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Prominin 1
Symbols PROM1 ; AC133; CD133; CORD12; MCDR2; PROML1; RP41; STGD4
External IDs OMIM604365 MGI1100886 HomoloGene4390 GeneCards: PROM1 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 8842 19126
Ensembl ENSG00000007062 ENSMUSG00000029086
UniProt O43490 O54990
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001145847 NM_001163577
RefSeq (protein) NP_001139319 NP_001157049
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
15.96 – 16.09 Mb
Chr 5:
43.99 – 44.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD133, originally known as AC133.[1] CD133 is a glycoprotein also known in humans and rodents as Prominin 1 (PROM1).[2] Currently the function of CD133 is unknown. It is a member of pentaspan transmembrane glycoproteins (5-transmembrane, 5-TM), which specifically localize to cellular protrusions.

CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells,[3] endothelial progenitor cells,[4] glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells,[5] various pediatric brain tumors,[6] as well as adult kidney, mammary glands, trachea, salivary glands, placenta, digestive tract, testes, and some other cell types.[7][8]

Recent studies in brain tumors have identified a CD133+ cell population thought to be a cancer stem cell population, which is rare, undergoes self-renewal and differentiation, and can propagate tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice.[6][9][10] However, subsequent studies have indicated the difficulty in isolating pure CSC populations.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Yin A, et al (1997). "AC133, is a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells". Blood 90 (12): 5002–5012. PMID 9389720. 
  2. ^ Corbeil D, Fargeas C, Huttner W (2001). "Rat prominin, like its mouse and human orthologues, is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285 (4): 939–44. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5271. PMID 11467842. 
  3. ^ Horn PA, Tesch H, Staib P, Kube D, Diehl V, Voliotis D (1999). "Expression of AC133, a novel hematopoietic precursor antigen, on acute myeloid leukemia cells". Blood 93 (4): 1435–37. PMID 10075457. 
  4. ^ Corbeil D, Röper K, Hellwig A, Tavian M, Miraglia S, Watt S, Simmons P, Peault B, Buck D, Huttner W (2000). "The human AC133 hematopoietic stem cell antigen is also expressed in epithelial cells and targeted to plasma membrane protrusions". J Biol Chem 275 (8): 5512–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.8.5512. PMID 10681530. 
  5. ^ Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (2005). "Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas". N Engl J Med 353 (8): 811–822. doi:10.1056/NEJMra043666. PMID 16120861. 
  6. ^ a b Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB (2003). "Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors". Cancer Res 63 (1): 5821–5828. PMID 14522905. 
  7. ^ Mizrak D, Brittan M, Alison MR (2008). "CD133: Molecule of the moment". J Pathol 214 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1002/path.2283. PMID 18067118. 
  8. ^ Shmelkov S, St Clair R, Lyden D, Rafii S (2005). "AC133/CD133/Prominin-1". Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37 (4): 715–9. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.08.010. PMID 15694831. 
  9. ^ Hemmati HD, Nakano I, Lazareff JA, Masterman-Smith M, Geschwind DH, Bronner-Fraser M, Kornblum HI (2003). "Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 (25): 15178–15183. doi:10.1073/pnas.2036535100. PMC 299944. PMID 14645703. 
  10. ^ Galli R, Binda E, Orfanelli U, Cipelletti B, Gritti A, De Vitis S, Fiocco R, Foroni C, Dimeco F, Vescovi A (2004). "Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma". Cancer Res 64 (19): 7011–7021. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1364. PMID 15466194. 
  11. ^ Wang J, Sakariassen PO, Tsinkalovsky O, Immervoll H, Boe SO, Svendsen A, Prestegarden L, Rosland G, Thorsen F, Stuhr L, Molven A, Bjerkvig R, Enger PO (2008). "CD133 negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133 positive cells". Int J Cancer 122 (4): 761–768. doi:10.1002/ijc.23130. PMID 17955491. 

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