Customer relationship management
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a model for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.
CRM systems for marketing track and measure campaigns over multiple channels, such as email, search, social media, telephone and direct mail. These systems track clicks, responses, leads and deals.
Customer service and support
CRM systems can be used to create, assign and manage requests made by customers, such as call center software which helps direct customers to agents. CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers over a period of time.
CRM systems can automatically suggest suitable appointment times to customers via e-mail or the web. These can then be synchronized with the representative or agent's calendar.
For small businesses a CRM system may simply consist of a contact manager system which integrates emails, documents, jobs, faxes, and scheduling for individual accounts. CRM systems available for specific markets (legal, finance) frequently focus on event management and relationship tracking as opposed to financial return on investment (ROI).
CRM often makes use of social media to build up customer relationships. Some CRM systems integrate social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook to track and communicate with customers sharing their opinions and experiences with a company, products and services. Enterprise Feedback Management software platforms such as Confirmit, Medallia, and Satmetrix combine internal survey data with trends identified through social media to allow businesses to make more accurate decisions on which products to supply.
Non-profit and membership-based
Systems for non-profit and membership-based organizations help track constituents, fund-raising, demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communication with individuals.
Customer-centric relationship management (CCRM)
CCRM is a style of customer relationship management that focuses on customer preferences, instead of customer leverage. This is a nascent sub-discipline of traditional customer relationship management, to take advantage of changes in communications technology.
A CRM system becoming more “customer-centric” means being able to manage critical relationships more effectively and being positioned to offer new and expanded services. 
Customer centric organizations help customers make better decisions and drive profitability. CCRM adds value by engaging customers in individual, interactive relationships.
Customer-centricity differs from client-centricity in that the latter refers almost exclusively to business-to-business models rather than customer-facing firms.
Features of CCRM
Customer-centric relationship management is used in marketing, customer service and sales, including:
- tailored marketing
- one-to-one customer service
- retaining customers
- building brand loyalty
- providing information customers actually want
- Subscription billing
In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $2 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. According to KEN Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above 90 percent. Many corporations only use CRM systems on a partial or fragmented basis. In a 2007 survey from the UK, four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing system.. Recently, it is found in a study that market research regarding consumers preference may increase the adoption of CRM among the developing countries' consumers. 
The CRM market grew by 12.5 percent in 2008, from revenue of $8.13 billion in 2007 to $9.15 billion in 2008. The following table lists the top vendors in 2006–2008 (figures in millions of US dollars) published in Gartner studies.
|Vendor||2008 Revenue||2008 Share (%)||2007 Revenue||2007 Share (%)||2006 Revenue||2006 Share (%)|
|SAP AG||2,055||22.5 (−2.8)||2,050.8||25.3||1,681.7||25.6|
Many CRM vendors offer subscription-based web tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS). Some CRM systems are equipped with mobile capabilities, making information accessible to remote sales staff. Salesforce.com was the first company to provide enterprise applications through a web browser, and has maintained its leadership position. Traditional providers have recently moved into the cloud-based market via acquisitions of smaller providers: Oracle purchased RightNow in October 2011 and SAP acquired SuccessFactors in December 2011.
The era of the "social customer" refers to the use of social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Pinterest, Instagram, Yelp, customer reviews in Amazon, etc.) by customers. CR philosophy and strategy has shifted to encompass social networks and user communities.
Sales forces also play an important role in CRM, as maximizing sales effectiveness and increasing sales productivity is a driving force behind the adoption of CRM. Empowering sales managers was listed as one of the top 5 CRM trends in 2013.
Another related development is vendor relationship management (VRM), which provide tools and services that allow customers to manage their individual relationship with vendors. VRM development has grown out of efforts by ProjectVRM at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society and Identity Commons' Internet Identity Workshops, as well as by a growing number of startups and established companies. VRM was the subject of a cover story in the May 2010 issue of CRM Magazine.
In 2001, Doug Laney developed the concept and coined the term 'Extended Relationship Management' (XRM). Laney defines XRM as extending CRM disciplines to secondary allies such as the government, press and industry consortia.
CRM futurist Dennison DeGregor describes a shift from 'push CRM' toward a 'customer transparency' (CT) model, due to the increased proliferation of channels, devices, and social media.
- Shaw, Robert, Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9
- SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers?
- DestinationCRM.com (2009) Who Owns the Social Customer?
- Lester, Aaron (2013-04-23). "Seeking treasure from social media tracking? Follow the customer". SearchBusinessAnalytics. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
- It’s all about the Customer, Stupid – The Importance of Customer Centric Partners
- Sales and Customer Services–CRM: Services Overview
- Customer-centric relationship management system development: A generative knowledge integration perspective
- CRM and customer-centric knowledge management: an empirical research
- Jim Dickie, CSO Insights (2006) Demystifying CRM Adoption Rates
- Joachim, David. "CRM tools improve access, usability." (cover story). B to B 87, no. 3 (11 March 2002): 1
- David Sims, TMC.net (2007) CRM Adoption ‘Biggest Problem’ in 83 Percent of Cases
- Hasan, M. R., Rahman, M., And Khan, M. M. (2013). Rural Consumers’ Adoption of CRM in a Developing Country Context. International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), 2(9), 121-131. 
- DestinationCRM.com (2009) CRM Market Grows for Fifth Straight Year
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Customer Relationship Management Market Grew 23 Percent in 2007" (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide CRM Market Grew 12.5 Percent in 2008" (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- Cloud CRM to Work PC World: April, 2010
- Buys Cloud-based Customer Service Company RightNow For $1.5 Billion Techcrunch: 24 October 2011
- Challenges Oracle With $3.4 Billion SuccessFactors Purchase Bloomberg Businessweek: 7 December 2011
- Greenberg, Paul (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 7.
- "Top 5 CRM Trends for 2013". Enterprise Apps Today. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- Destinationcrm.com CRM Magazine: May, 2010
-  The Great Enterprise Balancing Act: Extended Relationship Management (XRM), Doug Laney, META Group publication, 10 December 2001
- DeGregor, Dennison (2011). Customer-Transparent Enterprise: Beyond 20th Century CRM. Motivational Press. ISBN 1-935723-23-5.