Belgorod

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For the city in Ukraine, see Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. For the defunct city in Kievan Rus, see Belgorod Kievsky.
Not to be confused with Belgrade.
Belgorod (English)
Белгород (Russian)
-  City  -
Вид на центральную и северную часть города.jpg
View of the central part of the city
Map of Russia - Belgorod Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Belgorod Oblast in Russia
Belgorod is located in Belgorod Oblast
Belgorod
Belgorod
Location of Belgorod in Belgorod Oblast
Coordinates: 50°36′N 36°36′E / 50.600°N 36.600°E / 50.600; 36.600Coordinates: 50°36′N 36°36′E / 50.600°N 36.600°E / 50.600; 36.600
Coat of Arms of Belgorod.svg
Flag of Belgorod.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day August 5[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Belgorod Oblast
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Belgorod[1]
Administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, city of oblast significance of Belgorod[1]
Municipal status (as of March 2011)
Urban okrug Belgorod Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Belgorod Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Sergey Bozhenov[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 153.1 km2 (59.1 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census) 356,402 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 49th
Population (2014 est.) 379,135 inhabitants[4]
Density 2,328/km2 (6,030/sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[6]
Founded 1596[7]
City status since 1596[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 308000-309000
Dialing code(s) +7 4722[citation needed]
Official website
Belgorod on WikiCommons

Belgorod (Russian: Белгород; IPA: [ˈbʲelɡərət]) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River just 40 kilometers (25 mi) north of the Ukrainian border. Population: 356,402 (2010 Census);[3] 337,030 (2002 Census);[9] 300,408 (1989 Census).[10]

History[edit]

View of Belgorod in 1912
Men's Monastery in 1911

The name Belgorod in Russian literally means "a white city", being a compound of "белый" (bely, "white, light") and "город" (gorod, "town, city"). The city was thus named after the region being rich in limestone. Etymologically, it corresponds to other Slavic city names of identical meaning: Belgrade, Belogradchik, Białogard, Biograd, Bilhorod, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi etc.

The settlement was first mentioned in 1237, when it was ravaged by the hordes of Batu Khan. It is unclear whether this Belgorod was located at the same place where the current city is. In 1596, it was re-founded by the order of Feodor Ioannovich as one of numerous forts set up to defend Southern borders from the Crimean Tatars.[7] In the 17th century it suffered repeatedly from Tatar incursions, against which there was built (from 1633 to 1740) an earthen wall, with twelve forts, extending upwards of 200 miles from the Vorskla to the Don, and called the Byelgorod line. In 1666 an archiepiscopal see was established in the town.[11]

After the Russian border was moved further south following the annexation of eastern Ukraine to Russia, the fortress fell in disrepair and the town was assigned to Kursk Governorate.

Peter the Great visited it on the eve of the Battle of Poltava, and a dragoon regiment was stationed in the town until 1917.

Ioasaph of Belgorod, an 18th-century bishop, became widely venerated as a miracle worker and was glorified as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1911.

20th century[edit]

Soviet power was established in the city on October 26 (November 8) in 1917. On April 10, 1918 Belgorod was occupied by German troops. After the conclusion of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty the demarcation line passed to the north of the city and Belgorod was incorporated into the Ukrainian State headed by Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi.

On December 20, 1918, after the overthrow of Skoropadskiy the city was occupied by the Red Army and became part of the RSFSR. From December 24, 1918 to January 7, 1919 the temporary Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine led by General Piatakov was housed in Belgorod. The city was the temporary capital of Ukraine. From June 23 to December 7, 1919 the town was part of the white South of Russia and took his volunteer army.

From September 1925 the territorial 163rd Infantry Regiment of the 55th Infantry Division of Kursk was stationed in Belgorod. In September 1939, it was deployed to the 185th Infantry Division.

On March 2, 1935 the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee decided to allocate the city of Belgorod, Kursk region into an independent administrative unit directly subordinate to the Kursk Regional Executive Committee.

It was occupied by Nazi Germany on October 25, 1941 to February 9, 1943. It was recaptured by the Germans on March 18, 1943 in the final move of the Third Battle of Kharkov. On July 12, 1943, during the Battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in world history took place near Prokhorovka, and the city was consequently liberated for good on August 5, 1943. The Belgorod Diorama is one of the World War II monuments commemorating the event.

In 1954, the city became the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast. From this time the rapid development of the city as a regional center began. We can say that the city was rebuilt.

Belgorod is an administrative, industrial and cultural center of Belgorod Oblast, established in 1954. The major educational centers of the city are Belgorod State University, Technological University, Agricultural Academy, Financial Academy.

Belgorod Drama Theater is named after one of the famous 19th-century actors Mikhail Shchepkin who was born in this region.

On April 22, 2013, a mass shooting occurred at approximately 2:20 p.m. Moscow time on a street in Belgorod. The shooter, identified as 31-year-old Sergey (Sergei) Pomazun (Сергей Помазун), opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle on several people at a gun store and a sidewalk, killing all six people that were hit: three people at the store and three passersby, including two teenage girls. Pomazun was later apprehended after an extensive day-long manhunt; during his arrest, he wounded a policeman with a knife. He was later sentenced to life in prison on August 23, 2013.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Belgorod is the administrative center of the oblast.[citation needed] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Belgorod—an administrative unit with status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Belgorod is incorporated as Belgorod Urban Okrug.[2]

City divisions[edit]

For administrative purposes, Belgorod is divided into two city okrugs:

  • Vostochny ("Eastern"), population: 141,844 (2010 Census)[3]
  • Zapadny ("Western"), population: 214,558 (2010 Census)[3]

Climate[edit]

Belgorod's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb) featuring cold winters, warm summers and moderate precipitation.

Climate data for Belgorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.9
(35.4)
12.6
(54.7)
20.7
(69.3)
23.6
(74.5)
25.1
(77.2)
24.3
(75.7)
18.6
(65.5)
11.0
(51.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.8
(28.8)
10.88
(51.61)
Average low °C (°F) −11.1
(12)
−9.6
(14.7)
−4.9
(23.2)
3.2
(37.8)
9.4
(48.9)
12.6
(54.7)
14.3
(57.7)
13.3
(55.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.1
(37.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
2.44
(36.39)
Precipitation mm (inches) 52
(2.05)
40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
46
(1.81)
48
(1.89)
67
(2.64)
72
(2.83)
53
(2.09)
49
(1.93)
40
(1.57)
52
(2.05)
50
(1.97)
605
(23.82)
Avg. precipitation days 10 9 8 7 7 8 9 7 7 7 10 11 100
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [12]

Transportation[edit]

Since 1869, there has been a railway connection between Belgorod and Moscow.[13] Belgorod is served by the Belgorod International Airport (EGO).

Trolleybus[edit]

Length of trolley lines is over 120 km (75 mi). Trolleybus city park consists of 150 pieces of equipment, mainly Russian-made trolley ZiU-682V, 2 units ZiU-683, operated since 1990, and 3 units ZiU-6205, 30 units "Optima", and also has one trolley Skoda-VSW -14Tr, which started operation in 1996. In 2002, the city administration purchased 15 new trolleybuses ZiU-682G, and in 2005 bought another 20 new trolleybuses ZiU-682G, and in 2011 - 30 trolleybuses Trolza-5275.05 "Optima", and in 2013 - 20 new trolleybuses ACSM-420.

Bus[edit]

The city has two bus stations: Bus Belgorod, Belgorod- 2 Bus Terminal (located on the forecourt ), as well as bus stop complex Energomash. The Energomash bus station is mainly for commuting buses. From the bus station Belgorod-2 buses go mainly to nearby regional centers, and departure of buses in accordance with the arrival of trains.

Culture and Art[edit]

Theaters[edit]

Museums[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Belgorod is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #248
  2. ^ a b c Law #159
  3. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Белгородстат — Оценка численности населения Белгородской области по муниципальным районам и городским округам
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 39. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Byelgorod". Encyclopædia Britannica 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Belgorod". United Nations. Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  13. ^ Train Station in Belgorod (Russian)
  14. ^ "Wakefield's twin towns". Wakefield City Council. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  15. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Sources[edit]

  • Белгородская областная Дума. Закон №248 от 15 декабря 2008 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Белгородской области», в ред. Закона №213 от 4 июля 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Белгородской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Белгородской области"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования за исключением положений, для которых предусмотрены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Белгородские известия", №219-220, 19 декабря 2008 г. (Belgorod Oblast Duma. Law #248 of December 15, 2008 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Belgorod Oblast, as amended by the Law #213 of July 4, 2013 On Amending the Law of Belgorod Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Belgorod Oblast". Effective as of 10 days after the day of the official publication; except for the portions for which other effective dates are specified.).
  • Белгородская областная Дума. Закон №159 от 20 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №244 от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 12 Закона Белгородской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Белгородские известия", №218–220, 24 декабря 2004 г. (Belgorod Oblast Duma. Law #159 of December 20, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them a Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #244 of December 4, 2013 On Amending Article 12 of the Law of Belgorod Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them a Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

External links[edit]