C9 League

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C9 League
Simplified Chinese 九校联盟
Traditional Chinese 九校聯盟
C9 Members' logo

The C9 League is an alliance of nine universities in mainland China, which includes Tsinghua University, Peking University, Harbin Institute of Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Fudan University, Zhejiang University, Nanjing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Xi'an Jiao Tong University.[1] Together they account for 3% of the country's researchers but receive 10% of national research expenditures. They produce 20% of the academic publications and 30% of total citations.[2]

Comprising mostly the most renowned and oldest local universities, C9 is often said to be analogous to the Russell Group in UK, the Go8 in Australia and the Ivy League in the USA.



University Year Founded Authorities Location
Tsinghua University 1911 Ministry of Education (MOE) Beijing
Peking University 1898 Ministry of Education (MOE) Beijing
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) 1920 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) Harbin, Heilongjiang; Weihai, Shandong; Shenzhen, Guangdong
University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) 1958 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Hefei, Anhui
Fudan University 1905 Ministry of Education (MOE) Shanghai
Zhejiang University 1897 Ministry of Education (MOE) Hangzhou, Zhejiang
Nanjing University 1902 Ministry of Education (MOE) Nanjing
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) 1896 Ministry of Education (MOE) Shanghai
Xi'an Jiao Tong University (XJTU) 1896 Ministry of Education (MOE) Xi'an, Shaanxi



On May 4, 1998, Project 985 was initiated by the Chinese government in order to advance the higher education system. In the first phase, the nine universities were selected and allocated funding for an initial period of three years. On October 10, 2009, these nine universities made up the C9 League.[3] The league was attempting to create a group that is pitched as China's equivalence of Ivy League which comprises some of the prominent universities in USA, although it is in fact mainly athletic in nature.[4]


The aim of the C9 is to communicate with each other in order to foster better students and share their resources, including campuses, teachers, and so on.[5][6] More importantly, they have committed themselves to world-class excellence.[6] The establishment of the C9 League has been welcomed by Chinese public opinion and its central idea of building world-class universities has been well supported by both the government and society.[1] Other universities outside the C9 League designated by the central government with the goal of reaching world class include National University of Defense Technology, Renmin University of China, and Wuhan University.[7][8][9]

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