Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2007)|
The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy, which was inherited from the Roman Empire. At the apex of the pyramid stood the Emperor, sole ruler (autokrator) and divinely ordained, but beneath him a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the administrative machinery of the Byzantine state. In addition, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the Emperor awarded to his subjects or to friendly foreign rulers.
Over the more than 1000 years of the Empire's existence, different titles were adopted and discarded, and many lost or gained prestige. At first the various titles of the Empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire. By the time of Heraclius in the 7th century many of the titles had become obsolete; by the time of Alexius I, many of the positions were either new or drastically changed, but they remained basically the same from Alexius' reign to the fall of the Empire in 1453.
- 1 Background history
- 2 Imperial titles
- 3 Court titles from the 8th to 11th centuries
- 4 Palace offices
- 5 Military offices
- 6 Administrative offices
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
In the early Byzantine period (4th to early 7th century) the system of government followed the model established in late Roman times under Diocletian and Constantine the Great, with a strict separation between civil and military offices and a scale of titles corresponding to office, where membership or not in the Senate was the major distinguishing characteristic. Following the transformation of the Byzantine state during the 7th century on account of massive territorial loss to the Muslim conquests, this system vanished, and during the "classic" or middle period of the Byzantine state (8th-late 11th centuries), a new, court-centered system emerged. In this, the new titles derived from older, now obsolete, public offices, and dignities of a certain level were awarded with each office. A senatorial class remained in place, which incorporated a large part of the upper officialdom as every official from the rank of protospatharios (Literally "first sword-bearer;" originally the head of the Emperor's bodyguards) was considered a member of it. During this period, many families remained important for several centuries, and several Emperors rose from the aristocracy. Two groups can be distinguished: a metropolitan civil nobility and a provincial military one, the latter remaining regionally based and having large land-holdings, but apparently no military forces of their own, in contrast to contemporary Western Europe.
The 10th and 11th centuries saw a rise in importance of the aristocracy, and an increased number of new families entering it. The catastrophic losses in the latter 11th century again prompted a reorganization of the imperial administrative system, at the hands of the new Komnenos dynasty: the older offices and titles fell gradually into disuse, while an array of new honorifics emerged, which signified primarily the closeness of their recipient's familial relationship to the Emperor. The Komnenian-led Empire, and later their Palaiologan successors, were based primarily on the landed aristocracy, keeping the governance of state tightly controlled by a limited number of intermarrying aristocratic families. In the 11th and 12th century for instance, some 80 civil and 64 military noble families have been identified, a very small number for so large a state. Finally, in the Palaiologan system as reported by pseudo-Kodinos one can discern the accumulated nomenclature of centuries, with formerly high ranks having been devalued and others taken their place, and the old distinction between office and dignity had vanished.
These were the highest titles, usually limited to members of the imperial family or to a few very select foreign rulers, whose friendship the Emperor desired.
Titles used by the emperors
- Basileus (βασιλεύς): the Greek word for "sovereign" which originally referred to any king in the Greek-speaking areas of the Roman Empire. It also referred to the Emperors of Persia. Heraclius adopted it to replace the old Latin title of Augustus (Greek form Augoustos) in 629, and it became the Greek word for "emperor." Heraclius also used the titles autokrator (αὑτοκράτωρ — "autocrat," "self-ruler") and kyrios (κύριος — "lord"). The Byzantines reserved the term "basileus" among Christian rulers exclusively for the emperor in Constantinople, and referred to Western European kings as rēgas, a Hellenized form of the Latin word rex ("king"). The feminine form basilissa referred to an empress. Empresses were addressed as eusebestatē avgousta ("Most Pious Augusta"), and were also called kyria ("Lady") or despoina (the female form of "despotes", see below). Primogeniture, or indeed heredity itself, was never legally established in Byzantine imperial succession, because in principle the Roman Emperor was selected by common acclamation of the Senate, the People and the Army. This was rooted firmly in the Roman "republican" tradition, whereby hereditary kingship was rejected and the Emperor was nominally the convergence of several offices of the Republic onto one person. Many emperors, anxious to safeguard their firstborn son's right to the throne, had them crowned as co-emperors when they were still children, thus assuring that upon their own death the throne would not be even momentarily vacant. In such a case the need for an imperial selection never arose. In several cases the new Emperor ascended the throne after marrying the previous Emperor's widow, or indeed after forcing the previous Emperor to abdicate and become a monk. Several emperors were also deposed because of perceived inadequacy, e.g., after a military defeat, and some were murdered.
- Porphyrogennētos (πορφυρογέννητος) — "born in the purple": Emperors wanting to emphasize the legitimacy of their ascent to the throne appended this title to their names, meaning they were born in the delivery room of the imperial palace (called the Porphyra because it was paneled with slabs of purple marble), to a reigning emperor, and were therefore legitimate beyond any claim to the contrary whatsoever.
- Autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ) — "self-ruler": this title was originally equivalent to imperator, and was used by the emperors.
Titles used by the imperial family
- Despotēs (δεσπότης) – "Lord": This title was used by the emperors themselves since the time of Justinian I, and was an honorific address for the sons of reigning emperors. It was extensively featured in coins, in lieu of Basileus. In the 12th century, Manuel I Komnenos made it a separate title, the highest "awarded" title after the emperor. The first such despotēs was actually a foreigner, Bela III of Hungary, signifying that Hungary was considered a Byzantine tributary state. In later times, a despot could be the holder of a despotate; for example, the Despotate of Morea, centred at Mistra, was held by the heir to the Byzantine throne after 1261. The feminine form, despoina, referred to a female despot or the wife of a despot, but it was also used to address the Empress.
- Sebastokratōr (σεβαστοκράτωρ) – "Venerable Ruler": a title created by Alexios I Komnenos as a combination of autokratōr and sebastos (see below). The first sebastokratōr was Alexios' brother Isaakios. It was essentially a meaningless title, which signified only a close relationship with the Emperor, but ranked immediately after the despotēs. The feminine form was sebastokratorissa. The first foreigner to be called sebastokratōr was Stefan Nemanja of Serbia, who was given the title in 1161. A Bulgarian aristocrat by the name Kaloyan also used the title.
- Kaisar (καῖσαρ) – "Caesar": originally, as in the late Roman Empire, it was used for a subordinate co-emperor or the heir apparent, and was first among the "awarded" dignities. The office enjoyed extensive privileges, great prestige and power. When Alexios I created sebastokratōr, kaisar became third in importance, and fourth after Manuel I created despotēs. The feminine form was kaisarissa. It remained however an office of great importance, and was awarded to a few high-ranking and distinguished officials, and was only rarely awarded to foreigners. Justinian II named Tervel, khan of the Bulgars, kaisar in 705; the title then developed into the Slavic term tsar or czar (from Latin through Bulgarian and then into Russian, Serbian etc.). Andronikos II Palaiologos also named Roger de Flor, leader of the Catalan Grand Company, kaisar in 1304.
- Nobelissimos (νωβελίσσιμος) – from the Latin Nobilissimus ("most noble"): originally a title given to close relatives of the Emperor, subordinate only to the kaisar. During the Komnenian period, the title was awarded to officials and foreign dignitaries, diluting its status. The title Prōtonobelissimos was created in its stead, until it too started to decline, only to be replaced by a further augmented form: Prōtonobelissimohypertatos. By the late Palaiologan era, the former had vanished, while the latter was a provincial official.
- Kouropalatēs (κουροπαλάτης) – from the Latin cura palatii, "charge of the palace": First attested in the time of Justinian I, it was the official in charge of the running of the imperial palace. However, the great authority and wealth deriving from this position, as well as the close proximity to the Emperor, meant that it accumulated great prestige. It was awarded to important members of the imperial family, but from the 11th century onwards, it declined, and was usually awarded to the vassal rulers of Armenia and Georgia.
- Sebastos (σεβαστός) – "August One" this title is the literal Greek translation of the Latin term Augustus or Augoustos, was sometimes used by the emperors. As a separate title it appeared in the latter half of the 11th century, and was extensively awarded by Alexios I Komnenos to his brothers and relations. The female version of the title was sebastē. The special title prōtosebastos ("First Venerable One") was created for Hadrianos, Alexios' second brother, and awarded also to the Doge of Venice and the Sultan of Iconium. During the 12th century, it remained in use for the Emperor's and the sebastokratōr's children, and senior foreign dignitaries. However, the parallel processes of proliferation and devaluation of titles during the 12th century resulted in the creation of a bewildering array of often ridiculously large variations, by using the prefixes pan ("all"), hyper ("above"), prōto ("first"): examples include pansebastos, panhypersebastos, or hyperprōtopansebastohypertatos. Few of them actually survived past the 12th century, and all of them rapidly declined in importance.
Court titles from the 8th to 11th centuries
In the 8th–11th centuries, according to information provided by the Taktikon Uspensky, the Klētorologion of Philotheos (899) and the writings of Constantine Porphyrogennetos, below the imperial titles, the Byzantines distinguished two distinct categories of dignities (ἀξίαι): the "dignities by award" (διά βραβείων ἀξίαι), which were purely honorific court titles and were conferred by the award of a symbol of rank, and the "dignities by proclamation" (διά λόγου ἀξίαι), which were offices of the state and were conferred by imperial pronouncement. The former were further divided into three subcategories, depending on who was eligible for them: different sets of titles existed for the "Bearded Ones" (βαρβάτοι from Latin barbati, i.e. not eunuchs), the eunuchs (ἐκτομίαι) and women. State officials usually combined titles from both main categories, so that a high official would be both magistros (an "awarded" title) and logothetēs tou dromou (a "proclaimed" office).
Titles for the "Bearded Ones"
The "by award" titles for the "Bearded Ones" were, in descending order of precedence:
- Proedros (πρόεδρος) – "president": Originally reserved for eunuchs (see below), it was opened up in the mid-11th century to "Bearded Ones" as well, especially military officials.
- Magistros (μάγιστρος) – in the early Byzantine state, the magister officiorum was one of the most senior officials, but as his duties were gradually relegated to other officials, by the 8th century, only the title was left. It remained a high honour, and only rarely awarded until the 10th century. By the early 10th century, there were 12, the first in precedence among them bearing the title of prōtomagistros. Thereafter the number of its holders was inflated, and the office vanished sometime in the 12th century.
- Vestarches (βεστάρχης) – "head of the vestai", adopted in the latter half of the 10th century for high-ranking eunuchs, it was awarded to "bearded" senior military officers and judicial officials of Constantinople from ca. 1050 on. It disappeared in the early 12th century.
- Vestes (βέστης) – senior honorific title, first attested under John I Tzimiskes. Awarded to both eunuchs and non-eunuchs, it survived until the early 12th century. The term is etymologically connected to the vestiarion, the imperial wardrobe, but despite earlier attempts to connect the vestai and the related title of vestarchēs, the head of the class of the vestai (see above), with the officials of the vestiarion (see below), no such relation appears to have existed.
- Anthypatos (ἀνθύπατος) – "proconsul": Originally the highest rank for provincial governors, it survived the creation of the Theme system, until, in the 9th century, it too became a purely honorific title. The variant prōtanthypatos was created in the 11th century to counter its decline in importance, but both disappeared by the end of the 12th century.
- Patrikios (πατρίκιος) – "patrician": Established as the highest title of nobility by Constantine the Great, it remained one of the highest dignities until its disappearance in the Komnenian period, awarded to high-ranking officials, including eunuchs, and foreign rulers. The spouses of patricians bore the title patrikia (not to be confused with zostē patrikia, see below).
- Prōtospatharios (πρωτοσπαθάριος) – "first spatharios". As its name signifies, it originally was the title borne by the leader of the spatharioi ("swordbearers," the Emperor's bodyguards.) For instance, in the 6th century Narses bore this title. It later became one of the most common high court titles, awarded to senior officials such as the logothetai, the commanders of the imperial tagmata or the strategoi in charge of a theme. The title of prōtospatharios also signified admittance to the Senate. The office survived until the Palaiologan period, but had declined to the 35th place of the hierarchy.
- Dishypatos (δισύπατος) – "twice consul". A very rare dignity, which originated possibly in the 8th century.
- Spatharokandidatos (σπαθαροκανδιδάτος) – a portmanteau of the titles spatharios and kandidatos, both of which were types of palace guards in the 4th–6th centuries. The earliest references to the title occur in early 8th century and the title is clearly attested only from the early 9th century on. Its distinctive badge (brabeion) was a golden chain (maniakion) worn around the chest.
- Spatharios (σπαθάριος) – "spatha-bearer": As their name signifies, the spatharioi were initially a special corps of imperial guards (A spatha is a kind of sword.) They performed specific duties inside the imperial palace. The title survived until the early 12th century.
- Hypatos (lang) – "consul": As in the Roman Republic and Empire, the title was initially given each year to two distinguished citizens (the "ordinary consuls"), until Justinian I halted the practice due to the extraordinary expenditure it involved. The title continued to be occasionally assumed by emperors on accession until the end of the 7th century. Honorary consuls however continued to be named, as attested by seals bearing the titles hypatos or apo hypatōn ("former consul"). The title was often conferred to the rulers of south Italian city-states.
- Stratōr (στράτωρ) – "groom"
- Kandidatos (κανδιδάτος) – from the Latin candidatus, so named because of their white tunics. They were originally a select group of guards, drawn from the Scholae Palatinae. The title disappeared in the Komnenian period.
- Basilikos mandatōr (βασιλικός μανδάτωρ) – "imperial messenger"
- Vestētōr (βεστήτωρ), were officers of the imperial wardrobe (Latin vestiarium).
- Silentiarios (σιλεντιάριος), originally a group of courtiers responsible for the maintenance of order (including respectful silence) in the palace.
- Stratēlatēs (στρατηλάτης), a translation of the Latin magister militum, and apoeparchōn (ἀποεπάρχων or ἀπὸ ἐπάρχων), a translation of the Latin ex praefectis. These two titles are listed as equal by Philotheos. Both were still high dignities in the 6th century, but were devalued afterwards.
Titles for the eunuchs
By descending order of precedence, the "by award" titles for the eunuchs were:
- Proedros (πρόεδρος) – "president": This was an entirely new rank introduced in the 960s by Nikephoros II Phokas and first awarded to Basil Lekapenos, the eunuch parakoimōmenos. The holder of this dignity was also the president of the Senate, and the term proedros was often used to denote precedence, e.g. proedros of the notarioi for the prōtonotarios. The title was widely awarded in the 11th century, when it was opened up to non-eunuchs, prompting the creation of the prōtoproedros to distinguish the most senior amongst its holders. It disappeared in the latter 12th century.
- Vestarches (βεστάρχης) – adopted in the latter half of the 10th century for high-ranking eunuchs, it was awarded to "bearded" senior military officers and judicial officials of Constantinople from ca. 1050 on. It disappeared in the early 12th century.
- Patrikios – The same as for the "Bearded Ones".
- Vestes (βέστης) – The same as for the "Bearded Ones".
- Praipositos (πραιπόσιτος) – from the Latin praepositus, "placed before".
- Prōtospatharios – The same as for the "Bearded Ones"
- Primikērios (πριμικήριος) – from the Latin primicerius, "first in the list".
- Ostiarios (ὁστιάριος) – from the Latin ostiarius, "doorkeeper, usher"
- Spatharokoubikoularios (σπαθαροκουβικουλάριος)
- Koubikoularios (κουβικουλάριος) – from the Latin cubicularius, "chamberlain".
- Nipsistiarios (νιψιστιάριος) – from Greek νίπτειν, "to wash hands"), the nipsistiarios was tasked with holding a gold, gem-encrusted water basin and assisting the emperor in performing the ritual ablutions before he exited the imperial palace or performed ceremonies.
There is also a single special title reserved for women, that of zostē patrikia (ζωστὴ πατρικία, "Girded patrikia"). This title was given to the empress' ladies of honour, and, according to Philotheos, ranked very high in hierarchy, above even the magistros and proedros and just below the kouropalates. The title is known from the early 9th century, and disappeared in the 11th century. Otherwise women bore the female forms of their husbands' titles.
- Parakoimomenos – literally, "one who sleeps nearby", was the High Chamberlain who sleeps in the Emperor's bedchamber. Usually a eunuch, during the 9th–10th centuries, the holders of this office often functioned as de facto chief ministers of the Empire.
- Protovestiarios – usually a minor relative of the emperor, who took care of the emperor’s personal wardrobe, especially on military campaigns. He was also sometimes responsible for other members of the imperial household, and the emperor’s personal finances. The older term, from before the time of Justinian I, was curopalata (or kouropalates in Greek). This was derived from kourator (curator), an earlier official responsible for financial matters. The vestiarios was a subordinate official. The protovestiaria and vestiaria performed the same functions for the empress.
- Papias – great concierge of the imperial palaces, responsible for the opening and closing of the palace gates each day.
- Pinkernes – originally the emperor's cupbearer, later a senior honorific title.
- Kanikleios – the keeper of the imperial inkstand, one of the senior officials of the imperial chancery. In the Komnenian and Palaiologan period, some of its holders were de facto chief ministers of the Empire.
- Epi tes trapezes – Greek: ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης, "the one in charge of the table," official responsible for attending to the imperial table during banquets.
- Exarchos – The exarchs were governors of remote parts of the empire such as Italy or Africa. They enjoyed a greater degree of independence than other provincial governors, combining both civil and military authority, practically acting as viceroys.
- Domestikos – the domestikoi were originally imperial guards, who later functioned as senior staff officers in the Late Roman army. In the Byzantine period, they were among the highest military offices, and included:
- Megas domestikos (Grand Domestic) – the overall commander of the army.
- Domestikos tōn scholōn (Domestic of the Schools) – the commander of the Scholai, originally a number of guards units, later a Tagma. This was a very prestigious title, and by the late 9th century, its holder functioned as commander in chief of the army. In ca. 959, the post was divided, with one domestic for the East and one for the West.
- Domestikos tou thematos (Domestic of the Themes) – the commander and organizer of the military themes; there was one for the European themes and one for Asian themes.
- Katepanō – The governor of a greater area combining two or more themes, such as the Catepan of Italy, a title developed in the 9th century.
- Stratēgos – a military and later also civil commander of a theme, who often also had the title of doux. The term is basically equivalent to "general" or "admiral", as it was used in both branches of service.
- Tourmarchēs – the commander of a tourma, a military unit of battalion size.
- Prōtostratōr – initially the Emperor's stable master, under the Komnenian and Palaiologan emperors the term was used for the second-ranking commander of the army.
- Stratopedarchēs (Master of the Camp) – This official was in charge of making sure the army was stocked with food and arms.
- Hoplitarchēs or archēgētēs – commander of all infantry in a large army, the title first appears in the mid-10th century, when the infantry is reorganized and gains in importance.
- Prōtokentarchos and kentarchos – commanders of a smaller division of the army in the field. The name was derived from the Latin centurion.
- Merarchēs – commander of a division (meros) of the army. Usually, each army was divided into two to three such commands.
- Taxiarchēs or chiliarchēs – commander of an infantry regiment (taxiarchia or chiliarchia) in the army.
- Kavallarios – A title borrowed from the Latin caballarius, it originally meant a cavalry soldier. During the Palaiologan period, it became a minor court title.
- Megas doux – The Megaduke or Grand Duke, was the basic equivalent of the modern Lord High Admiral. The office was created by Alexios I Komnenos, when he amalgamated the remnants of the imperial and thematic fleets into a single imperial fleet. By the end of the Palaiologos dynasty the megaduke was head of the government and bureaucracy, not just the navy.
- Amirales – The Greek version of "Admiral", introduced via Sicilian practice. An office founded in the late Palaiologan era for Western mercenary leaders and rarely held, the amirales was the deputy of the megas doux.
- Megas droungarios – Initially the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy, after the creation of the megas doux his lieutenant, in charge of the naval officers.
- Droungarios – The title existed both in the army and the navy. In the navy of the 8th–11th centuries, a droungarios headed a fleet, either the central imperial fleet or one of the thematic fleets; in the army he headed a Droungos, roughly a battalion-sized grouping.
- Komēs or droungarokomēs – The commander of a squadron of dromons.
- Kentarchos or nauarchos – the captain of a ship.
Other military titles
- Ethnarchēs – the ethnarch, commander of foreign troops.
- Konostaulos – Greek form of Latin Comes stabuli 'count of the stable' and various European feudal titles such as English "constable" – the chief of the Frankish mercenaries.
- Hetaireiarchēs – the chief of the barbarian mercenaries, the Hetaireia, successor to the Foederati. Initially subdivided into Greater (Megalē), Middle (Mesē) and Little (Mikra) Hetaireia.
- Akolouthos – "Acolyte," the chief of the Varangian Guard from the Komnenian era onwards.
- Manglavitai – A category of palace guards, armed with sword and cudgel (manglavion). Under the command of a Prōtomanglavitēs.
- Topotērētēs – meaning "place-holder", "lieutenant". Found at various levels of the hierarchy, as deputies to commanders of the imperial tagmata, deputy to a drungarios.
The vast Byzantine bureaucracy had many titles, and varied more than aristocratic and military titles. In Constantinople there were normally hundreds, if not thousands, of bureaucrats at any time. Like the Church and the military, they wore elaborately differentiated dress, often including huge hats. These are some of the more common ones, including non-nobles who also directly served the emperor.
- Praetorian prefect – The Praetorian prefect was originally an old Roman office used for the commander of the army in the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. It was abolished in the 7th century owing to wide reaching civil and military reforms. The title evolved into the domestikos. After Diocletian's reforms, the functions of the Prefect embraced a wide sphere; they were administrative, financial, judicial, and even legislative. The provincial governors were appointed at his recommendation, and with him rested their dismissal, subject to the Emperor's approval. He received regular reports of the administration from the governors of the provinces. He had treasuries of his own, and the payment and the food supplies of the army devolved upon him. He was also a supreme judge of appeal; in cases which were brought before his court from a lower tribunal there was no further appeal to the Emperor. He could issue, on his own authority, praetorian edicts, but they concerned only matters of detail.
- Basileopatōr (βασιλεοπάτωρ)– "Father of the Emperor": an exceptional title, granted only twice in Byzantine history. Although a basileopatōr was not the emperor's actual father, and the title did not necessarily denote any familial relationship at all, both awardees were father-in-laws to the emperor: Stylianos Zaoutzes under Leo VI the Wise and Romanos I Lekapenos briefly as regent for Constantine VII, before he raised himself to co-emperor. It ranked first among the "decreed" offices, and entailed wide-ranging administrative duties.
- Protasekretis – "First Secretary" an earlier title for the head of the chancery, responsible for keeping official government records. The asekretis was a subordinate. Other subordinates included the chartoularios (in charge of imperial documents), the kastrensios (a chamberlain in the palace), the mystikos (a private secretary), and the eidikos (a treasury official).
- Logothetes – "one who accounts, calculates or ratiocinates", literally "one who sets the word;" a secretary in the extensive bureaucracy, who did various jobs depending on the exact position. Logothetes were some of the most important bureaucrats. They included:
- Megas logothetes (Grand Logothete) – the head of the logothetes, personally responsible for the legal system and treasury, somewhat like a chancellor in western Europe.
- Logothetes tou dromou (Drome Logothete) – the head of diplomacy and the postal service.
- Logothetes ton oikeiakon (Logothete of the oikeiakoi)
- Logothetes tou genikou (General Logothete) – responsible for taxation. Also acts as a secretary in later cases.
- Logothetes tou stratiotikou (Military Logothete) – a civilian, in charge of distributing pay to the army.
- Chartoularios tou vestiariou Literally "keeper of documents for the Public Wardrobe" (see Vestiarion); responsible for minting gold and silver coins and equipping the fleet.
Logothetes originally had some influence on the emperor, but they eventually became honorary posts. In the later empire the Grand Logothete was replaced by the mesazōn ("mediator").
Other administrators included:
- Eparch of Constantinople – Governor of the urban prefect of Constantinople.
- Quaestor – Originally an accountant or auditor, the office eventually became a judicial one for Constantinople.
- Tribounos – translation of Latin tribune; responsible for maintenance of roads, monuments, and buildings in Constantinople (which were the responsibility of the Aedile, not the Tribunes in earlier Latin speaking times.)
- Magister (magister officiorum, magister militum, "maistor" in Greek) – an old Roman term, master of offices and master of the army; by the time of Leo III, these had become honorary titles and were eventually discarded.
- Sakellarios – "Treasurer; purse-bearer." Under Heraclius, an honorary supervisor of the other palace administrators, logothetes, etc. Later, the chief financial comptroller of the Empire.
- Praetor – Latin for "Man who goes before; first man." One of the oldest of Roman titles, predating the Roman Republic, the title's use morphed considerably through the years. By the time of Theodosius I (379-395) it meant the leading municipal magistrate (like a modern Mayor) but from late 10th century until 1204, a civil governor of a theme.
- Kephale – "head", the governor of a small province, usually a town and its surrounding territory, in the Palaiologan period
- Horeiarios – in charge of distributing food from the state granaries.
The protasekretis, logothetes, prefect, praetor, quaestor, magister, and sakellarios, among others, were members of the senate.
At the peaceful height of Middle Byzantium, court life "passed in a sort of ballet", with precise ceremonies prescribed for every occasion, to show that "Imperial power could be exercised in harmony and order", and "the Empire could thus reflect the motion of the Universe as it was made by the Creator", according to the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who wrote a Book of Ceremonies describing in enormous detail the annual round of the Court. Special forms of dress for many classes of people on particular occasions are set down; at the name-day dinner for the Emperor or Empress various groups of high officials performed ceremonial "dances", one group wearing " a blue and white garment, with short sleeves, and gold bands, and rings on their ankles. In their hands they hold what are called phengia". The second group do just the same, but wearing "a garment of green and red, split, with gold bands". These colours were the marks of the old chariot-racing factions, the four now merged to just the Blues and the Greens, and incorporated into the official hierarchy. As in the Versailles of Louis XIV, elaborate dress and court ritual probably were at least partly an attempt to smother and distract from political tensions.
However, even by the time of Anna Comnena, with the Emperor away on military campaigns for much of the time, this way of life had changed considerably, and after the Crusader occupation it virtually vanished. A French visitor[who?] was shocked to see the Empress going to church far less well attended than the Queen of France would have been. The Imperial family largely abandoned the Great Palace for the relatively compact Palace of Blachernae.
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 623
- Robin Cormack, "Writing in Gold, Byzantine Society and its Icons", 1985, George Philip, London, p180, using Kazhdan A.P. , 1974 (in Russian) ISBN 0-540-01085-5
- Spatharakis, Iohannis (1976). The portrait in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts. Brill Archive. p. 110. ISBN 978-90-04-04783-9.
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 1727
- Bury (1911), p. 21
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 1267
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 2162
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 1600
- Bury (1911), p. 27
- Bury (1911), p. 26
- Bury (1911), p. 25
- Bury (1911), pp. 21, 23–24
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 2231
- Mark C. Bartusis, "The Kavallarioi of Byzantium" in Speculum, Vol. 63, No. 2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 343–350
- Bury (1911), p. 32
- Steven Runciman, Byzantine Style and Civilization, 1975, Penguin
- Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society 1204–1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2.
- (French) Bréhier, Louis (2000) . Les institutions de l'empire byzantin. Paris: Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-04722-9.
- Bury, John B. (1911). The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century – With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. Oxford University Publishing.
- Angold, Michael (1984). The Byzantine Aristocracy: IX to XIII Centuries. BAR International Series. ISBN 0-86054-283-1.
- (French) Guilland, Rodolphe (1967). Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tomes I & II. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag
- (French) Guilland, Rodolphe (1971). "Les Logothètes: Etudes sur l'histoire administrative de l'Empire byzantin". Revue des études byzantines 29: 5–115. doi:10.3406/rebyz.1971.1441. Retrieved 28 May 2011
- Haldon, John F. (1997). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31917-1.
- Haldon, John F. (1999). Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565–1204. London: UCL Press. ISBN 1-85728-495-X.
- Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
- Kelly, Christopher (2004). Ruling the later Roman Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01564-7.
- (French) Oikonomides, Nicolas (1972). Les listes de préséance byzantines des IXe et Xe siècles. Paris: Éditions CNRS.
- (French) Oikonomides, Nicolas (1985). "La chancellerie impériale de Byzance du 13e au 15e siècle". Revue des études byzantines 43: 167–195. doi:10.3406/rebyz.1985.2171. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6.