Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
Map of North, Central and South America indicating CELAC members.
|Membership||33 member states|
|-||President pro tempore||Luis Guillermo Solís|
|Establishment||23 February 2010|
7,881,619 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|HDI (2011)|| 0.721
|a.||Does not include Barbados, Cuba, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname.|
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Spanish: Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC; Portuguese: Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos; French: Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas. It consists of 33 sovereign countries in the Americas representing roughly 600 million people. Absent from the bloc are Canada and the United States, as well as the territories of France, the Netherlands, Denmark and the United Kingdom in the Americas.
CELAC is an example of a decade-long push for deeper integration within the Americas. CELAC is being created to deepen Latin American integration and to reduce the once overwhelming influence of the United States on the politics and economics of Latin America. It is seen as an alternative to the Organization of American States (OAS), the regional body organised largely by Washington in 1948, ostensibly as a countermeasure to potential Soviet influence in the region.
CELAC is the successor of the Rio Group and the Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC). In July 2010, CELAC selected President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez and President of Chile Sebastián Piñera, as co-chairs of the forum to draft statutes for the organization.
CELAC comprises 33 countries speaking five different languages:
Eighteen Spanish-speaking countries (56% of the area, 63% of the population)
One Portuguese-speaking country (42% of the area, 34% of the population)
One French-speaking country (0.1% of the area, 1.6% of the population)
Twelve English-speaking countries (1.3% of the area, 1.1% of the population)
One Dutch-speaking country (0.8% of the area, 0.1% of the population)
Twelve countries are in South America, which accounts for 87% of the area and 68% of the population.
On February 23, 2010, Latin American leaders at the 23rd Rio Group summit in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico, said they were forming an organisation of the Latin American and Caribbean states. Once its charter was developed, the group was formally established in July 2011, at a summit in Caracas. The bloc will be the main forum for political dialogue for the area, without the United States or Canada.
In an interview in February 2010, President Evo Morales of Bolivia said, "A union of Latin American countries is the weapon against imperialism. It is necessary to create a regional body that excludes the United States and Canada. ...Where there are U.S. military bases that do not respect democracy, where there is a political empire with his blackmailers, with its constraints, there is no development for that country, and especially there is no social peace and, therefore, it is the best time for prime ministers of Latin America and the Caribbean to gestate this great new organization without the United States to free our peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean."
At the 23rd Rio Group summit, President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela said, "Now here, in Mexico, a document, a commitment, the creation of a body of Latin America and the Caribbean, without the USA, without Canada (...) Now we can say from Latin America, from Mexico (...) we have revived the dream and project of Bolívar." Mexican President Felipe Calderón added, "We decided, for the first time, to form the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States as a regional space consisting of all states." Calderon said, "We cannot remain disunited; we cannot successfully take on the future based on our differences; now it's up to us to unite without discounting the things that make us different … to unite based on our similarities, which far outweigh our differences." Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said it is "A historic fact of great significance."
President Rafael Correa of Ecuador said that the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States "can be much more effective than other instances to solve ourselves, with our own strengths, our own visions, our conflicts."
Raúl Zibechi, writing for Mexico's center-left La Jornada newspaper said, "The creation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States is part of a global and continental shift, characterized by the decline of U.S. hegemony and the rise of a group of regional blocs that form part of the new global balance."
An editorial in Brazil's conservative Estadao newspaper said, "CELAC reflects the disorientation of the region's governments in relation to its problematic environment and its lack of foreign policy direction, locked as it is into the illusion that snubbing the United States will do for Latin American integration what 200 years of history failed to do."
As the first summit was underway in December 2011 United States President Barack Obama's senior adviser on Latin America, Daniel Restrepo, informed reporters from Miami that the U.S. government would "watch and see what direction CELAC takes".
CELAC's inaugural summit was due to be held in mid-2011, but was postponed because of the ill-health of Hugo Chávez, president of the host nation, Venezuela. The summit was instead held on 2 and 3 December 2011 in Caracas. It primarily focused on the global economic crisis and its effects on the region. Several leaders, including presidents Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Dilma Rousseff and Juan Manuel Santos, encouraged an increase in regional trade, economic development, and further economic cooperation among members in order to defend their growing economies.
Chavez, and other leaders such as Rafael Correa and Daniel Ortega, expressed hope that the bloc would work to further Latin American integration, end U.S. hegemony and consolidate control over regional affairs. Chavez, citing the Monroe Doctrine as the original confirmation of U.S. interference in the region, openly called for CELAC to replace the OAS: "As the years go by, CELAC is going to leave behind the old and worn-out OAS." Correa called for a new human rights commission to replace the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Other leaders argued that the organisation should be used as a tool to resolve regional disagreements and uphold democratic values, but not as a replacement of the OAS. Santos stated that he would like to see dialogue within the group over whether existing counter-drug regulations should be revised. The president of the Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) said he expects that Parlatino will become the main legislative institution of CELAC. Amongst the key issues on the agenda were the creation of a "new financial architecture," sanction for maintaining the legal status of coca in Bolivia and the rejection of the Cuban embargo by the U.S.
The next two summits are scheduled to be held in Chile in 2013 and Cuba in 2014.
The following table shows various data for CELAC member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various indices, including human development, viability of the state, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.
|Antigua and Barbuda||440||89,069||1,749,346,536||19,640||N/A||0.760||58.0||N/A||N/A||N/A||20.81||N/A|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||260||53,584||985,075,607||18,384||N/A||0.745||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||390||109,373||1,208,207,583||11,047||N/A||0.733||N/A||62||67.0||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Trinidad and Tobago||5,130||1,337,439||35,508,628,732||26,550||40.27||0.760||62.6||38||62.7||2.074||23.28||6.99|
|Note: The colors indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).|
|Highest quartile||Upper-mid (2nd to 3rd quartile)||Lower-mid (1st to 2nd quartile)||Lowest|
|Summit||Year||Host country||Host city|
- Union of South American Nations
- Caribbean Community
- Latin American Integration Association
- United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
- Staff writer (24 February 2010). "CARICOM: We are not mashing up the OAS". Caribbean News Agency. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Singh, Rickey (28 February 2010). "Caricom must list the benefits". Trinidad Express. Retrieved 4 March 2010.[dead link]
- Sanders, Ronald (28 February 2010). "To OAS or not to OAS: that is the question". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Singh, Rickey (28 February 2010). "Decline of OAS in New Caricom/LA 'Community'". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Editorial (26 February 2010). "Latin America Has Excluded the U.S. ... So What Now?". La Razón (Bolivia: via translation from WorldMeets.US). Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "World Development Indicators". World Bank. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- "''Mexidata'' (English) March 1, 2010". Mexidata.info. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Acuerdan crear Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, Associated Press, February 23, 2010.
- América Latina crea una OEA sin Estados Unidos, El País, February 23, 2010.
- "L. American leaders officially sign CELAC into effect as new bloc". news.xinhuanet.com. December 4, 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
- Gooding, Kerri. "IVCC encouraging bilingualism and cultural integration". The Barbados Advocate (Advocate Co.). Retrieved December 26, 2011. "However, at present much of the integration occurs at the governmental, political and policy level as opposed to the personal, individual level, hence Tutor Jamal Henry added his voice to the plea by the Ambassador to have more persons embracing the culture and learning Spanish. CELAC comprises 33 nations making up an estimated population of 600 million people with five official languages. United and integrated the countries of CELAC can be powerful, “together [the 33 nations of CELAC] are the number one food exporter on the planet,” further commented Ambassador Febres."
- MercoPress, 2010 Feb. 24, "Mexico Gives Birth to the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States," http://en.mercopress.com/2010/02/24/mexico-gives-birth-to-the-community-of-latinamerican-and-caribbean-states
- New York Times, 2010 Feb. 28, "Quake Overshadows Clinton Tour of Region," http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/01/world/americas/01clinton.html?ref=americas
- "_ Nuestro Norte es el SUR". Telesurtv.net. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Presidentes constituyen la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, EFE, February 23, 2010.
- CounterPunch, 3 August 2010, Behind the Colombia / Venezuela Tensions
- http://www.indymedia-letzebuerg.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44165&Itemid=28 Indymedia (English) February 24, 2010
- "Cancilleres del Grupo de Río avanzaron en idea de crear nueva instancia regional". granma.cu. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- TeleSURtv.net - Chávez afirma que con nuevo organismo latinoamericano renace el proyecto de Bolívar[dead link]
- TeleSURtv.net - Crean nuevo organismo regional en Cumbre de Río[dead link]
- Clovis Rossi Latin American Unity Cannot Be Dependent on Excluding the U.S. Folha, Brazil, via translation from WorldMeets.US (English) February 22, 2010.
- EDITORIAL In Latin America, Rhetoric Triumphs Over Reality Estadao, Brazil, via translation by WorldMeets.US (English) February 25, 2010.
- TeleSURtv.net - Correa confía en la recién creada Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños[dead link]
- Rueda, Jorge; James, Ian; Toothaker, Christopher (3 December 2011). "Leaders at Americas talks: world economy top worry". Seattle pi (Hearst Communications Inc.). Associated Press.
- Staff writers (3 December 2011). "Venezuela hosts first CELAC summit". PressTV.
- Raúl Zibechi Latin America's Inexorable March Toward 'Autonomy from the Imperial Center' La Jornada, Mexico, via translation by WorldMeets.US (English) February 26, 2010
- Christopher Toothaker (2011-12-02). "CELAC, Community Of Latin American And Caribbean States, New Organization Aims To Strengthen Regional Integration". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- "ESO exhibition area at the CELAC–EU summit in Santiago". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Latin American summit re-run to test Chavez health". Reuters. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- Staff writers (2 December 2011). "Parlatino Interested in Being CELAC Legislative Organization". Prensa Latina.
- "Obama in Cartagena: No change, dwindling hope - Opinion". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Staff writers (2 December 2011). "CELAC Summit Votes for Cuba to Host 3rd Meeting". Prensa Latina.
- "Human Development Report 2013". United Nations Development Programme. 2012-03. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- "The Failed States Index 2013". The Fund for Peace. 2013-07. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. 2013-12. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation. 2014-01. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Global Peace Index 2013". Vision of Humanity. 2013-06. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. 2014-02. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Democracy Index 2012" (PDF). The Economist. 2013-03. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
- ' + gmt_datetime( CmsgList[i].m_datetime ) + '. "CELAC-EU summit opens in Chile - Business News". SINA English. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- CELAC Parlament (Spanish)