Cúcuta

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For the Romanian village of Cucuta, see Ceru-Băcăinți.
San José de Cúcuta
Municipality of Colombia
Panorama of Cúcuta
Panorama of Cúcuta
Flag of San José de Cúcuta
Flag
Official seal of San José de Cúcuta
Seal
Nickname(s): La perla del norte (the north pearl)
Motto: More progress!
Cúcuta in Department of Norte de Santander . Urban in red, municipality in dark gray
Cúcuta in Department of Norte de Santander . Urban in red, municipality in dark gray
San José de Cúcuta is located in Colombia
San José de Cúcuta
San José de Cúcuta
Location in Colombia
Coordinates: 7°53′39″N 72°30′14″W / 7.89417°N 72.50389°W / 7.89417; -72.50389Coordinates: 7°53′39″N 72°30′14″W / 7.89417°N 72.50389°W / 7.89417; -72.50389
Country  Colombia
Department Norte de Santander
Foundation June 17th, 1733[1]
Government
 • Mayor Donamaris Ramírez-Paris Lobo
Area
 • Municipality of Colombia 1,176 km2 (454 sq mi)
 • Water 0 km2 (0 sq mi)
Elevation 320 m (1,050 ft)
Population (2005-2006 Census)[2]
 • Municipality of Colombia 637 000
 • Metro 833 816
Time zone Eastern Time Zone (UTC-05)
Postal code 540000-19
Area code(s) 57 + 7
Website Official website (Spanish)

Cúcuta (Spanish: [ˈku.ku.ta] ( )) is a Colombian city, capital of Norte de Santander, in the northeast of the country. The full name is San José de Cúcuta. Due to its proximity to the Colombia-Venezuela border, Cúcuta is an important commercial center. The city had the constitutional category of Special District.[3] It is located at the most active international border in South America[4] and is connected by roads with Bogota, Caracas and Cartagena. Its air terminal, the Camilo Daza International Airport.

According to the 2005/2020 census it has a population of approx. 637,000, which ranks it as the 6th largest city in the country. The Metropolitan Area of Cúcuta (conformed by other six municipalities) has a population of 833,816 habitants, having the same position in the conurbations. For several years it has had the lowest unemployment rate in the country, which nowadays is 8.6%.[5][6]

It is situated in the Cordillera Oriental in the Andes and is connected with Venezuela through the Pan-American Highway. Its area (including rurality) of 1,176 square kilometres (454 sq mi) represents 5.65% of the department. Its altitude is 320 metres (1,050 feet) above sea level, with an average temperature 28 °C (82 °F) and annual average precipitation of 1,041 mm (40.98 in).

The city is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Puerto Santander, to the south by Villa del Rosario, Bochalema, and Los Patios, to the north by Tibú, and to the west by El Zulia and San Cayetano.[7][8]

Etymology[edit]

The city of Cúcuta was called San José de Guasimales from 1733 to 1793,[9] the year in which the name changed to San José de Cúcuta—"San José" (Saint Joseph) denotes the Virgin Mary's husband, and "Cúcuta" means "The House of Goblins", from the language of the Barí indigenous group.[10]

In the city's seal, a legend states, Muy Noble, Valerosa y Leal Villa de San José de Cúcuta ("Very Noble, Valiant and Loyal Village of San José of Cúcuta").[11]

The city has the nicknames "City Without Borders", "Gem of the North," and "City Forest.".[12]

History[edit]

Cúcuta was originally a pre-hispanic settlement. It was entrusted to Sebastian Lorenzo by Pedro de Ursua as an encomienda in 1550. Juana Rangel de Cuellar founded Cúcuta on June 17, 1733, and donated a further 782 hectares (1,930 acres). The village, centred on a church, grew considerably due to its strategic commercial location, and eventually became a city.[13]

Several important events that forged Colombia as an independent republic took place in the city: one of these events was the Congress of 1821, where the Constitution of Cúcuta was written and approved. This constitution created the Greater Colombia, a nation conformed by the present-day territories of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. The city preserves places where these historical events took place: the Historical Church of Cúcuta, the House of Santander, and the Park of the Great Colombia.

As the site of the Battle of Cúcuta (February 28, 1813) the city was the beginning of the Admirable Campaign led by Simón Bolívar. This campaign resulted in the independence of Venezuela.

16th Century: First European incursions[edit]

The first European in the North Santander territories was the German conqueror Ambrosio Alfinger, who in 1530 came from Santa Ana de Coro (Venezuela) with a troop of adventurers and invaded the unexplored eastern region of the newly created Gobernation of Santa Marta.

Alfínger, in search of El Dorado, arrived in an area of indigenous settlements called Tamalameque along the Magdalena River, fighting and defeating several tribes. Alfinger was eventually killed in the outskirts of present-day Chinácota in a battle with Chimilas and Chitareros Indians. With Alfínger dead, Fedro St. Martin took command of the troops and returned to Coro, passing through the territory of Cúcuta.

Cúcuta. 19th Century

The 1541 Hernan Perez de Quesada, reached the territory of Chinácota, but had to turn back the same year due to the resistance of indigenous people. Shortly thereafter, Alfonso Perez de Tolosa, left El Tocuyo (Venezuela) and went to Salazar de Las Palmas, through Cúcuta, but also had to turn back after losing a lot of soldiers in clashes with the natives.

In 1549 Spanish troops, commanded by Pedro de Ursúa and Ortún Velasco, invaded North Santander and reached the valleys of Pamplona. In tribute to the Spanish city of Pamplona, the Spaniards founded the city of Pamplona. The new town soon attracted numerous people because of its agreeable climate and gold mines that were discovered in the region. From this town came further expeditions which completed the conquest of the current territory of North Santander.

An expedition commanded by Diego de Montes founded the town of Salazar, but it was soon destroyed by the Cacique Cínera. In 1583 the town was rebuilt by Alonso Esteban Rangel (great-grandfather of the founder of Cúcuta) on a site more appropriate for its defense in the event of new attacks by the natives.

The second expedition commanded by captain Francisco Fernández de Contreras reached to the lands of the Hacaritamas indigenous group and on July 26, 1572 founded the city of Ocaña, calling it "Santa Ana de Hacarí", while some of his colleagues the named it New Madrid, and others Santa Ana of Ocaña. The next year, Antonio Orozco, subaltern of Fernandez, founded the town of Teorama, while the Friars Augustinians founded a convent in what is today the city of Chinácota.

17th Century: Foundation[edit]

"A journey through the city centre where the Cathedral of St. Joseph, the Palace of Government and the Monument to the column of Bolivar are located is returning to the historical roots of our ancestors.".

El Espectador

In the early 16th century a great part of the valleys of Cúcuta belonged to Captain Christopher de Araque Ponce de Leon. The land passed through inheritance to his son Fernando Araque Ponce de Leon, who was owner of the entire territory from the Valley of Cúcuta to the village of San Jose; jurisdiction of the city of San Faustino. These fields had been donated to the master Araque by the Governor of the Province of New Mérida heading on September 9, 1630.

The constant hostility of the Motilones indigenous group with the whites who lived in the valley and their economic ambitions were key factors to request the erection of a parish with the name "San José". Juana Rangel de Cuéllar donated 782 hectares (1,930 acres) on June 17, 1783 for the construction of a church and land for Spanish families. Today this area is the neighbourhood of San Luis.

19th Century: Major events[edit]

Battle of Cúcuta[edit]

Monument to the Battle of Cúcuta. March, 2007
Historic Temple of Cúcuta.

The Battle of Cúcuta was one of the most important events of the Spanish American wars of independence, due to its role in the independence of Colombia and Venezuela. This battle was the beginning of the Admirable Campaign of Simón Bolívar.[14][14] On February 28, 1813, Bolivar captured the city after a battle that lasted from 9:00 a.m. until early afternoon. About 400 men led by Bolivar fought 800 troops led by the Spanish general Ramon Correa. Bolivar's forces reported losses of two killed and 14 injured; whilst the royalists are said to have suffered 20 killed and 40 injured.[15] The victory freed the city of Cúcuta and led to the Admirable Campaign.[16]

Colonel Simón Bolívar then launched a major offensive against the Spanish forces who were on the east bank of the Magdalena River and quickly achieved resounding victories that carried him to undertake a journey to liberate the Valleys of Cúcuta held by the command of royalist Colonel Ramon Correa.

Congress of Cúcuta[edit]

On August 30, 1821 the Congress of Cúcuta took place at the town of Villa del Rosario (today part of Cúcuta) in the church known today as the "Historic Temple of Cúcuta". The congress was established by Antonio Nariño and participants included Francisco de Paula Santander, Simón Bolívar, and other leaders of Spanish America's struggle for independence from Spain.

The main objective of this congress was to unify the nations of the New Granada (Colombia and Panama) and Venezuela and thus create a huge state to be known as the Republic of Colombia (Gran Colombia). Ecuador subsequently joined Gran Colombia.

At 11 am on October 3, 1821,Simón Bolívar entered the meeting room in the sacristy of the church. He took a seat next to the president of Congress and was sworn in as president of the fledgling Republic of Colombia.

Earthquake of Cúcuta[edit]

On 18 May 1875, Cúcuta was largely destroyed by the earthquake of Cúcuta, also known as the "Earthquake of the Andes". The earthquake occurred at 11:15 a.m.; it destroyed Villa del Rosario, San Antonio del Tachira and Capacho, seriously damaged the Venezuelan settlements of San Cristóbal, La Mulata, Rubio, Michelena, La Grita and Colón (among others), and was felt in Bogotá and Caracas.

Industrial Revolution[edit]

Railroad of Cúcuta – 1910

In the 19th century, the construction of a railroad set off an Industrial Revolution in the city. The railroad had four branches: North, East, South and West.[17] The North branch was constructed from 1878 to 1888, and connected Cúcuta with Puerto Santander and Venezuela. Construction of the Eastern and Southern branches began in 1878; the South branch linked with Pamplona, Colombia, and ended in El Diamante. The West branch was not built owing to economic problems. The railroad company fell into bankruptcy and was closed in 1960.[18]

Many of the city's historic buildings lie within the Park of Greater Colombia, including the House of Santander, the historic church, and the historic tamarind. All these are well preserved.[19]

Geography, climate and layout[edit]

Geography[edit]

The city is in the eastern part of the Department of North Santander, in the Cordillera Oriental, close to the border with Venezuela. The city's area is 110 square kilometres (42 sq mi), The elevation is 320 metres (1,050 ft) above sea-level.

Rivers in Cúcuta and Norte de Santander include the Pamplonita River, Guaramito River, San Miguel River and Zulia River.[20]

The Pamplonita River crosses the Norte de Santander Department.

Zones

(Comunas)

Small towns

(Corregimientos)

Settlements

(Caseríos)

  • #1, Centro
  • #2, Centro Oriental
  • #3, Sur Oriental
  • #4, Oriental
  • #5, Nororiental
  • #6, Norte
  • #7, Noroccidental
  • #8, Occidental
  • #9, Suroccidental
  • #10, Cementerio
  • Aguaclara
  • Banco de Arena
  • La Buena Esperanza
  • El Soldado
  • Puerto Villamizar
  • Ricaurte
  • San Faustino
  • San Pedro
  • Guaramito
  • El Palmarito.
  • Arrayanes
  • Boconó
  • Alto Viento
  • El Carmen
  • El Pórtico
  • El Rodeo
  • La jarra
  • Puerto León
  • Puerto Nuevo.
Maps of Cúcuta
Imagen Satelital de Cucuta.jpg Cucuta-detailed.png
Satellite map Urban map

Climate[edit]

Cúcuta has a tropical savanna climate. The mean temperature is 27.6 °C; high temperatures are around 38 °C. There is a sharp contrast between the wet season and the dry season. The driest months are December, January, February and March; the wettest are April, May, September, October and November. June and July usually have significant precipitation, whereas August is sunny and windy. The annual precipitation is around 1,041 mm (40.98 in).

Climate data for Cucuta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.0
(96.8)
38.5
(101.3)
38.0
(100.4)
38.2
(100.8)
37.0
(98.6)
37.0
(98.6)
37.5
(99.5)
37.8
(100)
37.7
(99.9)
36.6
(97.9)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 30.3
(86.5)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
32.5
(90.5)
32.5
(90.5)
32.6
(90.7)
33.5
(92.3)
33.6
(92.5)
32.3
(90.1)
30.9
(87.6)
29.7
(85.5)
31.75
(89.14)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.7
(78.3)
26.2
(79.2)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.8
(82)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.6)
27.1
(80.8)
26.3
(79.3)
25.4
(77.7)
26.99
(80.59)
Average low °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
21.5
(70.7)
22.1
(71.8)
22.6
(72.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72)
21.4
(70.5)
22.54
(72.58)
Record low °C (°F) 16.6
(61.9)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.8
(65.8)
19.0
(66.2)
17.4
(63.3)
19.0
(66.2)
18.8
(65.8)
18.6
(65.5)
18.8
(65.8)
18.0
(64.4)
16.8
(62.2)
16
(60.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 36.1
(1.421)
34.9
(1.374)
66.9
(2.634)
101.3
(3.988)
81.9
(3.224)
39.6
(1.559)
37.8
(1.488)
40.9
(1.61)
84.1
(3.311)
147.7
(5.815)
119.8
(4.717)
72.3
(2.846)
863.3
(33.987)
Avg. precipitation days 7 7 9 10 12 13 14 12 13 15 13 9 134
 % humidity 75 73 74 75 71 63 62 62 65 73 78 79 70.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 208.2 170.2 159.9 141.0 179.6 171.7 199.7 210.7 198.3 192.6 190.0 191.3 2,213.2
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales [21]

Layout[edit]

Cúcuta's streets are organized in a grid layout adopted from Spain in colonial times. Calles (streets) traverse from east to west, perpendicular to the hills, and numbering increases to the north and to the south from Calle 1. Avenidas (avenues) traverse from south to north, parallel to the hills, and numbering increases both east to west, and west to east from a central avenida numbered 0 (Avenida Cero, one of the city's most important avenues). From west to east, avenues are numbered with an E added to their number, as to denote East (este) .

More than 300 neighborhoods form the urban network. Poorer neighborhoods are in the north, north-west and south-west, many of them squatter areas. The middle class lives mostly in the central and east areas.

Symbols[edit]

Flag[edit]

The red and black North Santander Department flag was exhibited for the first time in 1928, when the first National Olympics were held in Cali. However, the flag of Cúcuta[22] was not legalized until Mayor Carlos A. Rangel issued Decree 106 on May 3, 1988.

Seal[edit]

The shield of Cúcuta[22] was adopted in 1958 by Decree 032 on February 3, 1958, after a request by the History Academy of North Santander. The shield is a classic shape, and carries the title conferred to the city by Royal Decree of the Emperor Carlos IV: Very noble, valiant and loyal Village of San José of Cúcuta.

The upper part depicts the weapons of the city's founder Juana Rangel of Cuéllar, who donated lands for the foundation of the city on June 17, 1733. They are five silver and red fleur-de-lis in the shape of reels, on a golden background.

The lower part of the shield displays the weapons that the National Congress adopted for Colombia by the Law of October 6, 1821, at its meeting in the Villa del Rosario. In the center are a quiver of spears, marked with X's, and a set of bow and arrows, tied with tricolor tape. The spears represent attributes of the Roman consuls; the X is a symbol of the right of life or death; the bow and arrows are symbols of the Hispanic Indu race.

Anthem[edit]

The Anthem of Cúcuta[22] was legalized by means of Decree 039 of February 8, 1984, by Mayor Luis Vicente Mountain Forest. The lyrics were written by Father Manuel Grillo Martínez, and the music by the master Pablo Tarazona Prada. It was chosen as the Anthem of Cúcuta by a unanimous vote in a contest held in the Theater Zulima.

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

The metropolitan area, which includes the municipalities of Villa del Rosario, Los Patios, El Zulia, San Cayetano and Puerto Santander, has a combined population of more than 830,000 people. It is the largest metropolitan area in eastern Colombia and sixth in Colombia behind Barranquilla and Cartagena.

Population of Cúcuta
Población de Cúcuta.JPG Colombia-Andes-es.JPG
Population of Cúcuta 1964–2006 Población of main cities of the Andes

People[edit]

Many notable Colombians are from Cúcuta:

Government[edit]

Main article: Government of Cúcuta

As of 2006, the mayor of Cúcuta is Ramiro Suárez Corzo, who has occupied the position since January 2004 (elected by a majority of 62.06%). He represents the movement Colombia Viva.

Cúcuta is the capital of Norte de Santander Department, and houses the Department Hall and the City Hall of the Metropolitan Area of Cúcuta along with the Francisco de Paula Santander Justice Palace. The Principal Mayor and Urban Council, both elected by popular vote, are responsible for city administration.

The city divided into 10 localities (comunas). The Metropolitan Area of Cúcuta is formed by Cúcuta (as the main city), Villa del Rosario, Los Patios, San Cayetano, El Zulia and Puerto Santander.

Politics in Cúcuta are not defined by a single political movement. Past rivals included the Partido Liberal Colombiano and the Colombian Conservative Party. Today the political landscape is shared by many political parties, none commanding majority support.

Economy[edit]

Photo of Cucuta (2006).
Housing construction in 2010. The entire city is experiencing a great development.
Rivers Building Towers. April 2011.

The city is notable for bilateral trade and manufacturing. Its location on the border between Colombia and Venezuela has allowed that there are strong links with the Venezuelan city of San Cristóbal, Táchira.[24]

Its Free Zone [25] is the most active of all the country and one of the most active of all Latin America, largely due to Venezuela being Colombia's second largest trade partner.[citation needed]

The most developed industries are: milk of construction and the textile is shoes and leather. It is a producer of cement of the first order and the industry clay and stoneware has the best reputation nationally for its high quality. The mining of coal also plays an important rol in the local economy. The University Francisco de Paula Santander of Cucuta, the National University of Colombia of Bogotá, and the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia in Tunja, are the only ones that provide the career of Mining Engineering in the country.

The Colombian peso is the official currency and hence is officially in circulation, however, because of its proximity to Venezuela, the bolivar is accepted by the vast majority of commercial establishments.

US–Colombia Free Trade Agreement implications for Cúcuta[edit]

Colombia signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States amidst opposition by Venezuela. Despite this opposition, industries from Venezuela are constructing their infrastructure in Cúcuta to export their products to the United States, registering their products as if they were Colombian, a strategy that would allow them to export without paying certain tariffs. For that reason, Cúcuta is expected to become an industrial city.[26]

Colombian law provides tax exemptions for Venezuelan imports through the Zona Franca, which, coupled with the motorway links between Cúcuta and Maracaibo, increases the possibility of exports from Maracaibo into Colombia.[27]

Telecommunications[edit]

The city's telecommunications services include payphones, WiMAX wireless networks,[28] and mobile phone networks (GSM, CDMA and TDMA).

Telecom Colombia offers the service of local, national and international telephone and broadband ADSL Internet. There are three mobile telephone operators: Comcel, Movistar and Tigo.

Transport[edit]

Avenida Libertadores.

For travel outside the city, there is a bus station called "Terminal de Transportes" (to be replaced by a new one), the Camilo Daza International Airport (Colombia) and the San Antonio Airport (Venezuela). Eighty years ago the city had the "Railroad of Cúcuta", which connected with Venezuela.

The main urban transport are the bus (or collective) and taxicab s. In addition, National Planning has a project to build a mass transit system, under the name of Metrobus.

The highway to Bucaramanga (renovated in January 2007)[29] connects Cúcuta with Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. The highway to Ocaña connects the city with Barranquilla, Cartagena and Santa Marta; the highway to San Cristóbal with Caracas.

Bridges[edit]

Carlos Ramírez París Bridge, one of the most modern bridges in the city.
Simon Bolivar International Bridge, is a major step in Colombia and Venezuela and a part of this binational metropolitan conurbation.

The city has many bridges:

  • San Rafael Bridge – official name is "Benito Hernández Bustos".
  • Francisco de Paula Andrade Troconis Bridge – the prolongation of the Av. 0, connecting the city with the municipality of Los Patios.
  • Elías M. Soto Bridge – rebuilt and extended to 6 rails.
  • San Luís Bridge – imported from England.
  • Rafael García Herreros Bridge – part of the East Anillo Vial.

Six overpasses are under construction.

Health[edit]

El Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, main medical center of the city.

Law 100 of 1993 is the governing Health in Colombia, which is regulated by the Ministry of Social Protection. In Cucuta and North Santander, health is administered by the Municipal Institute of Health (IMSALUD) and the local Department of Health, respectively. Entities such as the Colombian Red Cross, the Colombian Civil Defense (emergencies, calamities and natural disasters) and the Colombian Family Welfare Institute familiar (ICBF), are part of the social protection system.

The city has the following public health institutions (or State Social Enterprises, ESE) ESE Erasmus University Hospital Meoz, the E.S.E. Francisco de Paula Santander[30] (Clinical Social Security), the E.S.E. CardioNeuroPulmonar Rehabilitation Center, the ESE Hospital of Los Patios and E.S.E. Hospital of Villa del Rosario. In private health centers highlights San Jose Clinic, North Clinic, Clinica Santa Ana, Lions Clinic, The Samaritan Clinic and Profamilia (sexual and reproductive health).

The aforementioned entities are part of the network of institutions providing services to health attached to the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Municipal Health Department. The Erasmus Hospital Meoz holds fourth-level scale and specializes in performing highly complex surgeries, such as transplant s and reimplantation s. Additionally, it offers healthcare puentos distributed in the different districts of the city, which pays attention to varying degrees of complexity. The city has a large number of health promoting entities (SPE's) as Colsanitas, SaludCoop, Cafesalud, etc.

Education[edit]

The basic education and the high school education are in Colombian "Calendar A" for schools (from February to November).

Schools[edit]

  • Colegio El Carmen Teresiano
  • Colegio Santa Teresa
  • Colegio Calasanz Cúcuta.
  • Colegio Sagrado Corazón de Jesús
  • Colegio Instituto Técnico Nacional de Comercio
  • Colegio Salesiano
  • Colegio La Salle
  • Colegio Comfaoriente
  • Colegio Santo Angel de la Guarda
  • Colegio Gimnasio Los Almendros
  • Colegio Gimnasio Domingo Savio
  • Colegio Cardenal Sancha
  • Colegio Instituto Tecnico Mercedes Abrego
  • Instituto Bilingüe Londres
  • Colegio Andino Bilingüe
  • Colegio Integrado Juan Atalaya

Universities[edit]

State Universities

Private Universities

  • Universidad Libre de Colombia
  • Universidad de Santander
  • Universidad Antonio Nariño
  • Universidad Simón Bolivar

Sports[edit]

The Colombian Football Federation announced that Cúcuta will be one of the venue cities to host the 2016 FIFA Futsal World Cup[31] an event that is celebrated every four years.

Recent development[edit]

The city has recently undergone development at an historically unprecedented rate. This has included construction of six overpasses, a convention center, a new bus terminal, a new Integrated Massive Transportation System called Metrobus, modernization of state owned schools, renewal of downtown, and doubling the capacity of the General Santander Stadium.

New industries are expected to come from Venezuela, which will place their factories in Cúcuta to export through the Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement between Colombia and the United States.[32]

Distances to other cities[edit]

Landscape[edit]

Monuments[edit]

The main monuments in the city are:

Parks[edit]

The main parks in the city are:

  • Santander Park (in Spanish, Parque Santander), the main park of the city located in front of the city hall.
  • Colón Park (in Spanish, Parkque Colón), constructed in honor of Cristobal Columbus (in Spanish, Cristobal Colón).
  • Simón Bolivar Park (in Spanish, Parque Simón Bolivar), constructed in honor of Simón Bolivar and donated by the Consulate of Venezuela in Cúcuta.

Greenery[edit]

From its founding, residents have valued Cúcuta's trees.

Cúcuta has more green zones than many other cities in Colombia. Some consider it an urban lung, due to its many trees and lack of pollution. The greenery is thanks to gifts by prominent Cucuteños, and the legion of foreigners who reconstructed the city after the 1875 earthquake, led by engineer Francisco de Paula Andrade Troconis. The first planted trees were clemones. Soon they were replaced by acacias, peracos and almond trees that adorned the parks and roadsides. An example of this city design is the Avenue of the Lights (based on oití, ficus and cují), that forms a natural tunnel admired in the rest of the country and by tourists.

Palm trees are common in places such as Santander Park, Great Colombian Park, the Bank of the Republic and the Department Hall of Norte de Santander.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cities and towns foundations". Luis Ángel Arango Library. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  2. ^ http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/poblacion/series_proyecciones/Dptos/norte_sant.xls
  3. ^ "Constitution of 1991 - Legislative Act N° 2 - July 6, 2007" (PDF). Presidency of the Republic of Colombia. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  4. ^ "Characterizing the Colombo-Venezuelan border". Andean Community of Nations. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  5. ^ "En 0,2% aumentó desempleo en Colombia en septiembre, respecto a hace un año.". Portafolio. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  6. ^ "El desempleo sigue en 11,2%, según el Dane.". El Espectador. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  7. ^ "Borders of Cúcuta". Chamber of Commerce of Cúcuta. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  8. ^ "Map of Cúcuta". CúcutaNuestra.com. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  9. ^ "Cúcuta". Enciclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  10. ^ "The city - Geographical data". Chamber of Commerce of Cúcuta. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  11. ^ "Seal of Cúcuta". Rincón del Vago. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  12. ^ "Cúcuta is declared green municipality". La Opinión. Retrieved 2008-01-07. [dead link]
  13. ^ "San José de Cúcuta". Norte de Santander. 
  14. ^ a b "Admirable Campaign". Polar Foundation. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  15. ^ "Admirable Campaign". Simón-Bolívar.org. Archived from the original on 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  16. ^ "Campaña Admirable". Retrieved 2006-02-11.  (Spanish)
  17. ^ "Ferrocarril de Cúcuta". Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango. Retrieved 2007-02-11.  (Spanish)
  18. ^ "Especial 45 años". Diario La Opinión. Retrieved 2007-02-11. [dead link] (Spanish)
  19. ^ "Centro Histórico Villa del Rosario". Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia.  (Spanish)
  20. ^ Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. "Colombia; Rio de Cucuta". Retrieved 2006-10-15.  (Spanish)
  21. ^ "CARTAS CLIMATOLÓGICAS - MEDIAS MENSUALES - AEROPUERTO CAMILO DAZA (Cúcuta)" (in Spanish). Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  22. ^ a b c "Símbolos de Cúcuta". CúcutaNuestra.com. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  23. ^ Azapedia: Fabiola Zuluaga (Spanish) asapedia.com Accessed 15 October 2006
  24. ^ Comunidad Andina de Naciones: Caracterización de la frontera Colombo-Venezolana. Documentos informativos. Enlace revisado el 3 de junio de 2008.
  25. ^ Proexport Colombia - Zonas Francas[dead link]
  26. ^ COLFTA. "Cúcuta quiere sacarle jugo al TLC". Retrieved 2006-10-15.  (Spanish)
  27. ^ ANDI. "Zona Franca". Retrieved 2006-10-15. [dead link] (Spanish)
  28. ^ Peña, Javier (2006-10-27). "Masificarán Internet Inalámbrico en Cúcuta" (in Spanish). CucutaNuestra.com. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  29. ^ Peña, Javier (2006-10-31). "Avanza Plan 2500" (in Spanish). CucutaNuestra.com. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  30. ^ "Fundaciones de ciudades y poblaciones". Retrieved 2013-02-01. 
  31. ^ "Copa Mundial de Futsal de la FIFA se jugará en Colombia en 2016". http://fcf.com.co/. 28 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "Comite Empresarial: TLC". Retrieved 2006-10-15.  (Spanish)

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