The college traces its origins to the merger of several institutions which became public ones in 1967, when the Quebec system of CEGEPs was created. The building previously was a Catholic school directed by the sisters of Sainte-Anne. The Cégep de Saint-Jérôme gained its independence in 1970. At its start it contained 2 wings, wing A built in 1929 and wing B built in 1963. In the 1970s, three new wings were constructed. In 2007 a new wing was constructed for the Centre d'études universitaires des Laurentides, a branch campus of the Université du Québec en Outaouais.
The Province of Quebec awards a Diploma of Collegial Studies for two types of programs: two years of pre-university studies or three years of vocational (technical) studies. The pre-university programs, which take two years to complete, cover the subject matters which roughly correspond to the additional year of high school given elsewhere in Canada in preparation for a chosen field in university. The technical programs, which take three-years to complete, applies to students who wish to pursue a skill trade. In addition Continuing education and services to business are provided.