CCL28, also known as mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1 and SCYA28, is a chemokine. CCL28 regulates the chemotaxis of cells that express the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10. CCL28 is expressed by columnar epithelial cells in the gut, lung, breast and the salivary glands and drives the mucosal homing of T and B lymphocytes that express CCR10, and the migration of eosinophils expressing CCR3. [1 ] [2 ] This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory [3 ] cytokines and certain bacterial products implying a role in effector cell recruitment to sites of epithelial injury. CCL28 has also been implicated in the migration of [4 ] IgA-expressing cells to the mammary gland, [5 ] salivary gland, intestine and other [6 ] mucosal tissues. It has also been shown as a potential [7 ] antimicrobial agent effective against certain pathogens, such as Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and the fungus . Candida albicans [8 ]
Human CCL28 is encoded by an
RNA transcript of 373 nucleotides and a gene with four exons. The gene codes for a 127-amino acid CCL28 protein with a 22-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. It shares 76% nucleic acid identity and 83% amino acid similarity to the equivalent molecule in mouse. [9 ] Sequence analysis has revealed CCL28 to be most similar to another CC chemokine called CCL27. [10 ]
References [ edit ]
^ Rodriguez et al. 2004. Differential gene expression by integrin 7+ and 7– memory T helper cells. BMC Immunol. 5: 13.
^ Kunkel et al. 2003. CCR10 expression is a common feature of circulating and mucosal epithelial tissue IgA Ab-secreting cells. J. Clin. Invest. 111: 1001-1010.
^ John et al. 2005, Temporal production of CCL28 corresponds to eosinophil accumulation and airway hyperreactivity in allergic airway inflammation, Am. J. Pathol. 166: 345–353.
^ Hieshima et al. 2003. CCL28 has dual roles in mucosal immunity as a chemokine with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. J. Immunol. 170: 1452-1461.
^ Wilson and Butcher. CCL28 controls immunoglobulin (Ig)A plasma cell accumulation in the lactating mammary gland and IgA antibody transfer to the neonate. J Exp Med. 2004 Sep 20;200(6):805-9.
^ Feng et al. Redundant role of chemokines CCL25/TECK and CCL28/MEC in IgA+ plasmablast recruitment to the intestinal lamina propria after rotavirus infection. J Immunol. 15 May 2006;176(10):5749-59.
^ Lazarus et al. A common mucosal chemokine (mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine/CCL28) selectively attracts IgA plasmablasts. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 1;170(7):3799-805
^ Hieshima et al. CCL28 has dual roles in mucosal immunity as a chemokine with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 1;170(3):1452-61.
^ Wang et al. 2000, Identification of a novel chemokine (CCL28), which binds CCR10 (GPR2). J. Biol. Chem. 275: 22313–22323.
^ Pan et al. 2000, A novel chemokine ligand for CCR10 and CCR3 expressed by epithelial cells in mucosal tissues, J. Immunol. 165: 2943–2949.