C-Stoff

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C-Stoff ("C substance") was a reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels (as a fuel itself) developed by Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft in Germany during World War II. It was developed for use with T-Stoff (a high test peroxide), as an oxidizer, which together with C-Stoff as the fuel, forms a hypergolic mixture.

Methanol CH3OH ~57% by Weight
Hydrazine hydrate N2H4 · H2O ~30% by Weight
Water H2O ~13% by Weight
Catalyst 431 K3[Cu(CN)4]   potassium-cuprous cyanide coordination polymer

The proportions of the components in C-Stoff were developed to catalyse the decomposition of T-Stoff, promote combustion with the oxygen released by the decomposition, and sustain uniform combustion through sufficient quantity of the highly reactive hydrazine. The combination of the C-Stoff, used as a rocket fuel, with the T-Stoff used as the oxidizer, often resulted in spontaneous explosion from their combined nature as a hypergolic fuel combination, necessitating strict hygiene in fueling operations; there were numerous catastrophic explosions of the Messerschmitt Me 163 aircraft that employed this fuel system. Another hazard was toxicity to humans of each of the propellants.[1]

C-fuel[edit]

After the war, Allied studies into rocket propellants continued with engines such as the Armstrong Siddeley Beta, under the name "C-fuel".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Botho Stüwe, Peene Münde West, Weltbildverlag ISBN 3-8289-0294-4, 1998 page 220, German

See also[edit]