|Carbohydrate kinase domain containing|
Carbohydrate kinase domain containing protein, also known as CARKD, is a human protein of unknown function. The protein is conserved throughout many species, and has predicted orthologs through eukaryotes, bacteria, and archea.
- COL4A2: A2 Subunit of type IV collagen
- RAB20: Potential regulator of Connexin 43 trafficking.
- CARS2: Mitochondrial Cystienyl-tRNA Synthetase 2
- ING1: Tumor-Suppressor Protein
This protein is part of the phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase: ribokinase / pfkB superfamily. This family is characterized by the presence of a domain shared by the family. CARKD contains a carbohydrate kinase domain (Pfam PF01256). This family is related to Pfam PF02210 and Pfam PF00294 implying that it also is a carbohydrate kinase.
The following properties of CARKD were predicted using bioinformatic analysis:
- Molecular Weight: 41.4 KDal
- Isoelectric point: 9.377
- CARKD orthologs have highly variable isoelectric points.
- Post-translational modification: Three post-translational modifications are predicted:
- A Signal Peptide and signal peptide cleavage site was predicted.
CARKD appears to be ubiquitously expressed at high levels. Expression data in the human protein, and the mouse ortholog, indicate its expression in almost all tissues. One peculiar expression pattern of CARKD is its differential expression through the development of oligodendrocytes. Its expression is lower in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells than in mature oligodendrocytes.
The human protein apolipoprotein A-1 binding precursor (APOA1BP) was predicted to be a binding partner for CARKD. This prediction is based on co-occurrence across genomes and co-expression. In addition to these data, the orthologs of CARKD in E. coli contain a domain similar to APOA1BP. This indicates that the two proteins are likely to have originated from a common evolutionary ancestor and, according to Rosetta stone analysis theory, are likely interaction partners even in species such as humans where the two proteins are not produced as a single polypeptide.
Based on allele-specific expression of CARKD, CARKD may play a role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition, microarray data indicates that CARKD is up-regulated in Glioblastoma multiforme tumors.
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- Milani L, Lundmark A, Nordlund J, Kiialainen A, Flaegstad T, Jonmundsson G, Kanerva J, Schmiegelow K, Gunderson KL, Lönnerholm G, Syvänen AC (January 2009). "Allele-specific gene expression patterns in primary leukemic cells reveal regulation of gene expression by CpG site methylation". Genome Research 19 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1101/gr.083931.108. PMC 2612957. PMID 18997001.
- Ruano Y, Mollejo M, Ribalta T, Fiaño C, Camacho FI, Gómez E, de Lope AR, Hernández-Moneo JL, Martínez P, Meléndez B (2006). "Identification of novel candidate target genes in amplicons of Glioblastoma multiforme tumors detected by expression and CGH microarray profiling". Molecular Cancer 5 (1): 39. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-5-39. PMC 1592108. PMID 17002787.