|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||120.91 g mol−1|
|Appearance||Colorless gas with ether-like odor|
|Density||1.486 g/cm³ (−29.8 °C)|
|Melting point||−157.7 °C (−251.9 °F; 115.5 K)|
|Boiling point||−29.8 °C (−21.6 °F; 243.3 K)|
|Solubility in water||0.286 g/l at 20 °C|
|Solubility in alcohol, ether, benzene, acetic acid||Soluble|
|Vapor pressure||568 kPa (20 °C)|
|kH||0.0025 mol kg−1 bar−1|
|EU Index||Not listed|
|Main hazards||Damaging to Earth's protective ozone|
|Supplementary data page|
|n, εr, etc.|
Solid, liquid, gas
|Spectral data||UV, IR, NMR, MS|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), is a colorless gas, and usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC), used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other countries in 1996 due to concerns about damage to the ozone layer, as well as its extreme greenhouse behavior, thousands of times more effective than carbon dioxide. It is soluble in many organic solvents. Dichlorodifluoromethane was also the main component of Silly String. R-12 cylinders are colored white.
CCl4 + 2HF → CCl2F2 + 2HCl
Use as an aerosol
The use of chlorofluorocarbons as aerosols in medicine, such as USP-approved salbutamol, has been phased out by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The use of a different propellant known as hydrofluoroalkane, or HFA, which is not known to harm the environment, was chosen to replace it.
R-12 was used in most refrigeration and vehicle air conditioning applications prior to 1994 before being replaced by 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), which has an insignificant ozone depletion potential. 1992–1994 was the time period in which automobile manufacturers started using R-134a instead of R-12. When older units leak, retrofits to R-134a are recommended. Retrofit to R-134a requires complete flushing and filter/dryer replacement to remove the mineral oil. Mineral oil used for R12 is not compatible with R-134a. Some oils designed for conversion to R-134a are advertised as compatible with residual R-12. New rubber hoses which are R-134a compatible may be needed for the same reason.
In systems where R-134a is not practical, an R-409A blend (60% R-22; 25% R-124; 15% R-142b) may be directly added to an R-12 system without oil change although a filter change is always recommended. R-409A usually runs on the low-pressure side of the system at 12 pounds per square inch (psi), while R-12 usually runs on the low side at 10 psi. R-409A runs at higher pressures and is less efficient but works quite well. Manufacturer recommends that existing R-12 charge should be recovered. However, as the two refrigerants are soluble in the same mineral oil there are no complications associated with mixing them. Note that the instructions for R-409A recommend charging a system with liquid to keep the mixture ratios constant. The constituents have varying vapor pressures.
- "Dichlorodifluoromethane MSDS". Synquest Labs.
- The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 304. ISBN 0080379419.
- 'Rescue' asthma inhaler replacements coming to Pa.
- NOAA/ESRL CFC-12 global measurements
- International Chemical Safety Card 0048
- Overview of Freon-12 and some of its environmental problems
- MSDS at Oxford University
- Thermochemistry data at chemnet.ru
- IR absorption spectra
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards