); the actual volume of one stick is approximately nine tablespoons (130 ml or 4.6 imp fl oz; 4.4 US fl oz).

Outside of the United States, butter is packaged and sold by weight only, not by volume (fluid measure) nor by unit (stick), but the package shape remains approximately the same. The wrapper is usually a foil and waxed-paper laminate (the waxed paper is now a siliconised substitute, but is still referred to in some places as parchment, from the wrapping used in past centuries; and the term 'parchment-wrapped' is still employed where the paper alone is used, without the foil laminate).

In the UK and Ireland, and in some other regions historically accustomed to using British measures, this was traditionally ½lb and 1 lb packs; since metrication, these countries have shifted to the same system the rest of the metricated world uses.

In the remainder of the metricated world, butter is packed and sold in 250g and 500g packs (roughly equivalent to the ½lb and 1 lb measures) and measured for cooking in grams or kilograms; although melted butter could be measured by fluid measure (centiliters or fluid ounces), this is rare.

Butter for commercial and industrial use is packaged in plastic buckets, tubs, or drums, in quantities and units suited to the local market.

Worldwide

In 1997, India produced 1,470,000 metric tons (1,620,000 short tons) of butter, most of which was consumed domestically.[40] Second in production was the United States (522,000 t or 575,000 short tons), followed by France (466,000 t or 514,000 short tons), Germany (442,000 t or 487,000 short tons), and New Zealand (307,000 t or 338,000 short tons). France ranks first in per capita butter consumption with 8 kg per capita per year.[41] In terms of absolute consumption, Germany was second after India, using 578,000 metric tons (637,000 short tons) of butter in 1997, followed by France (528,000 t or 582,000 short tons), Russia (514,000 t or 567,000 short tons), and the United States (505,000 t or 557,000 short tons). New Zealand, Australia, and the Ukraine are among the few nations that export a significant percentage of the butter they produce.[n 4]

According to a 2014 study, butter now tops $2 billion a year in the United States. This dollar amount has increased 65% since 2000. The American Butter Institute also noted in 2012 butter's per capita consumption is at 5.6 pounds, a 40-year high.[43][44]

Different varieties are found around the world. Smen is a spiced Moroccan clarified butter, buried in the ground and aged for months or years. Yak butter is a speciality in Tibet; tsampa, barley flour mixed with yak butter, is a staple food. Butter tea is consumed in the Himalayan regions of Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal and India. It consists of tea served with intensely flavored—or "rancid"—yak butter and salt. In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from sour milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk.[45]

Storage and cooking

Hollandaise sauce served over white asparagus and potatoes.

Normal butter softens to a spreadable consistency around 15 °C (60 °F), well above refrigerator temperatures. The "butter compartment" found in many refrigerators may be one of the warmer sections inside, but it still leaves butter quite hard. Until recently, many refrigerators sold in New Zealand featured a "butter conditioner", a compartment kept warmer than the rest of the refrigerator—but still cooler than room temperature—with a small heater.[46] Keeping butter tightly wrapped delays rancidity, which is hastened by exposure to light or air, and also helps prevent it from picking up other odors. Wrapped butter has a shelf life of several months at refrigerator temperatures.[citation needed]

"French butter dishes" or "Acadian butter dishes" involve a lid with a long interior lip, which sits in a container holding a small amount of water. Usually the dish holds just enough water to submerge the interior lip when the dish is closed. Butter is packed into the lid. The water acts as a seal to keep the butter fresh, and also keeps the butter from overheating in hot temperatures. This allows butter to be safely stored on the countertop for several days without spoilage.

Once butter is softened, spices, herbs, or other flavoring agents can be mixed into it, producing what is called a compound butter or composite butter (sometimes also called composed butter). Compound butters can be used as spreads, or cooled, sliced, and placed onto hot food to melt into a sauce. Sweetened compound butters can be served with desserts; such hard sauces are often flavored with spirits.

When heated, butter quickly melts into a thin liquid.

Melted butter plays an important role in the preparation of sauces, most obviously in French cuisine. Beurre noisette (hazelnut butter) and Beurre noir (black butter) are sauces of melted butter cooked until the milk solids and sugars have turned golden or dark brown; they are often finished with an addition of vinegar or lemon juice. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are emulsions of egg yolk and melted butter; they are in essence mayonnaises made with butter instead of oil. Hollandaise and béarnaise sauces are stabilized with the powerful emulsifiers in the egg yolks, but butter itself contains enough emulsifiers—mostly remnants of the fat globule membranes—to form a stable emulsion on its own. Beurre blanc (white butter) is made by whisking butter into reduced vinegar or wine, forming an emulsion with the texture of thick cream. Beurre monté (prepared butter) is melted but still emulsified butter; it lends its name to the practice of "mounting" a sauce with butter: whisking cold butter into any water-based sauce at the end of cooking, giving the sauce a thicker body and a glossy shine—as well as a buttery taste.[47]

In Poland, the butter lamb (Baranek wielkanocny) is a traditional addition to the Easter Meal for many Polish Catholics. Butter is shaped into a lamb either by hand or in a lamb-shaped mould. Butter is also used to make edible decorations to garnish other dishes.

Mixing melted butter with chocolate to make a brownie

Butter is used for sautéing and frying, although its milk solids brown and burn above 150 °C (302 °F)—a rather low temperature for most applications. The smoke point of butterfat is around 200 °C (400 °F), so clarified butter or ghee is better suited to frying.[16] Ghee has always been a common frying medium in India, where many avoid other animal fats for cultural or religious reasons.

Butter fills several roles in baking, where it is used in a similar manner as other solid fats like lard, suet, or shortening, but has a flavor that may better complement sweet baked goods. Many cookie doughs and some cake batters are leavened, at least in part, by creaming butter and sugar together, which introduces air bubbles into the butter. The tiny bubbles locked within the butter expand in the heat of baking and aerate the cookie or cake. Some cookies like shortbread may have no other source of moisture but the water in the butter. Pastries like pie dough incorporate pieces of solid fat into the dough, which become flat layers of fat when the dough is rolled out. During baking, the fat melts away, leaving a flaky texture. Butter, because of its flavor, is a common choice for the fat in such a dough, but it can be more difficult to work with than shortening because of its low melting point. Pastry makers often chill all their ingredients and utensils while working with a butter dough.

Health effects of butter

Consuming certain kinds of fat in one's diet increases risk of experiencing a range of heart problems.[48] For this reason, health organizations recommend reducing the amounts of fat one uses in cooking or using some types of fats in favor of others.[48] Limiting the amount of total fat in one's diet is preferable to any other way of reducing saturated and trans fat intake.[49] Substituting butter with alternatives that have fewer adverse health consequences is a complementary option.[50]

Vegetable fats cause fewer adverse health consequences than animal fats, and for this reason, margarine is a healthier food choice than butter. Soft margarine is generally healthier than hard margarine.[51]

Research suggests that persons who receive appropriate health advice on improving cardiovascular health with good diet choices are likely to accept that advice, change their eating habits, and improve their health.[52]

History of research

Starting in the 1940s United States cardiologist Ancel Keys promoted the idea that increased cholesterol was a cause of increased heart disease.[53] His research culminated in the Seven Countries Study, which was the first study to systematically examine the relationships between lifestyle, diet, coronary heart disease and stroke in different populations from different regions of the world.[53]

In the 1940s, Keys recommended what later came to be known as a Mediterranean diet, which used vegetable oil, minimizing dairy fat and other animal fats with the intent to improve heart health.[54] While Keys found evidence that increased consumption of saturated fat led to increased risk of heart problems,[54] contemporary research reports that no significant evidence exists for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease.[55]

Other studies report that saturated fats are more healthy than the trans-fat substitutes marketed to replace them.[56]

Alternatives to butter

Various products can be used as butter substitutes.

  • Butter blends or spreadable butter are a mixture of butter and vegetable oil. They contain half the saturated fat of butter but have almost the same amount of calories and total fat content.[57]
  • Buttery spreads have the texture of butter but are made of vegetable oils. Often these products are marketed to profile a single oil but are a mixture of more than one oil. They may not have the same nutritional value as unprocessed vegetable oil. All of these spreads have trans fat. Spreads may contain health supplements, such as vitamin D or calcium. Those designed to provide omega-3 fatty acid have been reported by sensory analysts to have a less appealing taste.[57]
  • Coconut oil spreads are actually a blend of coconut oil with other vegetable oils. They may be marketed as containing medium-chain triglycerides but they also contain other saturated fats.[57]
Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g)
Total fat Saturated fat Monounsaturated fat Polyunsaturated fat Smoke point
Sunflower oil 100g 11g (11%) 20g (84g in high oleic variety[58]) 69g (4g in high oleic variety[58]) 225 °C (437 °F)[59]
Soybean oil 100g 16g (16%) 23g 58g 257 °C (495 °F)[59]
Canola oil 100g 7g (7%) 63g 28g 205 °C (401 °F)[58][60]
Olive oil 100g 14g (14%) 73g 11g 190 °C (374 °F)[59]
Corn oil 100g 15g (15%) 30g 55g 230 °C (446 °F)[59]
Peanut oil 100g 17g (17%) 46g 32g 225 °C (437 °F)[59]
Rice bran oil 100g 25g (25%) 38g 37g 213 °C (415 °F)[citation needed]
Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated) 71g 23g (34%) 8g (11%) 37g (52%) 165 °C (329 °F)[59]
Lard 100g 39g (39%) 45g 11g 190 °C (374 °F)[59]
Suet 94g 52g (55%) 32g (34%) 3g (3%) 200°C (400°F)
Butter 81g 51g (63%) 21g (26%) 3g (4%) 150 °C (302 °F)[59]
Coconut oil 100g 86g (86%) 6g (6%) 2g (2%) 177 °C (351 °F)

When margarine and oleo were first introduced, they were seen as unhealthy, inferior alternatives to butter. Eventually the medical community began to focus on cholesterol as a cause of various health problems, with butter being a significant source. Margarine was then seen as a healthier alternative. In more recent years,studies have shown that cholesterol is not bad, per se, but only certain kinds and in certain amounts. Meanwhile, the focus has shifted to various lipids used in some margarines, like hydrogenated vegetable oil, as being even worse for people's health and butter is once again thought of as healthier than stick margarine.[61]

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ Based on data found here, one teaspoon of butter contains 0.03 grams of lactose; a cup of milk contains 400 times that amount.
  2. ^ Nevertheless, the earliest attested form of the both stems can be found in Mycenaean Greek, written in Linear B: bous as 𐀦𐀃, qo-o, and tyros as 𐀶𐀫, tu-ro.[10][11]
  3. ^ "Prehistoric humans consumed milk at least 8,500 years ago—up to 2,000 years earlier than previously thought—new discoveries of the earliest known milk containers suggest. The find shows that the culinary breakthrough of using animal milk was first developed by cow herders in northwest Turkey. The first milk users, though, are not thought to have been milk drinkers—but butter, yogurt, or cheese eaters".[19]
  4. ^ Statistics from USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (1999).[42] The export and import figures do not include trade between nations within the European Union, and there are inconsistencies regarding the inclusion of clarified butterfat products (explaining why New Zealand is shown exporting more butter in 1997 than was produced).
References
  1. ^ Elert, Glenn. "Density". The Physics Hypertextbook. 
  2. ^ Allergy Society of South Africa. Milk Allergy & Intolerance. Retrieved 27 November 2005.
  3. ^ "Why Butter Is Better". Does butter cause disease? On the contrary, butter protects us against many diseases. The Weston A. Price Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-23.  "Why Butter is Better" first appeared in Health Freedom News, 1999 Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD.
  4. ^ butyrum. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  5. ^ βούτυρον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  6. ^ "butter". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  7. ^ βοῦς in Liddell and Scott.
  8. ^ τυρός in Liddell and Scott.
  9. ^ Harper, Douglas. "butter". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  10. ^ Palaima, Thomas G.; Sikkenga, Elizabeth (1999). "Meletemata. Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year. Volume=2". In Betancourt, Philip P.; Karageorghis, Vassos; Laffineur, Robaert et al. Aegaeum (Université de Liège) 20: 601. 
  11. ^ "The Linear B word tu-ro". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool for ancient languages. 
  12. ^ Rolf Jost "Milk and Dairy Products" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_589.pub3
  13. ^ McGee p. 35.
  14. ^ McGee p. 33.
  15. ^ McGee p. 34.
  16. ^ a b c McGee p. 37.
  17. ^ Article on sweet cream, whey cream, and the butters they produce
  18. ^ Dates from McGee p. 10.
  19. ^ Owen, James (August 6, 2008). "Stone Age Milk Use Began 2,000 Years Earlier". National Geographic News. 
  20. ^ a b Dalby p. 65.
  21. ^ Bostock and Riley translation. [ Book 28, chapter 35].
  22. ^ Galen. de aliment. facult.
  23. ^ a b Web Exhibits: Butter. Ancient Firkins.
  24. ^ McGee p. 33, "Ancient, Once Unfashionable".
  25. ^ Soyer, Alexis (1977) [1853]. The Pantropheon or a History of Food and its Preparation in Ancient Times. Wisbech, Cambs.: Paddington Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-448-22976-5. 
  26. ^ Edwards, Everett E. "Europe's Contribution to the American Dairy Industry". The Journal of Economic History, Volume 9, 1949. 72-84.
  27. ^ Hunziker, O F (1920). The Butter Industry, Prepared for Factory, School and Laboratory. LaGrange, IL: author. 
  28. ^ Hunziker, O F; D. Fay Hosman (1 November 1917). "Tallowy Butter—its Causes and Prevention" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 1 (4): 320–346. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(17)94386-3. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  [dead link]
  29. ^ Hunziker, O F; D. Fay Hosman (1 March 1920). "Mottles in Butter—Their Causes and Prevention" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 3 (2): 77–106. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(20)94253-4. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  [dead link]
  30. ^ Hunziker, O F; W. A. Cordes; B. H. Nissen (1 September 1929). "Studies on Butter Salts" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 11 (5): 333–351. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(28)93647-4. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  [dead link]
  31. ^ Hunziker, O F; W. A. Cordes; B. H. Nissen (1 March 1929). "Metals in Dairy Equipment. Metallic Corrosion in Milk Products and its Effect on Flavor" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 12 (2): 140–181. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(29)93566-9. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  [dead link]
  32. ^ Hunziker, O F; W. A. Cordes; B. H. Nissen (1 May 1929). "Metals in Dairy Equipment: Corrosion Caused by Washing Powders, Chemical Sterilizers, and Refrigerating Brines" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 12 (3): 252–284. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(29)93575-X. Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  33. ^ Hunziker, O F; W. A. Cordes; B. H. Nissen (1 July 1931). "Method for Hydrogen Ion Determination of Butter" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science (American Dairy Science Association) 14 (4): 347–37. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(31)93478-4. Retrieved 2008-06-28.  [dead link]
  34. ^ Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1857). Mrs. Hale's new cook book. 
  35. ^ Web Exhibits: Butter. Eating less butter, and more fat.
  36. ^ See for example this chart from International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe statistics. Retrieved 4 December 2005.
  37. ^ Milton E. Parker (1948). Princely Packets of Golden Health (A History of Butter Packaging) (PDF). Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  38. ^ a b c "A Better Stick of Butter?". Cook's Illustrated (77): 3. November–December 2005. 
  39. ^ "Which Stick Makes a Better Butter?". Food & Wine (68). August 1983. 
  40. ^ Most nations produce and consume the bulk of their butter domestically.
  41. ^ Envoyé spécial : tout sur l'émission, news et vidéos en replay - France 2
  42. ^ "Dairy: Word Markets and Trade". Retrieved December 1, 2005. [dead link]
  43. ^ Passey, Charles (21 January 2014). "Butter is now winning the fat wars Unilever: ‘We have been too obsessed, overly obsessed’ with margarine". Market Watch. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  44. ^ Ferdman, Roberto (20 January 2014). "The war against butter is over. Butter won". Quartz. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  45. ^ Crawford et al., part B, section III, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved 28 November 2005.
  46. ^ Bring back butter conditioners. Retrieved 27 November 2005. The feature has been phased out for energy conservation reasons.
  47. ^ Sauce information from McGee, pp. 36 (beurre noisette and beurre noir), 632 (beurre blanc and beurre monté), and 635–636 (hollandaise and béarnaise).
  48. ^ a b Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen J; Davey Smith, George; Hooper, Lee (2012). "Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002137.pub3. 
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  50. ^ National Heart Foundation of Australia (2014). "Butter vs margarine". heartfoundation.org.au. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
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  54. ^ a b Brody, Jane E. (23 November 2004). "Obituaries - Dr. Ancel Keys, 100, Promoter of Mediterranean Diet, Dies". The New York Times (New York: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  55. ^ Siri-Tarino, P. W; Sun, Q.; Hu, F. B; Krauss, R. M (13 January 2010). "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (3): 535–546. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725. 
  56. ^
  57. ^ a b c Consumer Reports (February 2014). "Best Butter Alternatives - Healthy Spreads for Bread". consumerreports.org. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  58. ^ a b c "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-42135-5. 
  60. ^ Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.  edit
  61. ^ The Daily Mail
    At last, the truth: Butter is GOOD for you

Further reading

External links