C. Arden Pope
C. Arden Pope III (born c. 1954) is an American professor of economics at Brigham Young University and one of the world's foremost experts in environmental science. He received his B.S. from Brigham Young University (BYU) in 1978 and his Ph.D. in Economics and statistics from Iowa State University in 1981. Although his research includes many papers on topics in the fields in which he was trained—environmental economics, resource economics, and agricultural economics—he is better known for his cross-disciplinary work in environmental epidemiology and public health. He is world renowned for his seminal work on the effects of particulate air pollution on mortality and health. His articles have helped establish the connection between air pollution and health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular, and pulmonary disease. These research findings have influenced environmental policy in the United States and Europe, contributing to the establishment of emission standards for particulate matter pollution.
"Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah"
Early in Pope's career he published a paper that made him an academic cornerstone of environmental science and policy called "Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys". In Utah Valley the Geneva Steel Mill generated large quantities of particulate matter which is a byproduct of fossil fuel consumption. The mill was shut down temporarily. Pope compiled hospital admissions data for the time before, during, and after the temporary closing of the mill and was the first to convincingly show the immediate health harms associated with atmospheric particulate matter. Asthma, mortality, and respiratory admissions generally were twice as high while the plant was operating than the year in which it was closed. Utah made a particularly suitable natural experiment as the various valleys included in the study trap pollution in the winter months when temperature inversions stifle the escape of pollution. His abstract states:
|“||This study assessed the association between respiratory hospital admissions and PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache valleys during April 1985 through March 1989. Utah and Salt Lake valleys had high levels of PM10 pollution that violated both the annual and 24-h standards issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Much lower PM10 levels occurred in the Cache Valley. Utah Valley experienced the intermittent operation of its primary source of PM10 pollution: an integrated steel mill. Bronchitis and asthma admissions for preschool-age children were approximately twice as frequent in Utah Valley when the steel mill was operating versus when it was not. Similar differences were not observed in Salt Lake or Cache valleys. Even though Cache Valley had higher smoking rates and lower temperatures in winter than did Utah Valley, per capita bronchitis and asthma admissions for all ages were approximately twice as high in Utah Valley. During the period when the steel mill was closed, differences in per capita admissions between Utah and Cache valleys narrowed considerably. Regression analysis also demonstrated a statistical association between respiratory hospital admissions and PM10 pollution. The results suggest that PM10 pollution plays a role in the incidence and severity of respiratory disease.||”|
—C. Arden Pope
Pope came under hostile political pressure and his findings became a firestorm of controversy. Intense scrutiny revealed that his results were accurate. In 2004 Pope was awarded the Utah Governor's Medal in Science and Technology. In 2007 Dr. Pope was recognized as BYU's distinguished faculty through reception of the Karl G. Maeser award.
- Smart, Michael D. (Spring 2007). "Clearing the Air". BYU Magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- Dockery, Douglas W.; C. Arden Pope; Xiping Xu; John D. Spengler; James H. Ware; Martha E. Fay; Benjamin G. Ferris; Frank E. Speizer (December 9, 1993). "An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities". The New England Journal of Medicine 329 (24): 1753–1759. doi:10.1056/NEJM199312093292401. PMID 8179653. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Pope, C. Arden, III; Richard T. Burnett; Michael J. Thun; Eugenia E. Calle; Daniel Krewski; Kazuhiko Ito; George D. Thurston (March 6, 2002). "Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution". Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (9): 1132–1141. doi:10.1001/jama.287.9.1132. PMID 11879110. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Dockery, D. W.; C. A. Pope (May 1994). "Acute Respiratory Effects of Particulate Air Pollution". Annual Review of Public Health 15: 107–132. doi:10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.000543. PMID 8054077. Retrieved 2008-02-21.