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A bye in sports and other competitive activities can have two different meanings. First, in leagues where almost all teams play on the same days, the team (or teams) that does not play on that day is said to be on bye; in sports that play weekly, especially gridiron football, a team that does not play at all during the week is said to be on its "bye week," but if they play on another day of the week, e.g. Monday or Thursday, they are not.
In round-robin tournament competitions where there are an odd number of competitors each round, usually one gets a bye; there is never a round where all teams play. However, by the completion of the tournament each team plays the same number of games as well as sitting out for the same number of rounds during the tournament. In a Swiss-system tournament with an odd number of players, one gets a bye each round, but not all players will get a bye. However, as with the case of NFL "bye weeks", these "byes" do not confer any advantage, or in the case of a seeded tournament, that any player/team receiving one is perceived as any better than one that does not, as all of the participants receive one, whereas the awarding of a bye in a single-elimination tournament most definitely does, in both cases.
In cases where the number of competitive entities at the start of a Single-elimination tournament is not a power of two, some competitors may receive a bye in the first round, which entitles these competitors to advance to the second round automatically without playing. Often, these byes will be awarded to the highest-rated competitors in the event as a reward for some previous accomplishment; indeed, in some American team sports—most notably American football — the number of teams qualifying for the postseason tournament will be intentionally set at a number which is not a power of two, in order to provide such an advantage to a high-achieving team in the just-completed regular season. Additionally, the player/team getting byes may get them exclusively by luck or random chance (i.e. if there are 7 competitors, one random one will automatically advance to the next round)
Multiple rounds of byes are also possible: in the FA Cup, the teams in the top two league divisions enter in the third round "proper" (of eight); the two next-highest divisions' teams will have entered in the first round; lower-division teams in one of 6 preliminary rounds. Another example is the UEFA Europa League. In the traditional and more common usage, a bye is the practice of allowing a player or team to advance to the next round of a single-elimination tournament (or the winners bracket of a double-elimination tournament) without playing. It is always necessary to grant byes when the number of entrants in the competition is not a power of two (i.e., not 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.); any such tournament without a power of two in a given round must grant the number of byes indicated by the difference in order to complete the field. In a seeded tournament, the byes are granted to the top seeds, whereas in an unseeded tournament the byes are usually awarded by random draw. For instance, the NCAA Basketball Tournament must grant 60 byes for its "play-in" round, since it has 68 participants (128-68) and had to grant 16 first-round byes when it had 48 participants (64-48). Each of the NFL conferences playoff first rounds must grant two, since there are six teams each (8-6), which only confuses matters since they also use the term "bye weeks" to refer to what really should be called "scheduled off weeks" during the regular season. Both of the NCAA tournament and the NFL post-season (not the regular season) are seeded, single-elimination tournaments, so the highest-seeded participants are granted the necessary (single-elimination tournament) byes.
Gridiron football and Major League Baseball
- In a typical use of the term, the National Football League rewards two division winners from each of the two conferences which possess the best regular season record with a bye in the playoffs. This is necessitated by the 12-team playoff structure. Sixteen is the next power of 2, so four teams must be granted byes first week to complete the field. Beginning in 2012, Major League Baseball joins the NFL in having byes, which are awarded to all division winners. There are 10 playoff teams in all of MLB (6 division winners + 4 wildcards or 3 division winners per league + 2 wildcards per league), so six teams must be granted byes in the first round to complete the field (16-10). National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League each allow 16 teams in their postseasons, and since 16 is a power of two, no teams receive byes. The CFL also grants a bye to its two division winners, directly to the division finals as four other teams compete in a semi-final week.
- In both Canadian and American professional football leagues, the term "bye week" refers to any week during the regular season in which a team does not play a game. Each NFL team has one "bye week" during a normal season; this is placed on the schedule between Week 4 and Week 12 (in the 2005 season, byes occurred in week 3). The NFL has used the bye week since 1990 so as to extend the regular season schedule to 17 weeks. In 1993 each NFL team had 2 bye weeks. In the rare case of a game postponement due to various conditions or damage, a bye week also effectively acts as an open date to schedule a delayed game, with the day of postponement acting as the new "bye week".
- In the 1999 through 2001 seasons, the NFL had an odd number of teams, 31, as a result of the Cleveland Browns returning to the league. Each week during these three seasons featured at least one team with its bye week. The league returned to 32 teams for the 2002 season with the addition of the Houston Texans and implemented a new bye week system that is in use today.
- Traditionally, the Canadian Football League and Arena Football League have scheduled byes only in seasons when they have had an odd number of teams in their leagues. The CFL introduced a scheduled bye week for its eight teams for the 2007 season, having had regular byes in its schedule since 2002 (the league had nine teams from 2002 to 2006 and will again have nine teams beginning in 2014).
Australian football codes
In Australia's National Rugby League (NRL), each team has two byes each season. During the representative period of the season (such as the State of Origin), byes are generally scheduled to the clubs that are expected to have the most players involved in the representative match, in the round preceding (or following) the representative fixture, to allow those clubs to sufficiently rest those players and prevent them from fielding a weakened side. On the competition ladder, teams are awarded two points (equivalent to a win) during their bye week.
The Australian Football League, which comprises an even number of club, gives each club one bye week near mid-season. During the 2011 season, between 1994 and 1991, between 1924 and 1919, and in 1915, when an odd number of clubs competed, each club had two byes.
In both leagues, and under many other professional and amateur sports leagues in Australia, higher placed teams earn byes during finals, to earn an easier passage to the Grand Final as reward for finishing higher on the ladder.
In the Provincial Championships, a team may receive a bye. This is due to the irregular number of teams competing in each Championship. Thus the method used differs in each Provincial Championship.
For example, below is an assessment of the 2012 Provincial Championships, and their use of the "bye".
In the 2012 Connacht Senior Football Championship, a quarter-final was not played by Mayo. Mayo therefore advanced directly to the semi-final to await the winner of the game between Leitrim and London.
In the 2012 Ulster Senior Football Championship, all teams except Cavan and Donegal were permitted to advance to the quarter-finals without playing a game in the preliminary round. Cavan and Donegal played each other to determine which would join the other seven teams in the quarter-finals.
Connacht and Munster did not make use of a preliminary round, while Leinster and Ulster did.
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- "Texans game postponed due to storm – Associated Press". LA Times. Retrieved 2012-11-27.