Caspase 2

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Caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase
Protein CASP2 PDB 1pyo.png
PDB rendering based on 1pyo.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols CASP2 ; CASP-2; ICH1; NEDD-2; NEDD2; PPP1R57
External IDs OMIM600639 MGI97295 HomoloGene7254 ChEMBL: 4884 GeneCards: CASP2 Gene
EC number 3.4.22.55
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CASP2 34449 at tn.png
PBB GE CASP2 208050 s at tn.png
PBB GE CASP2 209811 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 835 12366
Ensembl ENSG00000106144 ENSMUSG00000029863
UniProt P42575 P29594
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001224 NM_007610
RefSeq (protein) NP_001215 NP_031636
Location (UCSC) Chr 7:
142.99 – 143 Mb
Chr 6:
42.26 – 42.28 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Caspase 2 also known as CASP2 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP2 gene.[1] CASP2 orthologs [2] have been identified in nearly all mammals for which complete genome data are available. Unique orthologs are also present in birds, lizards, lissamphibians, and teleosts.

Function[edit]

Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. The proteolytic cleavage of this protein is induced by a variety of apoptotic stimuli.[3]

Caspase 2 proteolytically cleaves other proteins. It belongs to a family of cysteine proteases called caspases that cleave proteins only at an amino acid following an aspartic acid residue. Within this family, caspase 2 is part of the Ich-1 subfamily. It is one of the most conserved caspases in different species of animal. Caspase 2 has a similar amino acid sequence to initiator caspases, including caspase 1, caspase 4, caspase 5, and caspase 9. It is produced as a zymogen, which contains a long pro-domain that is similar to that of caspase 9 and contains a protein interaction domain known as a CARD domain. Pro-caspase-2 contains two subunits, p19 and p12.

It has been shown to associate with several proteins involved in apoptosis using its CARD domain, including RIP-associated Ich-1/Ced-3-homologue protein with a death domain (RAIDD), apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), and death effector filament-forming Ced-4-like apoptosis protein (DEFCAP).[4] Together with RAIDD and p53-induced protein with a death domain ([PIDD])(LRDD), caspase 2 has been shown to form the so-called PIDDosome,[5] which may serve as an activation platform for the protease, although it may also be activated in the absence of PIDD.[6] In addition, caspase 2 may form a complex with the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) and PIDD (LRDD), which is involved in DNA repair after DNA damage.[7] Overall, caspase 2 appears to be a very versatile caspase with multiple functions beyond cell death induction.[8][9]

Interactions[edit]

Caspase 2 has been shown to interact with CRADD,[5][10][11] Caspase 8[12][13] and BH3 interacting domain death agonist.[12][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kumar S, White DL, Takai S, Turczynowicz S, Juttner CA, Hughes TP (June 1995). "Apoptosis regulatory gene NEDD2 maps to human chromosome segment 7q34-35, a region frequently affected in haematological neoplasms". Hum. Genet. 95 (6): 641–4. doi:10.1007/bf00209480. PMID 7789948. 
  2. ^ "OrthoMaM phylogenetic marker: CASP2 coding sequence". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: CASP2". 
  4. ^ Zhivotovsky B, Orrenius S (2005). "Caspase-2 function in response to DNA damage". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331 (3): 859–67. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.03.191. PMID 15865942. 
  5. ^ a b Tinel, Antoine; Tschopp Jürg (May 2004). "The PIDDosome, a protein complex implicated in activation of caspase-2 in response to genotoxic stress". Science (United States) 304 (5672): 843–6. doi:10.1126/science.1095432. PMID 15073321. 
  6. ^ Manzl C, Krumschnabel G, Bock F, Sohm B, Labi V, Baumgartner F, Logette E, Tschopp J, Villunger A (April 2009). "Caspase-2 activation in the absence of PIDDosome formation". J. Cell Biol. 185 (2): 291–303. doi:10.1083/jcb.200811105. PMC 2700374. PMID 19364921. 
  7. ^ Shi M, Vivian CJ, Lee KJ, Ge C, Morotomi-Yano K, Manzl C, Bock F, Sato S, Tomomori-Sato C, Zhu R, Haug JS, Swanson SK, Washburn MP, Chen DJ, Chen BP, Villunger A, Florens L, Du C (February 2009). "DNA-PKcs-PIDDosome: a nuclear caspase-2-activating complex with role in G2/M checkpoint maintenance". Cell 136 (3): 508–20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.12.021. PMID 19203584.  (Retracted. If this is intentional, please replace {{Retracted}} with {{Retracted|intentional=yes}}.)
  8. ^ Krumschnabel G, Manzl C, Villunger A (September 2009). "Caspase-2: killer, savior and safeguard--emerging versatile roles for an ill-defined caspase". Oncogene 28 (35): 3093–6. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.173. PMC 3272399. PMID 19581929. 
  9. ^ Krumschnabel G, Sohm B, Bock F, Manzl C, Villunger A (February 2009). "The enigma of caspase-2: the laymen's view". Cell Death Differ. 16 (2): 195–207. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.170. PMC 3272397. PMID 19023332. 
  10. ^ Droin, N; Beauchemin M; Solary E; Bertrand R (December 2000). "Identification of a caspase-2 isoform that behaves as an endogenous inhibitor of the caspase cascade". Cancer Res. (United States) 60 (24): 7039–47. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 11156409. 
  11. ^ Duan, H; Dixit V M (January 1997). "RAIDD is a new 'death' adaptor molecule". Nature (ENGLAND) 385 (6611): 86–9. doi:10.1038/385086a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 8985253. 
  12. ^ a b Guo, Yin; Srinivasula Srinivasa M, Druilhe Anne, Fernandes-Alnemri Teresa, Alnemri Emad S (April 2002). "Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing proapoptotic proteins from mitochondria". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (16): 13430–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108029200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11832478. 
  13. ^ Srinivasula, S M; Ahmad M; Fernandes-Alnemri T; Litwack G; Alnemri E S (December 1996). "Molecular ordering of the Fas-apoptotic pathway: the Fas/APO-1 protease Mch5 is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that activates multiple Ced-3/ICE-like cysteine proteases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 93 (25): 14486–91. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.25.14486. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 26159. PMID 8962078. 
  14. ^ Paroni, G; Henderson C; Schneider C; Brancolini C (June 2001). "Caspase-2-induced apoptosis is dependent on caspase-9, but its processing during UV- or tumor necrosis factor-dependent cell death requires caspase-3". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (24): 21907–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011565200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11399776. 

External links[edit]

  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: C14.006

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.