CDX2

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Caudal type homeobox 2
Identifiers
Symbols CDX2 ; CDX-3; CDX3
External IDs OMIM600297 MGI88361 HomoloGene968 GeneCards: CDX2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CDX2 206387 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1045 12591
Ensembl ENSG00000165556 ENSMUSG00000029646
UniProt Q99626 P43241
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001265 NM_007673
RefSeq (protein) NP_001256 NP_031699
Location (UCSC) Chr 13:
28.54 – 28.55 Mb
Chr 5:
147.3 – 147.31 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Homeobox protein CDX-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDX2 gene.[1][1] The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox transcription factor.

Function[edit]

Cdx2 is the gene that directs early embryogenesis in mice. It is required to form the placenta.[2]

Ectopic expression of CDX2 was reported more than 85% of the human patients with Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ectopic expression of Cdx2 in murine bone marrow induced AML in mice and upregulate Hox genes in bone marrow progenitors.[3][3][4] CDX2 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus were it has been shown that components from gastroesofageal reflux such as bile acids are able to induce the expression of an intestinal differentiation program through up-regulation of NF-κB and CDX2.[5]

Biomarker for intestinal cancer[edit]

CDX2 is also used in diagnostic surgical pathology as a marker for gastrointestinal differentiation, especially colorectal.[6]

Possible use in stem cell research[edit]

This gene (or, more specifically, the equivalent gene in humans) has come up in the proposal by the President's Council on Bioethics, as a solution to the stem cell controversy.[7] According to one of the plans put forth, by deactivating the gene, it would not be possible for a properly organized embryo to form, thus providing stem cells without requiring the destruction of an embryo.[8] Other genes that have been proposed for this purpose include Hnf4, which is required for gastrulation.[7][9]

Interactions[edit]

CDX2 has been shown to interact with EP300,[10] CREB binding protein[11] and PAX6.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b German MS, Wang J, Fernald AA, Espinosa R 3rd, Le Beau MM, Bell GI (May 1995). "Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13". Genomics 24 (2): 403–4. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1639. PMID 7698771. 
  2. ^ Chawengsaksophak K, de Graaff W, Rossant J, Deschamps J, Beck F (May 2004). "Cdx2 is essential for axial elongation in mouse development". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (20): 7641–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401654101. PMC 419659. PMID 15136723. 
  3. ^ a b Rawat VP, Cusan M, Deshpande A, Hiddemann W, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Humphries RK, Bohlander SK, Feuring-Buske M, Buske C (January 2004). "Ectopic expression of the homeobox gene Cdx2 is the transforming event in a mouse model of t(12;13)(p13;q12) acute myeloid leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (3): 817–22. doi:10.1073/pnas.0305555101. PMC 321764. PMID 14718672. 
  4. ^ Scholl C, Bansal D, Döhner K, Eiwen K, Huntly BJ, Lee BH, Rücker FG, Schlenk RF, Bullinger L, Döhner H, Gilliland DG, Fröhling S (April 2007). "The homeobox gene CDX2 is aberrantly expressed in most cases of acute myeloid leukemia and promotes leukemogenesis". J. Clin. Invest. 117 (4): 1037–48. doi:10.1172/JCI30182. PMC 1810574. PMID 17347684. 
  5. ^ Debruyne PR, Witek M, Gong L, Birbe R, Chervoneva I, Jin T, Domon-Cell C, Palazzo JP, Freund JN, Li P, Pitari GM, Schulz S, Waldman SA (April 2006). "Bile acids induce ectopic expression of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C Through nuclear factor-kappaB and Cdx2 in human esophageal cells". Gastroenterology 130 (4): 1191–206. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2005.12.032. PMID 16618413. 
  6. ^ Liu Q, Teh M, Ito K, Shah N, Ito Y, Yeoh KG (December 2007). "CDX2 expression is progressively decreased in human gastric intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer". Mod. Pathol. 20 (12): 1286–97. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800968. PMID 17906616. 
  7. ^ a b Hurlbut WB (2004). "Altered Nuclear Transfer as a Morally Acceptable Means for the Procurement of Human Embryonic Stem Cells". The President's Council on Bioethics. The White House of the United States of America. Retrieved 2008-07-16. [dead link]
  8. ^ Saletan W (2004-12-06). "The creepy solution to the stem-cell debate". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  9. ^ Hurlbut WB (2007). "Ethics and embryonic stem cell research: altered nuclear transfer as a way forward". BioDrugs 21 (2): 79–83. PMID 17402791. 
  10. ^ a b Hussain, M A; Habener J F (Oct 1999). "Glucagon gene transcription activation mediated by synergistic interactions of pax-6 and cdx-2 with the p300 co-activator". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (41): 28950–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.41.28950. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10506141. 
  11. ^ Lorentz, O; Suh E R, Taylor J K, Boudreau F, Traber P G (Mar 1999). "CREB-binding [corrected] protein interacts with the homeodomain protein Cdx2 and enhances transcriptional activity". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (11): 7196–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7196. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10066780.  (Retracted. If this is intentional, please replace {{Retracted}} with {{Retracted|intentional=yes}}.)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]