CD1D

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CD1d molecule
Protein CD1D PDB 1zt4.png
PDB rendering based on 1zt4.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols CD1D ; CD1A; R3
External IDs OMIM188410 MGI107674 HomoloGene1337 ChEMBL: 1649053 GeneCards: CD1D Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD1D 205789 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 912 12479
Ensembl ENSG00000158473 ENSMUSG00000028076
UniProt P15813 P11609
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001766 NM_007639
RefSeq (protein) NP_001757 NP_031665
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
158.15 – 158.15 Mb
Chr 3:
87 – 87 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d,[1] a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. They are non-classical MHC proteins, related to the class I MHC proteins, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. CD1d is the only member of the group 2 CD1 molecules.

Biological significance[edit]

CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known as natural killer T (NKT) cells, through the interaction with the T-cell receptor present on NKT membranes.[1] When activated, NKT cells rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production.

Nomenclature[edit]

CD1d is also known as R3G1

Ligands[edit]

Some of the known ligands for CD1d are:

CD1d tetramers[edit]

CD1d tetramers are protein constructs composed of four CD1d molecules joined together and usually fluorescently labelled, used to identify NKT cells or other CD1d-reactive cells. In particular, type I NKT cells and some type II NKT cells are stained by them. A differentiation of these two types can be obtained in human by using an antibody against the TCR Vα24 chain, which is specific of type I NKT cells.[6]

Although they are the most widely used of CD1d oligomers, sometimes CD1d dimers (two units) or pentamers (five units) are used instead.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "P15813 (CD1D_HUMAN)". Uniprot. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  2. ^ Franck, Richard W. (1 January 2012). "C-Galactosylceramide: Synthesis and Immunology". C R Chim. 15 (1): 46–56. doi:10.1016/j.crci.2011.05.006. PMC 3293403. 
  3. ^ Bendelac, A; Savage PB; Teyton I (2007). "The Biology of NKT Cells". Annual Review of Immunology 25: 297–336. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141711. PMID 17150027. 
  4. ^ Zhou, D (August 2006). "The immunological function of iGb3". Current Protein & Peptide Science 7 (4): 325–323. doi:10.2174/138920306778018007. PMID 16918447. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  5. ^ J L Prodger, R Gray, G Kigozi, F Nalugoda, R Galiwango, T Hirbod, M Wawer, S O P Hofer, N Sewankambo, D Serwadda and R Kaul (2012). "Foreskin T-cell subsets differ substantially from blood with respect to HIV co-receptor expression, inflammatory profile, and memory status". Mucosal Immunology 5 (2): 121–128. doi:10.1038/mi.2011.56. PMID 22089029. 
  6. ^ a b Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A. (2008). "The Role of NKT Cells in Tumor Immunity". Adv Cancer Res. PMC 2693255. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]