|A CASA CN-235M-100 of the Spanish Air Force|
|Role||Transport aircraft/maritime patrol aircraft|
|First flight||11 November 1983|
|Introduction||1 March 1988|
|Primary users||Spanish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
Indonesian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force
|Variants||EADS CASA HC-144 Ocean Sentry|
|Developed into||EADS CASA C-295|
The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport plane that was jointly developed by CASA of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 50 aircraft.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 The CN-235 as a commercial airliner
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Notable accidents
- 6 Aircraft on Display
- 7 Specifications (CN235)
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Design and development
The project was a joint venture between Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) and Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), formerly known as IPTN, which formed Airtech to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.
Design began in January 1980 with first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988
In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.
In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft plus 10 transport planes but the operation was halted because the United States government refused to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the avionics.
In January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.
In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.
One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Indonesian Aerospace to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.
In August 2006, three CASA CN-235-10 aircraft remained in airline service, in Africa, with Safair (two) and Tiko Air (one). Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines, correct as of June/July 2007.
The Irish Air Corps operates two CASA aircraft for maritime patrol duty.
There are at least two CN-235s flying with the United States Air Force for an undisclosed role with the 427th Special Operations Squadron, located at the former Pope AFB, North Carolina.[verification needed]
In early July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CASA CN-235s from Spain. In April 2010, Hervé Morin, French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.
In 2011, Indonesian Aerospace was still working on 4 CN-235-110 MPAs for South Korea Coast Guard with amount of $96 million.
The Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s in 2010 and August 2012 under a $13 million contract. They plan to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties. The Air Force is also interested in the maritime patrol version of the aircraft.
The CN-235 as a commercial airliner
Although the CN-235 was designed for military purposes in the 1980s, it began to be used as a commercial plane, although it wasn't a very big success for airlines. Possibly its lack of success was due to its 50 passenger capacity and short range coupled with high fuel usage. Iberia LAE, Spain's flag carrier, bought four CN-235s from CASA aircraft for regional routes but in 1992 Aerolíneas Argentinas (then also a subsidiary of Iberia) ordered two of these aircraft for regional routes - to be operated by its subsidiary, Austral.
- Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
- Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.
- Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built.
- CASA Modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurisation and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
- CN-235-330 Phoenix
- Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16.800 kg/37.037 lb MTOW, to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.
- CN-235 MPA
- Maritime patrol version with 6 hardpoints to carry AM-39 Exocet-Missiles or Mk.46-Torpedos.
- HC-144 Ocean Sentry
- United States Coast Guard designation for a planned twenty-two aircraft fleet bought to replace the small HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2010[update], twelve  had been delivered.
- Royal Jordanian Air Force (2 on lease for several years from Turkish AF)
- Mexican Navy (The Mexican congress approved the budget to purchase 6 CN235-300MPA. The first two were delivered in September 2010.)
- Mexican Federal Police (2x CN235)
- Republic of Korea Air Force (20; 12 built by CASA in Spain, 8 by IPTN in Indonesia)
- Korea Coast Guard (4)
Former Military operators
- Austrian Air Force – Former operator.
- South African Air Force (From Bophuthatswana Air Force – retired July 2012)
- Yemen Air Force  (1x CN-235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on March 25, 2015.
Government and paramilitary operators
- Royal Oman Police (2 x CN-235-M100)
- Sociedad de Salvamento y Seguridad Marítima (Spanish Maritime Safety Agency) (3 X CN-235 MPA)
- Royal Thai Police (1 x CN235-300)
- Inter Austral airlines, a subsidiary of Austral Líneas Aéreas, was later integrated into Aerolíneas Argentinas, one ex-Binter.
- Tiko Air had one (C012)
- Air Namibia operated one from 2001–2006
- Binter Canarias and Binter Mediterraneo, both then subsidiaries of Iberia, operated four and five respectively from 1989 to 1997
- Safair has two CN-235s
- Flight International and Flight Turbo AC with one each
- L-3 Communication Systems acquired two aircraft.
- Presidential Airways, Operates one former Binter Canarias.
- Air Venezuela had 2 (1999–2001)
- On 18 Oct 1992, Merpati Nusantara Airlines (Registration PK-MNN) CN-235-10 Flight 5601 crashed on Garut, Indonesia, killing all 31 people on board 
- On 19 January 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 training mission crashed near Kayseri after entering a spin from which recovery was not possible, killing all 3 people on board
- On 16 May 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control, killing all 34 people on board.
- On 18 May 2001, a Turkish Navy CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control after reaching an altitude of just 100 feet, killing all 4 people on board.
- On 29 August 2001, Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261 (Registration EC-FBC) crash-landed at Málaga, Spain, killing four of the 44 passengers and crew aboard. The aircraft was scrapped.
- On 11 Feb 2013 a CN-235 crashed into a forest 45 km south of Monrovia, Liberia, 8 km to Roberts International Airport, killing 11 people amongst them Souleymane Kelefa Diallo, Guinea army chief.
Aircraft on Display
- SAAF 8026 (cn: P3) South African Air Force on display at the South African Air Force Museum AFB Swartkop, Pretoria. This was one of three CN235 prototypes and served with the Bophutatswana Air Force before service with the SAAF.[verification needed]
Data from Airbus Military
- Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
- Capacity: 51 passengers, 35 paratroops, 18 stretchers or four HCU-6/E pallets including one on the ramp
- Payload: 6,000 kg (13,100 lb)
- Length: 21.40 m (70 ft 21⁄2 in)
- Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
- Height: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
- Wing area: 59.10 m2 (636.1 sq ft)
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Aspect ratio: 11.27:1
- Empty weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 15,100 kg (33,289 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9C3 turboprops, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) (take-off) each
- Cruise speed: 450 km/h (248 knots, 286 mph) at 4,575 m (15,000 ft)
- Stall speed: 156 km/h (84 knots, 97 mph) (flaps down)
- Range: 4,355 km (2,350 nmi, 2,706 mi)
- Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.8 m/s (1,780 ft/min)
- Related development
- Airbus Orders
- the U.S. ambassador to Spain, Eduardo Aguirre, said that Washington could refuse to allow U.S. technology to be transferred to Venezuela, adding that "in the long run we hope the sale won't go ahead."
- Flight International, 3–9 October 2006
- USAF Serial Number Search CN-235
- "Francia compra a EADS ocho aviones CN-135-300 por 250 millones de euros". Libertad Digital. 2010-04-04. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- "RI seeks to exchange planes with South Korea". The Jakarta Post. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Senegal: MoD plans to acquire two additional CN235s, including MPA versions - Dmilt.com, 30 August 2013
- "Mengenang CN-235 Phoenix Project-Australia". June 12, 2013.
- CN-235 Persuader Maritime Patrol Aircraft – Airforce Technology
- "USCG: Acquisition Programs & Projects". US Coast Guard. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- "USCG: HC-144A "Ocean Sentry" Maritime Patrol Aircraft". US Coast Guard Acquisitions Directorate. 2010-12-20. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 46.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 47.
- Hoyle, Craig (6 June 2012). "Cameroon signs deal for CN235 transport". Flightglobal. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Airbus Military welcomes Cameroon as new operator.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 48.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 49.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 50.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 51.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 52.
- "CASA CN235". Defence Forces Ireland. 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
- "Defence Security Report". Janes.com. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Mexican Police Aviation
- John Pike. "Pakistan Air Force Equipment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
- Jackson 2003, p. 207.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 59.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 63.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 64.
- ASN Aircraft accident IPTN/CASA CN-235-10 PK-MNN Garut
- "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235M-100 097 Kayseri". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Military cargo plane crashes, four die". Hürriyet Daily News. 2001-05-19. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235M-100 086 Malatya". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235MP-100M TCSG-552 Ankara-Etimesgut AFB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Aircraft accidents photos – Binter Mediterraneo – Malaga, Spain – CASA 235-200". 1001 Crash. 2001-08-29. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Binter Méditerraneo Crashes at Málaga Airport
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182 No. 5370. 11–17 December 2012. pp. 40–64.
- Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsden, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Lambert, Mark. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsden, UK:Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
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