Bouyei people

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Bouyei
buxQyaix
Total population
2,971,460 (2000)
Regions with significant populations
China
 Vietnam 2,273 (2009)[1]
Languages
Bouyei language, Chinese
Religion
Shigongism (Moism), Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Zhuang
Bouyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou
A Bouyei woman in front of her house

The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix [puʔjai], or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; Vietnamese: người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Some Bouyei also live in Vietnam, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves Zhuang (Tai peoples).

The Bouyei live in semi-tropical, high-altitude forests of Guizhou province, as well as in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and speak a Tai language.

Names[edit]

The Bouyei consist of various subgroups. Below are their autonyms written in the International Phonetic Alphabet with numerical Chao tones.[2]

  • pu42 ʔjɐi42 濮越
  • pu42 ʔji22 濮夷
  • pu42 noŋ31 布侬
  • pu42 loŋ31 补笼
  • pu42 na31 布那
  • pu42 tu42 布土、布都
  • pu42 ʔjaŋ33 布央
  • pu42 zoŋ31 xa35 布笼哈

Some clans within the Bouyei groups include:

  • pu42 wu42 布武
  • pu42 wei31 布韦
  • pu42 lo24 布鲁

In Congjiang County, Guizhou, there is a group call themselves "Buyeyi 布也益", but are officially classified by the Chinese government as ethnic Zhuang.[3]

By county[edit]

County-level distribution of the Bouyei 2000 Chinese census

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Bouyei population.)

Province Prefecture County Bouyei Population % of China's Bouyei Population
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Dushan (独山县) 194.468 6,54 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Duyun (都匀市) 190.347 6,41 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Wangmo (望谟县) 174.806 5,88 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Luodian (罗甸县) 158.494 5,33 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Ceheng (册亨县) 158.019 5,32 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Anlong (安龙县) 139.930 4,71 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Huishui (惠水县) 135.943 4,58 %
Guizhou Anshun Zhenning Buyei and Miao (镇宁布依族苗族自治县) 131.962 4,44 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Zhenfeng (贞丰县) 125.058 4,21 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Xingyi (兴义市) 124.901 4,2 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Pingtang (平塘县) 107.473 3,62 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Libo (荔波县) 93.681 3,15 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Guiding (贵定县) 92.607 3,12 %
Guizhou Anshun Ziyun Miao and Buyei (紫云苗族布依族自治县) 86.513 2,91 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Changshun (长顺县) 81.022 2,73 %
Guizhou Anshun Guanling Buyei and Miao (关岭布依族苗族自治县) 68.967 2,32 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Qinglong (晴隆县) 64.001 2,15 %
Guizhou Anshun Xixiu (西秀区) 62.497 2,1 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Xingren (兴仁县) 50.210 1,69 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Sandu Shui (三都水族自治县) 49.877 1,68 %
Guizhou Guiyang Huaxi (花溪区) 41.446 1,4 %
Guizhou Liupanshui Shuicheng (水城县) 41.255 1,39 %
Guizhou Liupanshui Liuzhi (六枝特区) 35.772 1,2 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Longli (龙里县) 34.259 1,15 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Majiang (麻江县) 33.958 1,14 %
Guizhou Anshun Pingba (平坝县) 29.452 0.99 %
Yunnan Qujing Luoping (罗平县) 25.152 0.85 %
Guizhou Guiyang Qingzhen (清镇市) 25.017 0.84 %
Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Pu'an (普安县) 23.639 0.8 %
Guizhou Guiyang Wudang (乌当区) 23.597 0.79 %
Guizhou Guiyang Kaiyang (开阳县) 22.611 0.76 %
Guizhou Guiyang Nanming (南明区) 20.608 0.69 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Fuquan (福泉市) 19.520 0.66 %
Guizhou Bijie Qianxi (黔西县) 17.447 0.59 %
Guizhou Liupanshui Pan (盘县) 16.072 0.54 %
Guizhou Guiyang Baiyun (白云区) 15.116 0.51 %
Guizhou Anshun Puding (普定县) 15.083 0.51 %
Guizhou Bijie Zhijin (织金县) 14.512 0.49 %
Guizhou Guiyang Yunyan (云岩区) 14.293 0.48 %
Guizhou Guiyang Xiaohe (小河区) 12.138 0.41 %
Guizhou Bijie Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao (威宁彝族回族苗族自治县) 7.484 0.25 %
Guizhou Bijie Nayong (纳雍县) 7.222 0.24 %
Guangxi Hechi Nandan (南丹县) 6.822 0.23 %
Guizhou Guiyang Xiuwen (修文县) 6.397 0.22 %
Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Maguan (马关县) 6.085 0.21 %
Guangdong Dongguan none 5.584 0.19 %
Guizhou Bijie Dafang (大方县) 5.294 0.18 %
Guizhou Liupanshui Zhongshan (钟山区) 4.075 0.14 %
Guizhou Bijie Jinsha (金沙县) 3.804 0.13 %
Yunnan Kunming Guandu (官渡区) 3.582 0.12 %
Yunnan Zhaotong Qiaojia (巧家县) 3.063 0.1 %
Guizhou Bijie Hezhang (赫章县) 2.773 0.09 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Kaili (凯里市) 2.573 0.09 %
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Ningnan (宁南县) 2.353 0.08 %
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi Hekou Yao (河口瑶族自治县) 2.190 0.07 %
Zhejiang Ningbo Cixi (慈溪市) 2.155 0.07 %
Guizhou Guiyang Xifeng (息烽县) 1.846 0.06 %
Guangxi Hechi Huanjiang Maonan (环江毛南族自治县) 1.833 0.06 %
Guangdong Foshan Shunde (顺德区) 1.796 0.06 %
Guangdong Shenzhen Bao'an (宝安区) 1.777 0.06 %
Guangdong Shenzhen Longgang (龙岗区) 1.745 0.06 %
Yunnan Kunming Xishan (西山区) 1.668 0.06 %
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Huidong County, Sichuan (会东县) 1.534 0.05 %
Zhejiang Jinhua Yongkang (永康市) 1.363 0.05 %
Guizhou Zunyi Honghuagang (红花岗区) 1.323 0.05 %
Guangdong Huizhou Huiyang (惠阳区) 1.227 0.04 %
Zhejiang Jinhua Dongyang (东阳市) 1.222 0.04 %
Yunnan Kunming Dongchuan (东川区) 1.150 0.04 %
Yunnan Qujing Fuyuan (富源县) 1.097 0.04 %
Zhejiang Ningbo Yuyao (余姚市) 1.059 0.04 %
Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Weng'an (瓮安县) 1.019 0.03 %
Guangxi Hechi Tian'e (天峨县) 1.017 0.03 %
Sichuan Liangshan Yi Mili Tibetan (木里藏族自治县) 988 0.03 %
Guangdong Huizhou Boluo (博罗县) 983 0.03 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Rongjiang (榕江县) 981 0.03 %
Zhejiang Quzhou Jiangshan (江山市) 854 0.03 %
Zhejiang Jinhua Yiwu (义乌市) 846 0.03 %
Jiangsu Wuxi Yixing (宜兴市) 820 0.03 %
Zhejiang Huzhou Changxing (长兴县) 797 0.03 %
Yunnan Yuxi Hongta (红塔区) 790 0.03 %
Guizhou Bijie Qixingguan (七星关区) 789 0.03 %
Zhejiang Shaoxing Shangyu (上虞市) 785 0.03 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Danzhai (丹寨县) 778 0.03 %
Zhejiang Taizhou Wenling (温岭市) 760 0.03 %
Guangdong Foshan Nanhai (南海区) 737 0.03 %
Guangdong Guangzhou Baiyun (白云区) 641 0.02 %
Guangdong Guangzhou Panyu (番禺区) 638 0.02 %
Zhejiang Hangzhou Fuyang (富阳市) 632 0.02 %
Fujian Quanzhou Jinjiang (晋江市) 596 0.02 %
Yunnan Xishuangbanna Dai Mengla (勐腊县) 596 0.02 %
Zhejiang Wenzhou Rui'an (瑞安市) 594 0.02 %
Yunnan Qujing Qilin (麒麟区) 589 0.02 %
Guangdong Zhongshan none 585 0.02 %
Guizhou Zunyi Renhuai (仁怀市) 575 0.02 %
Zhejiang Jinhua Pujiang (浦江县) 548 0.02 %
Guangxi Bose Tianlin (田林县) 538 0.02 %
Zhejiang Wenzhou Ouhai (瓯海区) 506 0.02 %
Guangxi Yulin Rong (容县) 506 0.02 %
Guangxi Hechi Jinchengjiang (金城江区) 501 0.02 %
Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi Gejiu (个旧市) 501 0.02 %
Zhejiang Shaoxing Shaoxing (绍兴县) 498 0.02 %
Yunnan Kunming Wuhua (五华区) 483 0.02 %
Guizhou Zunyi Zunyi (遵义县) 465 0.02 %
Zhejiang Wenzhou Yueqing (乐清市) 453 0.02 %
Jiangsu Changzhou Liyang (溧阳市) 440 0.02 %
Guangxi Bose Leye (乐业县) 439 0.01 %
Guangxi Yulin Xingye (兴业县) 423 0.01 %
Hebei Tangshan Luannan (滦南县) 416 0.01 %
Guangxi Bose Xilin (西林县) 410 0.01 %
Guangxi Yulin Yuzhou (玉州区) 400 0.01 %
Guangdong Chaozhou Xiangqiao (湘桥区) 398 0.01 %
Guangdong Maoming Gaozhou (高州市) 397 0.01 %
Zhejiang Ningbo Yinzhou (鄞州区) 395 0.01 %
Yunnan Kunming Anning (安宁市) 391 0.01 %
Guangxi Liuzhou Liunan (柳南区) 389 0.01 %
Zhejiang Hangzhou Xiaoshan (萧山区) 388 0.01 %
Fujian Zhangzhou Longhai (龙海市) 382 0.01 %
Guangdong Maoming Dianbai (电白县) 381 0.01 %
Guizhou Tongren Shiqian (石阡县) 376 0.01 %
Zhejiang Shaoxing Zhuji (诸暨市) 373 0.01 %
Hebei Tangshan Qian'an (迁安市) 351 0.01 %
Beijing none Haidian (海淀区) 348 0.01 %
Yunnan Kunming Panlong (盘龙区) 347 0.01 %
Guizhou Tongren Bijiang (碧江区) 338 0.01 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Liping (黎平县) 337 0.01 %
Zhejiang Hangzhou Yuhang (余杭区) 336 0.01 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Congjiang (从江县) 336 0.01 %
Hebei Baoding Yi (易县) 334 0.01 %
Guangxi Guigang Gangbei (港北区) 331 0.01 %
Zhejiang Jinhua Lanxi (兰溪市) 330 0.01 %
Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Huangping (黄平县) 329 0.01 %
Jiangsu Wuxi Jiangyin (江阴市) 312 0.01 %
Guangxi Bose Longlin (隆林各族自治县) 305 0.01 %
Guangdong Shenzhen Nanshan (南山区) 301 0.01 %
Other 73.219 2,46 %

Language[edit]

Main article: Bouyei language

The Bouyei speak the Bouyei language, which is very close to Standard Zhuang language. There is a dialect continuum between these two. The Bouyei language has its own written form which was created by linguists in the 1950s based on the Latin alphabet and with spelling conventions similar for the Pinyin system that had been devised to romanise Mandarin Chinese.

History[edit]

The Bouyei are the native Tai peoples of the plains of Guizhou. They are one of the oldest peoples of China, living in the area for more than 2,000 years. Prior to the establishment of the Tang dynasty, the Bouyei and Zhuang were linked together; the differences between both ethnic groups grew greater and from year 900 already they were two different groups. The Qing dynasty abolished the system of local heads and commanded in its place to officials of the army which caused a change in the local economy; from then on, the land was in the hands of a few landowners, which caused the population to revolt. During the Nanlong Rebellion of 1797, the Bouyei underwent a strong repression that caused many of them to emigrate to faraway Vietnam.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  3. ^ 贵州"六山六水"民族调查资料选编. 回族, 白族, 瑤族, 壮族, 畲族, 毛南族, 仫佬族, 满族, 羌族卷 (2008:291). 贵州民族出版社.
  • Yù Cuìróng 喻翠容: Bùyīyǔ jiǎnzhì 布依语简志 (Introduction to the Buyi language; Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 1980).
  • Wú Qǐlù 吴启禄: Bùyī-Hàn cídiǎn 布依汉词典 (Bouyei–Chinese dictionary; Beijing, Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社 2002), ISBN 7-105-04965-0.

External links[edit]