The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility.
CD9 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. It is found on the surface of exosomes. It can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation and aggregation. In addition, the protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance. This protein also seems to be a key part in the egg-sperm fusion during mammalian fertilization, as CD9 knocked-out mice gametes don't undergo fusion. CD9 is located in the microvillar membrane of the oocytes and also appears to intervene in maintaining the normal shape of oocyte microvilli.
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Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta 1 integrins in human melanoma". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.222 (1): 13–18. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0690. PMID8630057.
Schmidt C, Künemund V, Wintergerst ES, Schmitz B, Schachner M (1996). "CD9 of mouse brain is implicated in neurite outgrowth and cell migration in vitro and is associated with the alpha 6/beta 1 integrin and the neural adhesion molecule L1". J. Neurosci. Res.43 (1): 12–31. doi:10.1002/jnr.490430103. PMID8838570.
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Tachibana I, Bodorova J, Berditchevski F, Zutter MM, Hemler ME (1997). "NAG-2, a novel transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF) protein that complexes with integrins and other TM4SF proteins". J. Biol. Chem.272 (46): 29181–29189. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.46.29181. PMID9360996.