Bombardier CSeries

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CSeries
CS100-FTV1-FlyBy.jpg
The CS100 prototype at Mirabel on its first flight
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Canada
Manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace
First flight 16 September 2013[1]
Introduction Planned: second half 2015 (CS100)[2]
Planned: beginning of 2016 (CS300)
Status CS100: early production/test phase
CS300: in development
Produced 2012-present
Number built 4 prototypes[3]
Program cost US$ 4.4 billion (Feb. 2014)[4]
Unit cost
CS100: US$ 62 million
CS300: US$ 71 million[5]

The Bombardier CSeries is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners currently under development by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace. The CSeries models are the 110-seat CS100 and the 135-seat CS300. These were initially named C110 and C130, respectively. In certification documentation, the CSeries family is designated Bombardier BD-500, with suffix -1A10 for the CS100 and -1A11 for the CS300.[6]

The CSeries is to compete with the Boeing 737 series and the Airbus A320 family, as well as the Embraer 195 regional jet. Bombardier expects the CSeries to burn 20% less fuel per trip than these competitors.[7]

The CS100 took its first flight on 16 September 2013. Bombardier announced in January 2014 that entry into service of the CS100 would be delayed until the second half of 2015.[2] The longer CS300 is to follow six months later.

Development[edit]

Background[edit]

During the demise of Fokker, Bombardier considered purchasing that company in order to gain access to the Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft. Citing an irreconcilable "clash of corporate cultures", Bombardier's Executives and Board eventually decided against the purchase and ended discussions in February 1996.[8][9]

The Bombardier BRJX, or "Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion", was a project for a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJX was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating, and underwing engine pods. It was projected to seat 80 to 120 passengers, abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318/737-500/737-600. The project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.

Meanwhile, the 72-seat Embraer E-170 came to market (production began in 2002), followed by the 110-seat E-195. Both models were widely adopted, and Bombardier had no product to compete with them in that capacity range.

CSeries[edit]

In July 2004, Bombardier announced the development of the CSeries family of airliners to replace the cancelled BRJX project. The CSeries would be larger than the current Canadair Regional Jets, and capable of carrying 110 to 130 passengers. For the first time, Bombardier would be competing directly with the smallest airliners from Boeing and Airbus. At the time, Bombardier expected the aircraft to be available by 2013.

In March 2005, Bombardier's board decided to promote the plane to airlines to gather advance orders. Two models were announced: the C110 with layouts from 100–125 seats, and the C130 with layouts from 120–145 seats. The CSeries would feature new, more fuel-efficient engines and a higher percentage of composite materials in its fuselage,[10] a strategy similar to that used on the wide-body Boeing 787 Dreamliner and forthcoming Airbus A350 XWB.

The new aircraft would seat passengers in a 2–3 arrangement in coach and a 2–2 arrangement in business/first class, similar to the Boeing 717. With the 2–3 arrangement, 80% of the seats would be aisle or window seats, contrary to 'middle' seats (seats set between two other seats). The aircraft would have under-wing turbofans. The CSeries' cross section was designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.

In May 2005, Bombardier secured agreements with the Federal Government of Canada, the Provincial Government of Quebec, and the Government of the United Kingdom for support and loans for the CSeries project. The Canadian government has committed US$350 million in financing; the British government has committed US$300 million. The program will cost about $3.5 billion, and Bombardier will share the cost with suppliers and governments.[11]

The fuselage was to be built by China Aviation Industry Corporation (AVIC)'s affiliate Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.[10] Final assembly of the aircraft was to be at Mirabel Airport, Mirabel, Quebec, outside Montreal.[12] Substantial portions of the aircraft were to be constructed at Bombardier facilities in Belfast, Northern Ireland.[13]

On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced it would not go forward with plans to develop the CSeries after it had failed to secure significant orders to that point. It stated that it would keep a small team of roughly 50 employees working on the CSeries marketing plan, and would include other risk-sharing partners in the program.[14][15] With the CSeries on hold, Bombardier announced on 18 February 2006 that it would begin work on the 100-seat CRJ1000 regional jet.

Restarting programme[edit]

CSeries display model, presented during the 2008 Farnborough Airshow.

On 31 January 2007, Bombardier announced that work on the aircraft would continue.[16] In November 2007, Bombardier announced that the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan (now PW1000G) would be the exclusive powerplant for the CSeries.[17] On 22 February 2008, Bombardier Aerospace announced that its parent company's Board of Directors authorized it to offer formal sales proposals of the CSeries family to airline customers.[18]

On 13 July 2008, in a press conference on the eve of the opening of the Farnborough Airshow, Bombardier Aerospace announced the launch of the CSeries, with a letter of interest for 60 aircraft (including 30 options) from Lufthansa. The final assembly of the aircraft would be done at a new assembly facility to be built beside the existing one where the CRJ700 and CRJ900 are assembled in Mirabel, north of Montreal.[19] Ghafari Associates was retained to develop the Montreal manufacturing site to accommodate CSeries production.[20] The CSeries aircraft will use the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite, an integrated cockpit system which incorporates 15 inch displays, with comprehensive navigation, communications, surveillance, engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS), and aircraft maintenance systems.[21]

The CSeries is designed for the 100- to 149-seat market category. Bombardier estimated this market to be 19,333 aircraft,[22] representing more than $250 billion revenue over the next 20 years. Bombardier expects to be able to capture up to half of this market with the CSeries.[23] In 2009, first flight for the CSeries was expected in 2012.[24]

In 2009, Mongolian airline Eznis Airways was reported to have signed a letter of interest for seven CSeries aircraft.[25] Qatar Airways had previously been in talks with Bombardier, but broke off talks in 2009 after disagreeing on terms.[26] An unnamed lessor was understood to be in talks for 40 aircraft.[27] On 11 March 2009, Bombardier announced the first firm orders for the CSeries. Lufthansa, who originally had signed a letter of interest for 60 aircraft, firmed up an order for 30. The aircraft are to be operated by Lufthansa subsidiary Swiss European Air Lines.[28]

Renamed models[edit]

In March 2009 Bombardier also announced that the C110 and C130 were being redesignated CS100 and CS300, respectively.[29] The models were offered in normal and extended range (ER) versions, additionally, an extra thrust (XT) version of the CS300 was also offered.[30] The ER and XT versions were removed in 2012 by Bombardier, providing a standard range equal to the one previously identified as extended range.[31]

On 30 March 2009, Bombardier inked the second CSeries order, with airliner lessor Lease Corporation International (LCI) of Dublin, Ireland ordering 3 CS100s and 17 CS300s, becoming the launch customer of the latter.[32] LCI also holds options for a further 20 aircraft.[33]

In January 2010, JP Morgan reported that Bombardier was considering a 150-seat version of the CSeries. Bombardier called the report speculative, noting that the CSeries development program "is in the joint definition phase where we will be able to add greater product definition and that includes the ability to make changes before the final design is frozen".[34]

Republic Airways Holdings ordered 40 CS300 aircraft with options for an additional 40 in February 2010.[35] In March 2010, easyJet stated that the company was having “ongoing discussions with Bombardier regarding its CSeries.[36] In December 2009, United Airlines expressed interest in using the CS100 and CS300 for replacing its retiring 737–300 and 737-500 aircraft.[37] But no plans or orders had been made by United Airlines as of December 2011.

Bombardier Aerospace announced the sale of up to 30 CS300 aircraft to Asian launch customer, Korean Air, at the 2011 Paris Air Show.

On 1 June 2011, Braathens Leasing Limited in Sweden announced that it had placed a firm order for five CS100 and five CS300 aircraft with options for ten more aircraft. With the order, Bombardier had secured a combined 100 firm orders.[38] On 7 June 2011, Bombardier announced that an unnamed airline had placed a firm order for three CSeries airliners, with options for three more.[39] On 20 June 2011, Bombardier announced it had secured a launch customer for the CS100 at the Paris Air Show. The undisclosed airline signed a firm order for 10 aircraft with an option for six more.[40] On 21 June 2011, Korean Air announced signing a letter of intent to purchase 10 CS300 plus an additional 10 options and 10 purchasing rights on CS300; this agreement was converted to a firm order on 29 July 2011.[41][42] On 24 June 2011, the last day of the 2011 Paris Show, Bombardier announced a deal with an undisclosed European carrier to purchase ten CS100s.[43]

On 17 August 2011, at the MAKS Airshow, Bombardier announced an agreement with Ilyushin Finance for up to 30 CSeries aircraft.[44] Atlasjet announced plans on 15 November 2011 to purchase ten CS300 aircraft with options for another five.[45] In July 2012, Latvia's airBaltic announced plans to order 20 CSeries jets for delivery starting in 2015, in place of the Airbus A319s which had been previously considered.[46][47] airBaltic announced a firm order for 10 CS300 aircraft plus an option for 10 additional aircraft in December 2012.[48]

Recent developments[edit]

AirAsia CEO Tony Fernandes and others during the presentation of a proposed 160-seat version of the CS300 airliner

The CSeries programme has several major suppliers, including Shenyang Aircraft (centre fuselage), Alenia Aeronautica (horizontal and vertical stabilisers), Fokker Elmo (wiring and interconnection systems), C&D Zodiac (interiors), Parker Hannifin (flight control, fuel and hydraulics systems), Liebherr-Aerospace (air management system), Goodrich (flap and slat actuation systems and engine nacelles), and Rockwell Collins (avionics).[49][50]

The first flight was initially planned for the second half of 2012.[51] In 2010, deliveries of the CS100 were planned to start in 2013, and CS300 deliveries were to follow a year later.[52]

In March 2012, Bombardier specified the target date for the first flight was December 2012,[53] and reaffirmed that date in June 2012.[54] A news report in June 2012 stated that first CS100 delivery remained scheduled for the end of 2013.[54][55]

At the Farnborough Airshow in July 2012, Bombardier started discussions with AirAsia about a proposed 160-seat configuration for the CS300 airliner.[56] In November 2012, this configuration was included in the CS300 project, although AirAsia rejected this proposal.[57]

During a conference call in November 2012, Bombardier Aerospace acknowledged a delay of six months, for both first flight and entry into service of the CS100, due to issues with some unspecified suppliers.[58] This pushed the announced date for initial deliveries to customers into 2014.

On 20 February 2013 Bombardier announced that Ilyushin Finance Co. converted the letter of intent it signed in August 2011 into a purchase agreement, subject to approval by its shareholders, for 32 CS300 aircraft.[59] On the same day, Pratt & Whitney announced that its PW1500G had been granted certification by Transport Canada.[60] The PW1500G powers the CSeries.

CSeries CS100 Flight Test Vehicle (FTV1) out of the factory in June 2013

During its earnings call on 21 February 2013, Bombardier announced that the first completed CSeries aircraft would be presented publicly the following month.[61][62] An extensive update on the CSeries program was presented on 7 March 2013; the first Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) was displayed in an almost completed state, along with three other FTVs in various states of assembly.[63][64] The 160-seat "Extra Capacity" version of the CS300, featuring two sets of over wing emergency exits, was also presented.[63]

In a press release on 25 March 2013, Bombardier disclosed that the electrical system of the first flight test aircraft was successfully powered up and that tests on the static test airframe proceeded satisfactorily and on schedule.[65]

On 6 June 2013, Bombardier announced that Gulf Air ordered ten CS100s.[66]

CS100 after its first flight

In June 2013, due to upgrades of the aircraft's software and final ground testing, Bombardier shifted the timeline for the first flight into July 2013.[67] On 24 July 2013, Bombardier disclosed that, due to a longer than expected system integration process, the first flight will take place "in the coming weeks".[68]

On 30 August 2013, Bombardier received the flight test permit from Transport Canada, granting permission to perform high speed taxi testing and flight testing.[1] As Bombardier planned,[69] a CS100 took the maiden flight for the model and the CSeries on 16 September 2013 from Mirabel Airport north of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.[70][71] Over 14,000 data points were gathered on this first flight, and after some reconfigurations and software upgrades, the aircraft flew for the second time on 1 October 2013.[72]

In September 2013, Porter Airlines of Toronto, Canada announced a conditional purchase of 12 CS100s, with options for 18 more.[73]

In November 2013, Iraqi Airways signed a letter of intent for five CS300s with options for 11 CS300s,[74] which was converted into a firm order on December 4, 2013.[75]

On 16 January 2014, Bombardier announced that difficulties with certification flight testing had caused the entry-into-service date to be delayed by at least 12 months, to the second half of 2015; the CS300 is still to follow approximately six months after the CS100.[2]

On 3 March 2014, the third CSeries test aircraft took its first flight. The first two test CS100s had totaled 100 hours in flight by the end of February.[76]

On 29 May 2014, one of four test aircraft suffered an uncontained engine failure. The test program was suspended until an investigation of the incident could be completed.[77] The incident kept Bombardier from showcasing the CSeries at the week-long 2014 Farnborough Airshow, one of the most important events for the aerospace and defense industry. [78]

On 12 July 2014, Bombardier announced it had signed a deal with Falko Regional Aircraft Ltd., a lessor based in Britain, for up to 24 CSeries jets.[79]

In August 2014 after slashing it's workforce, Bombardier changed the management overseeing the still grounded aircraft.[80]

Design[edit]

Bombardier CSeries CS100 and CS300 illustration with front, side and top views

The Bombardier CSeries aircraft will contain a high usage of composite materials and larger windows.[81] The CSeries cabin will feature large, rotating overhead storage bins, allowing each passenger to stow a sizeable carry-on bag overhead.[81] Compared to the cabins of current in-service narrowbody aircraft, the CSeries is to provide airlines with the highest overhead bin volume per passenger and a wider aisle that would allow for faster boarding and disembarkation of passengers.[81]

The CSeries aircraft contain 70% advanced materials comprising 46% composite materials and 24% aluminium-lithium which allows for a 15% lower seat-mile cost and a significant reduction in maintenance costs.[82] The CSeries aircraft will also permit a significant fuel burn advantage and noise reduction.[83] Computer software design tools were used on the project, including CATIA, HyperSizer, and similar technology that was employed in the Learjet 85 programme.[84]

Orders and deliveries[edit]

Net orders (cumulative by year)
As of 31 July 2014[85][86]

The Bombardier CSeries family of aircraft has the following firm orders, as of 31 July 2014:[85][86]

CS100 CS300 Total firm orders
63 140 203
Orders and deliveries by year[86]
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Net orders 0 50 40 43 15 34 21 203
Deliveries

Specifications[edit]

CS100 CS300
Cockpit crew 2 pilots
Cabin crew 2 to 5 flight attendants 3 to 5 flight attendants
Passengers 125 (1-class, dense)
110 (1-class, standard)
108 (2-class, mixed)
160 (1-class, extra capacity)
150 (1-class, dense)
135 (1-class, standard)
130 (2-class, mixed)
Seat Pitch 28 in (71 cm) (1-class, extra capacity)
30 in (76 cm) (1-class, dense)
32 in (81 cm) (1-class, standard)
36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, mixed)
Seat Width 18.5 in (47 cm) standard seat
19 in (48 cm) middle seat
20 in (51 cm) business class seat
Length 35.0 m (114.8 ft) 38.7 m (127 ft)
Wingspan 35.1 m (115 ft)
Wing Area (net) 112.3 m2 (1,209 sq ft)
Tail height 11.5 m (38 ft)
Fuselage max diameter 3.7 m (12 ft)
Cabin width 3.28 metres (129 in)
Cabin height 2.11 metres (83 in)
Cabin length 23.7 metres (78 ft) 27.5 metres (90 ft)
Cargo Volume 23.7 m3 (840 cu ft) 31.6 m3 (1,120 cu ft)
Operating empty weight (OEW) 33,300 kg (73,400 lb)[87] n/a
Max takeoff weight (MTOW) 58,967 kg (130,000 lb) 65,317 kg (143,999 lb)
Max landing weight (MLW) 50,802 kg (111,999 lb) 57,606 kg (126,999 lb)
Maximum cargo payload 3,629 kg (8,001 lb) 4,853 kg (10,699 lb)
Maximum payload (total) 14,583 kg (32,150 lb) 18,552 kg (40,900 lb)
Max range 5,463 km (2,950 nmi)
Max cruise speed Mach 0.82 (870 km/h, 470 kn, 541 mph)
Typical cruise speed Mach 0.78 (828 km/h, 447 kn, 514 mph)
Take off run at MTOW 1,463 m (4,800 ft) 1,890 m (6,200 ft)
Landing field length at MLW 1,356 m (4,449 ft) 1,494 m (4,902 ft)
Service ceiling 12,497 m (41,001 ft)
Engines Pratt & Whitney PW1500G
Thrust per Engine 84.1 kN (18,900 lbf) – PW1519G
93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G
93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G

Bombardier released the following performance specifications, regarding operations from urban airports with short runways and steep approaches, like London City Airport and Toronto Island Airport.

Urban Operations
CS100 CS300
Max takeoff weight (MTOW) 53,060 kg (116,980 lb) 58,967 kg (130,000 lb)
Max landing weight (MLW) 49,895 kg (110,000 lb) 55,111 kg (121,499 lb)
Maximum cargo payload 3,629 kg (8,001 lb) 4,853 kg (10,699 lb)
Maximum payload (total) 13,676 kg (30,150 lb) 16,284 kg (35,900 lb)
Max range 3,148 km (1,700 nmi)
Take off run at MTOW 1,219 m (3,999 ft) 1,524 m (5,000 ft)
Landing field length at MLW 1,341 m (4,400 ft) 1,448 m (4,751 ft)
  • Notes: Data are preliminary and may change.
  • Sources: Bombardier Aerospace[31][88][89][90] and Pratt & Whitney[91]

See also[edit]

Graphical comparison between comparable aircraft, based on the number of seats.
In blue the CSeries, in grey similar in-service aircraft and in orange similar in project-phase aircraft.
Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

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  93. ^ Bombardier Inc. (28 August 2013). "Bombardier, IRKUT Entering Exploratory Discussions on Customer Support for the MS-21 Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2013. 

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