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For carbon tetrachloride, with formula CCl4, see Carbon tetrachloride.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4
Protein CCL4 PDB 1hum.png
PDB rendering based on 1hum.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols CCL4 ; ACT2; AT744.1; G-26; HC21; LAG-1; LAG1; MIP-1-beta; MIP1B; MIP1B1; SCYA2; SCYA4
External IDs OMIM182284 MGI98261 HomoloGene48153 GeneCards: CCL4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CCL4 204103 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6351 20303
Ensembl ENSG00000129277 ENSMUSG00000018930
UniProt P13236 P14097
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002984 NM_013652
RefSeq (protein) NP_002975 NP_038680
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
34.43 – 34.43 Mb
Chr 11:
83.66 – 83.66 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4, also known as CCL4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL4 gene.[1]


CCL4, also known as Macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) is a CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 receptors. It is a chemoattractant for natural killer cells, monocytes and a variety of other immune cells.[2]

CCL4 is a major HIV-suppressive factor produced by CD8+ T cells.[3]

Perforin-low memory CD8+ T cells that normally synthesize MIP-1-beta.[4]


CCL4 has been shown to interact with CCL3.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Irving SG, Zipfel PF, Balke J, McBride OW, Morton CC, Burd PR, Siebenlist U, Kelly K (June 1990). "Two inflammatory mediator cytokine genes are closely linked and variably amplified on chromosome 17q". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (11): 3261–70. doi:10.1093/nar/18.11.3261. PMC 330932. PMID 1972563. 
  2. ^ Bystry RS, Aluvihare V, Welch KA, Kallikourdis M, Betz AG (December 2001). "B cells and professional APCs recruit regulatory T cells via CCL4". Nat. Immunol. 2 (12): 1126–32. doi:10.1038/ni735. PMID 11702067. 
  3. ^ Cocchi F, DeVico AL, Garzino-Demo A, Arya SK, Gallo RC, Lusso P (December 1995). "Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells". Science 270 (5243): 1811–5. doi:10.1126/science.270.5243.1811. PMID 8525373. 
  4. ^ Kamin-Lewis R, Abdelwahab SF, Trang C, Baker A, DeVico AL, Gallo RC, Lewis GK (July 2001). "Perforin-low memory CD8+ cells are the predominant T cells in normal humans that synthesize the β-chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1β". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (16): 9283–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.161298998. PMC 55412. PMID 11470920. 
  5. ^ Guan, E; Wang J; Norcross M A (Apr 2001). "Identification of human macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta as a native secreted heterodimer". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (15): 12404–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006327200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278300. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (2002). "Macrophage inflammatory protein-1". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (6): 455–81. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(02)00045-X. PMID 12401480. 
  • Muthumani K, Desai BM, Hwang DS et al. (2004). "HIV-1 Vpr and anti-inflammatory activity". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 239–47. doi:10.1089/104454904773819824. PMID 15142381. 
  • Conti L, Fantuzzi L, Del Cornò M et al. (2005). "Immunomodulatory effects of the HIV-1 gp120 protein on antigen presenting cells: implications for AIDS pathogenesis". Immunobiology 209 (1–2): 99–115. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2004.02.008. PMID 15481145. 
  • Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (1): 87–94. doi:10.2174/1570162052773013. PMID 15638726. 
  • Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Res. 15 (3): 143–9. doi:10.1038/ PMID 15780175. 
  • Zhao RY, Bukrinsky M, Elder RT (2005). "HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses". Indian J. Med. Res. 121 (4): 270–86. PMID 15817944. 
  • Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD et al. (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11–12): 923–34. doi:10.1038/ PMID 16354571. 
  • King JE, Eugenin EA, Buckner CM, Berman JW (2006). "HIV tat and neurotoxicity". Microbes Infect. 8 (5): 1347–57. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.11.014. PMID 16697675. 
  • Napolitano M, Modi WS, Cevario SJ et al. (1991). "The gene encoding the Act-2 cytokine. Genomic structure, HTLV-I/Tax responsiveness of 5' upstream sequences, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (26): 17531–6. PMID 1894635. 
  • Irving SG, Zipfel PF, Balke J et al. (1990). "Two inflammatory mediator cytokine genes are closely linked and variably amplified on chromosome 17q". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (11): 3261–70. doi:10.1093/nar/18.11.3261. PMC 330932. PMID 1972563. 
  • Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Jitsukawa S et al. (1991). "Cloning and expression of a lymphocyte activation gene (LAG-1)". Mol. Immunol. 27 (11): 1091–102. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(90)90097-J. PMID 2247088. 
  • Lipes MA, Napolitano M, Jeang KT et al. (1989). "Identification, cloning, and characterization of an immune activation gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (24): 9704–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.24.9704. PMC 282843. PMID 2462251. 
  • Brown KD, Zurawski SM, Mosmann TR, Zurawski G (1989). "A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes". J. Immunol. 142 (2): 679–87. PMID 2521353. 
  • Zipfel PF, Balke J, Irving SG et al. (1989). "Mitogenic activation of human T cells induces two closely related genes which share structural similarities with a new family of secreted factors". J. Immunol. 142 (5): 1582–90. PMID 2521882. 
  • Chang HC, Reinherz EL (1989). "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a putative cytokine which is induced by stimulation via the CD2 structure on human T lymphocytes". Eur. J. Immunol. 19 (6): 1045–51. doi:10.1002/eji.1830190614. PMID 2568930. 
  • Miller MD, Hata S, De Waal Malefyt R, Krangel MS (1989). "A novel polypeptide secreted by activated human T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 143 (9): 2907–16. PMID 2809212. 
  • Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD et al. (1995). "Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence" (PDF). Nature 377 (6547 Suppl): 3–174. PMID 7566098. 
  • Post TW, Bozic CR, Rothenberg ME et al. (1995). "Molecular characterization of two murine eosinophil beta chemokine receptors". J. Immunol. 155 (11): 5299–305. PMID 7594543. 
  • Combadiere C, Ahuja SK, Murphy PM (1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (28): 16491–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.28.16491. PMID 7622448. 
  • Paolini JF, Willard D, Consler T et al. (1994). "The chemokines IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and I-309 are monomers at physiologically relevant concentrations". J. Immunol. 153 (6): 2704–17. PMID 8077676.