Syndecan 1

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Syndecan 1
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols SDC1 ; CD138; SDC; SYND1; syndecan
External IDs OMIM186355 MGI1349162 HomoloGene2252 GeneCards: SDC1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SDC1 201286 at tn.png
PBB GE SDC1 201287 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6382 20969
Ensembl ENSG00000115884 ENSMUSG00000020592
UniProt P18827 P18828
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001006946 NM_011519
RefSeq (protein) NP_001006947 NP_035649
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
20.4 – 20.43 Mb
Chr 12:
8.77 – 8.79 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Syndecan 1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SDC1 gene.[1][2]

Function[edit]

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate proteoglycan and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. The syndecans mediate cell binding, cell signaling, and cytoskeletal organization and syndecan receptors are required for internalization of the HIV-1 tat protein. The syndecan-1 protein functions as an integral membrane protein and participates in cell proliferation, cell migration and cell-matrix interactions via its receptor for extracellular matrix proteins. Syndecan-1 is a sponge for growth factors, with binding largely via heparan sulfate chains.

An exception is the prosecretory mitogen lacritin that binds syndecan-1 only after heparanase modification.[3][4] Binding utilizes an enzyme-regulated 'off-on' switch in which active epithelial heparanase (HPSE) cleaves off heparan sulfate to expose a binding site in the N-terminal region of syndecan-1's core protein.[3]Three SDC1 elements are required. (1) The heparanase-exposed hydrophobic sequence GAGAL that promotes the alpha helicity of lacritin's C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix form and likely binds to the hydrophobic face. (2) Heparanase-cleaved heparan sulfate that is 3-O sulfated.[4] This likely interacts with the cationic face of lacritin's C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix. (3) An N-terminal chondroitin sulfate chain that also likely binds to the cationic face. Point mutagenesis of lacritin has narrowed the ligation site.[4] Altered syndecan-1 expression has been detected in several different tumor types. While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode the same protein.[5]

Application[edit]

It is a useful marker for plasma cells,[6] but only if the cells tested are already known to be derived from blood.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mali M, Jaakkola P, Arvilommi AM, Jalkanen M (April 1990). "Sequence of human syndecan indicates a novel gene family of integral membrane proteoglycans". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (12): 6884–9. ISSN 1083-351X. PMID 2324102. 
  2. ^ Ala-Kapee M, Nevanlinna H, Mali M, Jalkanen M, Schröder J (September 1990). "Localization of gene for human syndecan, an integral membrane proteoglycan and a matrix receptor, to chromosome 2". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 16 (5): 501–5. doi:10.1007/BF01233200. PMID 2173154. 
  3. ^ a b Ma P, Beck SL, Raab RW, McKown RL, Coffman GL, Utani A, Chirico WJ, Rapraeger AC, Laurie GW (September 2006). "Heparanase deglycanation of syndecan-1 is required for binding of the epithelial-restricted prosecretory mitogen lacritin". The Journal of Cell Biology 174 (7): 1097–106. doi:10.1083/jcb.200511134. PMC 1666580. PMID 16982797. 
  4. ^ a b c Zhang Y, Wang N, Raab RW, McKown RL, Irwin JA, Kwon I, van Kuppevelt TH, Laurie GW (March 2013). "Targeting of heparanase-modified syndecan-1 by prosecretory mitogen lacritin requires conserved core GAGAL plus heparan and chondroitin sulfate as a novel hybrid binding site that enhances selectivity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 288 (17): 12090–101. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.422717. PMC 3636894. PMID 23504321. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: SDC1 syndecan 1". 
  6. ^ Rawstron AC (May 2006). "Immunophenotyping of plasma cells". Curr Protoc Cytom. Chapter 6: Unit6.23. doi:10.1002/0471142956.cy0623s36. ISBN 0-471-14295-6. PMID 18770841. 
  7. ^ O'Connell FP, Pinkus JL, Pinkus GS (February 2004). "CD138 (syndecan-1), a plasma cell marker immunohistochemical profile in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic neoplasms". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 121 (2): 254–63. doi:10.1309/617D-WB5G-NFWX-HW4L. PMID 14983940. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]