CIA activities in Pakistan
The following is a list of activities alleged carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency within Pakistan. It has been alleged by such authors as Ahmed Rashid that the CIA and ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence; Pakistan's premier intelligence agency) have been waging a clandestine war. The Afghan Taleban—with whom the United States is officially in conflict—is headquartered in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and according to some reports is largely funded by the ISI. The Pakistani government denies this.
"Abu Zubaydah, the first of Osama bin Laden's henchmen captured by the United States after the" September 11, 2001 attacks, was wounded and feverish from the gunfight in which he had been captured in Pakistan in early spring 2002. when a CIA security team delivered him to a secret safe house in Thailand for interrogation in the early spring of 2002.
Within days, he "was being subjected to coercive interrogation techniques – he was stripped, held in an icy room and jarred by earsplitting loud music. This was the genesis of practices later adopted by some within the military, and widely used by the CIA in handling prominent terrorism suspects at a series of secret overseas prisons.
"Soon after his capture, Zubaydah nearly died of his infected wounds. At one point, he was covertly rushed to a hospital after CIA medical officers warned that he might not survive if he did not receive more extensive medical treatment. According to accounts from five former and current government officials who were briefed on the case, FBI agents – accompanied by intelligence officers – initially questioned him using standard interview techniques. They bathed Zubaydah, changed his bandages, gave him water, urged improved medical care and spoke with him in Arabic and English, languages in which he is fluent.
"To convince him that they knew details of his activities, the agents brought a box of blank audiotapes that they said contained recordings of his phone conversations. As the FBI worked with CIA officers who were present, Zubaydah soon began to provide intelligence insights into Al Qaeda... FBI agents on the scene angrily protested the more aggressive approach, arguing that persuasion rather than coercion had succeeded. But the leaders of the CIA team were convinced that tougher tactics were warranted and said that the methods had been legally approved and authorized.
On January 13, 2006, the CIA launched an airstrike on Damadola, a Pakistani village near the Afghan border, where they believed Ayman al-Zawahiri was located. The airstrike killed a number of civilians but al-Zawahiri apparently was not among them. The Pakistani government issued a strong protest against the US attack, considered a violation of Pakistan's sovereignty. However, several legal experts argue that this cannot be considered an assassination attempt as al-Zawahiri is named as terrorist and an enemy combatant by the United States, and therefore this targeted killing is not covered under Executive Order 12333, which banned assassinations. However this still remains a violation of sovereignty of Pakistan according to international law.
A new NIE focused on three years, The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland, says "Al Qaeda has reorganized to pre-9/11 strength and is preparing for a major US strike has sparked debate among government officials and observers about the Bush administration's foreign policy and counterterrorism efforts." It "indicates that the Islamic terrorist organization's rise has been bolstered by the Iraq war and the failure to counter extremism in Pakistan's tribal areas.
"... Hezbollah may become a threat if the US takes action against Iran or seriously threatens or attacks the Islamic organization, the majority of the report focused on the "rejuvenating effect the Iraq war has had on Al Qaeda.
"Al Qaeda is preparing for a major strike against the US, reports the National Intelligence Estimate (NIE). The terrorist organization has intensified efforts to insert operatives in the US, however, since the 9/11 attacks only a "handful" of senior operatives have been discovered inside the US. The NIE also indicates that Al Qaeda will deploy nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons if they can acquire them."
- "We assess that al-Qai'da's homeland plotting is likely to continue to focus on prominent political, economic, and infrastructure targets with the goal of producing mass casualties, visually dramatic destruction, significant economic aftershocks, and/or fear among the U.S. population. The group is proficient with conventional small arms and improvised explosive devices, and is innovative in creating new capabilities and overcoming security obstacles.
- "We assess that al-Qai'da will continue to try to acquire and employ chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear material in attacks and would not hesitate to use them if it develops what it deems is sufficient capability.
Operation Cannonball, an American Central Intelligence Agency was disclosed in 2008. Began in 2006, it was intended as part of an effort to capture Osama Bin Laden and eliminate Al Qaeda forces in Pakistan. The operation was reportedly hampered by conflicts between CIA offices, leading to large delays in the deployment of the program. The existence of the covert program, and its various internal conflicts, was revealed to the public by the New York Times on June 30, 2008. The New York Times article was said to be "exposing highly classified Pentagon orders".
Shakil Afridi, a Pakistani doctor who spied for the Central Intelligence Agency to locate Osama bin Laden, was jailed for 33 years by a Pakistani court on charges of treason.
- Milton Bearden - CIA station chief in Pakistan, 1986-1989
- Inter-Services Intelligence activities in the United States
- Rashid, Ahmed (2012). "A Sliver of Hope: Counterinsurgency in Swat". Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. New York, New York: Viking. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-670-02346-2.
- "Pakistani agents 'funding and training Afghan Taliban'". BBC News. 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Johnston, David (September 12, 2006). "Rift between FBI and CIA over interrogations is unhealed". International Herald Tribune.
- Priest, Dana (May 15 2005). "Surveillance Operation in Pakistan Located and Killed Al Qaeda Official". Washington Post: A25. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Linzer, Dafna; Griff Witte (January 14 2006). U.S. Airstrike Targets Al Qaeda's Zawahiri. The Washington Post. pp. A09. Retrieved April 22, 2006.
- Elizabeth B. Bazan (January 4, 2002). "Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333:A Brief Summary" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- Tom O'Connor, Mark Stevens (November 2005). "The Handling of Illegal Enemy Combatants". Archived from the original on May 5, 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- "Memorandum on Executive Order 12333 and Assassination" (PDF). Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- Jeffrey Addicott (November 7, 2002). "The Yemen Attack: Illegal Assassination or Lawful Killing". Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- Peter, Tom A. (July 19, 2007). "National Intelligence Estimate: Al Qaeda stronger and a threat to US homeland;Report points to war in Iraq and Pakistan's tribal areas as allowing Al Qaeda to regroup.". Christian Science Monitor.
- Mark Mazzetti, Dave Rodhe (June 30, 2008). "Amid Policy Disputes, Qaeda Grows in Pakistan". New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- McLeod, Judi (June 30, 2008). "New York Times again exposes “highly classified Pentagon order”". Canada Free Press. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- "C.I.A. Outlines Pakistan Links With Militants", by Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmitt, July 30, 2008, New York Times
- "Pakistan denies 'malicious' report on CIA confrontation", July 30, 2008, Agence France Press