Beechcraft C-12 Huron
|Role||Military utility aircraft|
|Primary users||United States Air Force
United States Army
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
|Unit cost||US$6 million|
|Developed from||Beechcraft Super King Air|
The C-12 Huron is the military designation for a series of twin-engine turboprop aircraft based on the Beechcraft Super King Air and Beechcraft 1900. C-12 variants are used by the United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. These aircraft are used for various duties, including embassy support, medical evacuation, as well as passenger and light cargo transport. Some aircraft are modified with surveillance systems for various missions, including the Cefly Lancer, Guardrail and Project Liberty programs.
Design and development 
The first C-12A models entered service with the U.S. Army in 1974 and was used as a liaison and general personnel transport. The aircraft was essentially an "off-the-shelf" Super King Air 200, powered by the type's standard Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-41 engines.
The U.S. Navy followed suit in 1979, ordering a version of the Super King Air A200C (modified with a 52 inch by 52 inch cargo door from the Super King Air 200C), designating it the UC-12B, for logistics support between Naval and Marine Corps air stations, air facilities, and other activities, both in CONUS and overseas. The cabin can readily accommodate cargo, passengers or both. It is also equipped to accept litter patients in medical evacuation missions. Through 1982, the Navy ordered 64 of these aircraft.
A U.S. Air Force variant of the plane for surveillance roles primarily over Afghanistan and Iraq is the MC-12 Liberty. For that variant, Beechcraft builds the basic plane and then sends it to Greenville, Texas where sophisticated Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance equipment is installed by L-3 Communications Missions Integration.
To meet the needs of transporting larger groups, the U.S. Army purchased six C-12J aircraft, based on the Beechcraft 1900C commuter airliner. One of the military C-12Js is used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. Another is based at the 517th Airlift Squadron, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Three were based at the 55th Airlift Flight, Osan Air Base, South Korea. They have been relocated to the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan. The remaining two are used by U.S. Army Aviation.
Although the UD- series 1900s were manufactured exclusively for military use, the United States military and other military and government organizations use 1900s from other series such as the UB-series 1900C, and 1900Ds which may be found elsewhere.
King Air 200-based variants 
- Used by the US Army for liaison and attache transport. Based on the King Air A200 (serial numbers BC-1 through BC-61, BD-1 and up).
- US Navy/US Marine Corps version with an additional cargo door. Based on the King Air A200C (serial numbers BJ-1 and up).
- US Navy single-aircraft version, UC-12B BuNo 161311 equipped with four P-3C type Sonobuoy launchers.
- US Navy training version developed by conversion of UC-12B airframes.
- US Army and US Air Force version of the C-12A with upgraded engines. Based on the King Air A200 (serial numbers BC-62 and up).
- US Army and US Air Force version. Based on the King Air A200CT, changes include larger cargo door, "high-flotation" landing gear (a Beechcraft option for larger main landing gear wheels for use on unimproved runways) (serial numbers BP-1, BP-22, BP-24 through BP-51).
- Special mission, SIGINT aircraft for the US Army.
- Based on the King Air A200CT (serial numbers BP-7 though BP-11).
- Upgraded C-12A aircraft for the USAF. 29 C-12As were retro-fitted with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42 turboprop engines.
- US Air Force transport version. Based on the King Air A200CF (serial numbers BP-52 through BP-63) and the King Air B200C (serial numbers BP-64 and up).
- US Navy version of the UC-12F modified with surface search radar.
- US Navy version based on the King Air B200C (serial number BU-1 and up, BV-1 and up, BW-1 and up).
- US Army version used for real-time tactical intelligence support under the Crazyhorse program. Based on the King Air A200CT (three aircraft, serial numbers FC-1 and up). Previously operated by US Army Reserve aviation units.
- Special mission, battlefield SIGINT aircraft for the US Army.
- Three A200s acquired for use in the Cefly Lancer program as RU-21Js. In 1984 the three aircraft modified with new VIP interiors, and returned to the US Army as C-12Ls.
- US Navy UC-12B and UC-12F aircraft with upgraded cockpit instrumentation.
- US Navy RC-12F with upgraded cockpit instrumentation, plus other systems and structural upgrades.
- Off the shelf BE200 modified with EFIS glass cockpit instrumentation.
- Upgrade of earlier US Army C-12F versions with improved cockpit instrumentation.
- Upgrade of US Army C-12T versions with improved cockpit instrumentation in order to meet global air traffic management directives.
- Special mission, battlefield ELINT aircraft. Three A200s were brought by the US Army for use in the Cefly Lancer program in the early 1970s.
- Intelligence-gathering platform. 14 ordered, the first delivered to the US Army in January 2011.
- Upgraded C-12R with Proline 21 FMS, currently used exclusively in Iraq and Afghanistan
King Air 350-based variants 
- US Army version based on the King Air 350, with seating for 8 to 15 passengers and quick cargo conversion capability.
- MC-12W Liberty
- USAF version modified for the Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) role; 8 King Air 350s and 29 King Air 350ERs. In service since June 2009 in Iraq and Afghanistan.
- US Navy version based on the King Air 350
Beechcraft 1900-based variant 
- Used by the US Air Force's Pacific Air Forces, and Air Force Materiel Command. It carries 2 crew and 19 passengers. The C-12J is based on the Beechcraft 1900C and carries the serials UD-1 through UD-6.
The Air Force currently operates only 4 C-12Js. 3 are operated by the 459th Airlift Squadron at Yokota Air Base, Japan and 1 by the Air Force Materiel Command from Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The Army has 2 C-12Js in use, 1 in Korea and 1 in Germany.
Note: The U.S. military also operates other King Air versions under other designations, including the C-6 Ute and T-44 series. In addition, there are a number of Beechcraft 1900s operated by the military under civilian registrations, using their civilian model designations.
- United States Air Force
- United States Army
- United States Marine Corps
- United States Navy
- United States National Guard (Army National Guard and Air National Guard)
Air Crash 
On 27 April 2013, a Beechcraft MC-12 crashed near Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan killing four airmen who were supporting Operation Enduring Freedom. The cause of the crash is under investigation. 
Specifications (King Air B200) 
- Crew: 1–5
- Capacity: 13 passengers
- Length: 43 ft 9 in (13.34 m)
- Wingspan: 54 ft 6 in (16.61 m)
- Height: 15 ft 0 in (4.57 m)
- Wing area: 303 ft² (28.2 m²)
- Empty weight: 7,755 lb (3,520 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 12,500 lb (5,670 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42 turboprops, 850 shp (635 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 333 mph (289 knots, 535 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
- Range: 2,075 mi (1,800 nm, 3,338 km) with maximum fuel and 45 minute reserve
- Service ceiling: 32,800 ft (10,700 m)
- Rate of climb: 2,450 ft/min (12.5 m/s)
- Wing loading: 41.3 lb/ft² (201.6 kg/m²)
- Fuel consumption: 0.1667 gal/mi
- Power/mass: 0.14 hp/lb (220 W/kg)
See also 
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- "King Air timeline from". Wings over Kansas. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Air Force Fact Sheet". Holloman.af.mil. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson – Home". Elmendorf.af.mil. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- John Pike (27 April 2005). "C-12J at Global Security.org". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Army aviation web page". Usarmyaviation.com. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- John Pike (26 April 2005). "Special Electronic Mission Aircraft listing at". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Harding, Stephen (1997). U.S. Army Aircraft Since 1947. Atglen, PA, USA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-933424-53-1.
- "Northrop reveals interest in new upgrade for RC-12X". 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Curtain Goes Up on Project Liberty". Airforce-magazine.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Vanden Brook, Tom, "Newest Manned Spy Plane Scores Points In War Effort", USA Today, 2 June 2010, p. 5.
- McCoy, Daniel (18 May 2010). "Hawker rolls out first UC-12W".
- Lundgren, Johan (1996-2006). Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200. Airliners.net. AirNav Systems LLC. URL accessed on 30 July 2006.
- Jackson, Paul; Munson, Kenneth; Peacock, Lindsay. Jane's All the World's Aircraft. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2684-3.
- DoD 4120-15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles, United States Department of Defense, 12 May 2004
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: C-12 Huron|
- C-12 on globalsecurity.org
- C-12 on fas.org
- API model application chart, provided variant model basis and serial number ranges