|City of license||Toronto, Ontario|
|Slogan||The Voice of the Underground|
|Frequency||formerly 88.1 MHz (FM)|
|First air date||1983|
|Owner||CKLN Radio Inc.|
From 1983 to 2011, CKLN Radio Inc. was licenced by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission as a campus-community FM radio station affiliated with Ryerson University, and broadcast at 88.1 MHz on the FM dial with the call sign CKLN-FM. It ceased FM broadcasting on April 15, 2011 after its licence was revoked on January 28, 2011 and continued as an internet radio outlet until it ceased operations on December 26, 2011.
In its final months most of the internet broadcaster's programs were produced in the Regent Park neighbourhood of Toronto. After CKLN was officially dissolved as an organization, its remaining resources and volunteers were transferred to Regent Park Focus Youth Media Arts Centre, which launched Radio Regent, a new Internet radio operation, in early 2012. The CRTC awarded the frequency to Rock 95 Broadcasting Ltd. which launched CIND-FM under the name Indie 88 in September 2012.
CKLN began as a closed circuit station set up in 1977 with the call letters CRFM, its broadcasts piped to loudspeakers around campus. It was licensed by the CRTC in 1983 as a Ryerson University-based campus-community radio station and assigned the CKLN call letters. Ryerson had surrendered its earlier radio station, CJRT-FM, due to financial constraints, although that station was revived as an independent public radio station by the Ontario government headed by Bill Davis.
Among the station's early accomplishments was the launch in 1983 of "Ron Nelson & The CKLN's Fantastic Voyage", Canada's first radio show devoted to hip hop. The program was influential in promoting and developing many of Canada's early hip hop stars, including Maestro Fresh Wes and Michie Mee. According to poet Clifton Joseph, the show was "the single most important agent responsible for the breaking of rap music in Toronto and laying the groundwork for the emergence of Canadian rap artists such as Michie Mee and Maestro Fresh Wes."
Other artists such as Blue Rodeo and k.d. lang received airplay on CKLN prior to being picked up by mainstream radio. The Globe and Mail says of the station that "it sat at the forefront of independent music and radical politics in the city for more than three decades, working with a shoe-string budget, and yet it somehow always managed to survive."
In the 1980s, the station helped create a news service to share content among left-wing stations world-wide including those run by the African National Congress and the FMLN in El Salvador. The station aired live coverage of the release of Nelson Mandela from prison.
In April 1992, one student successfully petitioned for a referendum to decide if the station should continue to receive student funding; CKLN won the referendum.
By September 2003, following the departure of station manager Conrad Collaco, CKLN was teetering on the brink of insolvency. As a result, the Ryerson Students' Union bailed out CKLN on at least $100,000 of unpaid taxes and other debts.
In August 2005, CKLN shifted its broadcast studios from the basement of Jorgenson Hall at Ryerson University to the second floor of the newly constructed Ryerson Student Campus Centre.
Internal conflict and loss of licence
In November 2007, CKLN's board appointed Mike Phillips as interim station manager. It had been over four years since the position had been filled. On December 21, 2007, CKLN program director Tim May resigned "suddenly and questionably" and within days CKLN's board appointed Tony Barnes to fill in as interim program director without first advertising the post. The new hires, and the manner in which the hirings were carried out, proved unpopular with some and resulted in a special general meeting being called, which was attended by over 150 members, more than 90% of whom voted to impeach the Board of Directors. The management of CKLN subsequently dismissed several dozen volunteer programmers as well as two paid staff, including the station's news director, who was allegedly told she was being fired for not seeing "eye to eye" with the board. Station manager Mike Phillips claimed that members of the Canadian Union of Public Employees and Ontario Coalition Against Poverty had stacked the February meeting and defended the dismissal of volunteer programmers by arguing, "If you have people decrying the station that is allowing them to go on the air, and breaking CRTC rules in the process, that can’t be allowed to go on for very long.”
For a time, the station had two rival boards of directors, both claiming to be the legitimate management. The first board, which hired Barnes and Phillips, was chaired by Josie Miner while a second board led by Arnold Minors was elected by opponents of the first board. The Ryerson Students' Union, which administered a student fee that, at the time, provided the station with 60 per cent of its budget, withheld funds until the conflict between the two rival boards was resolved. Responding to this action, the first board initiated a statement of claim in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice naming the RSU and Ryerson University as defendants.
With CKLN's financial situation deteriorating due to the RSU's withholding of funds, on February 28, 2009 CKLN's studios were made inaccessible except to certain CKLN board members and those they chose to admit. Previously aired material was broadcast.
On March 1, 2009, two individuals, Paulette Hamilton and Daibhid James, were arrested after they "barricaded themselves into the radio station's studios." Ryerson University president Sheldon Levy reacted to the incident by stating that "I think they've overstayed their welcome if that's the welcome that we have on our property. I don't like it, I don't want it, and we don't need it here."
Later that month, the Ryerson Student Centre board voted unanimously to close the station until both sides of the dispute could negotiate CKLN's future. The Palin Foundation, which governs the student centre, consists of representatives of Ryerson University, the Ryerson Students' Union and the Continuing Education Students' Association of Ryerson (CESAR).
During the period of the lockout, which lasted until mid-September 2009, CKLN broadcast unattended loops of previously aired programs, jazz and pre-recorded speeches. Dead air was heard for sometimes weeks at a time. In June 2009, CKLN's broadcast antenna was damaged resulting in the signal strength being drastically reduced. CKLN's online stream was still operational through this period.
On July 9, 2009, in a statement by Chris McNeil, president of CESAR and chair of the Palin Foundation, CKLN was provided a deadline of July 24, 2009 for the station to elect a new board of directors or risk eviction. The July 24, 2009 meeting and elections were held, but became the subject of a legal action filed in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice Commercial Court by former CKLN board member Mary Young claiming it was "improper and illegal". On December 14, 2011 the legal action against CKLN was permanently stayed and a motion by Young to launch a derivative action was dismissed with Young ordered to pay CKLN $10,000 in costs.
Even before CKLN resumed scheduled programming in late September 2009, the CRTC expressed concerns over the station's inability to comply with licence requirements during the dispute, such as playing the aforementioned loop for several months in 2009, its failure to properly submit on-air logger tapes, program logs and complete annual financial returns since 2007, and that the CRTC licence for CKLN had been transferred to a third party without authorization.
In March 2010, the CRTC called CKLN to a hearing for May 12, 2010 in which the licensee was to "...show cause why the Commission should not take steps to suspend or revoke the broadcasting licence in question or why the Commission should not issue mandatory orders requiring the licensee to comply with the Regulations and its conditions of licence..." The hearing was postponed in part due to ongoing mediation efforts in the aforementioned Mary Young case. The CRTC made it clear soon after the postponement that CKLN would be called to a hearing by no later than the end of 2010. During this period, the CRTC required the station to file monthly progress reports on its efforts to improve its licensing compliance.
The CRTC called CKLN to a hearing that took place in Toronto over a two-day period beginning December 8, 2010.
On January 28, 2011 the CRTC revoked the licence of CKLN-FM due to continual breaches of the Broadcast Act and violations to their conditions of licence, ordering them to cease broadcasting by February 12, 2011.
Calling the decision "premature, disproportionate and inequitable", CRTC Commissioner Louise Poirier issued a dissenting opinion stating that she was “firmly opposed” to the decision and that licence revocation “should not have been used as a first step for this station”; according to Poirier, "the Commission has never revoked a licence without first issuing a mandatory order or reducing the licence term." The decision was also opposed by the National Campus and Community Radio Association, which stated in a press release that the commission "could have taken other reasonable steps to ensure regulatory compliance while allowing CKLN to continue serving the community".
CKLN has stated that most of its regulatory failures were committed by former staff who were no longer with the station. CKLN appealed the decision to the Federal Court of Canada. On February 11, the station was granted a temporary stay, allowing it to remain on the air pending the Federal Court's decision on whether or not to grant the station leave to appeal the CRTC's order.
On April 15, 2011, the Federal Court of Appeal announced that it would not be hearing the appeal and said the station must cease broadcasting on 88.1 FM immediately. CKLN continued broadcasting and podcasting via the internet as its exclusive outlet from that point.
Reaction to loss of licence
On April 18, 2011, in his inaugural television broadcast on Canada's Sun News Network (also published in the pages of its sister newspaper outlet) conservative columnist Ezra Levant claimed the CRTC's decision on CKLN was just another oppressive example of arbitrary government bureaucracy and interference into the lives and businesses of ordinary Canadians.
Toronto city councillor Adam Vaughan said: “It's just astonishing that the CRTC can do this to a station that's been true to its mandate, that's sustained its commitment to community-based programming, the damage it does to communities served by this station, you couldn't even begin to quantify.” Vaughan told the Toronto Star that "It's very sad that the CRTC couldn't sit down and work with this clearly volunteer organization and give them the benefit of the doubt and help them solve the problem rather than simply render a very tough decision against them."
Referring to previous boards of directors, outgoing Ryerson Students Union president and CKLN director Toby Whitfield observed: “There's been so much infighting for so many years, people lost sight of the purpose of the station. The privilege of having a license is amazing, and I think that's what was missing,” adding that the current board had gotten more students involved.
Barry Johnson, a former CKLN director and host of Calypso Fusion said: "It is very sad that it has to come to this,' claiming that "(Ron) Nelson and the (CKLN) board could have taken measures to satisfy the CRTC, but they miscalculated...The CRTC offered reasonable measures that could have been taken, but the station did not have the proper management. They tried to hang on to something that just wasn't there.”
Jacky Tuinstra-Harrison, who was station manager at the time, responded to Johnson's claims by saying that the CRTC failed to follow its own policy of graduated discipline: "The CRTC could have followed their own policy, but did not; they did not pursue avenues such as warnings, fines, mandatory orders or other options against CKLN, but moved directly to the most serious of measures- revocation. We were not at any point offered alternatives" and that the claim that "CKLN’s 'demise' could have been avoided is an admonishment, which could have been made to any of the last six CKLN boards, including the two on which Mr. Johnson sat."
Move to Regent Park
On August 2, 2011 in a statement posted on CKLN's website, it was announced that the Palin Foundation would evict CKLN on August 27, 2011. It was confirmed officially by CKLN on August 4, 2011 that, after the eviction, CKLN internet streaming would emanate almost exclusively from the Regent Park Focus Youth Media Arts Centre, a community group which offers media training programs for economically disadvantaged youth in the neighbourhood and which had already produced a weekly program for broadcast on CKLN for a number of years.
According to then station manager Jacky Tuinstra-Harrison, "They have a social mission which is very similar to ours, which is to have citizens participate in their media.... It’s a wonderful opportunity to expand on our social mission, representing marginalized communities or communities that don’t get to represent themselves a lot in mainstream media.”
CKLN host Barry Johnson claimed the move to internet radio was a waste of time due to the format's limited reach and audience. Several CKLN programs ceased production or left CKLN following the move off the Ryerson University campus in late August 2011.
At a CKLN membership meeting held on October 11, 2011 a motion was passed to seek court approval for the dissolution of CKLN Radio Incorporated. Court approval for dissolution was granted on December 14, 2011. CKLN.fm ceased operations on December 26, 2011 with most of its programs and volunteers moving to Radio Regent, a new internet radio service owned and operated by Regent Park Focus Youth Media Arts Centre and unaffiliated with CKLN Radio Inc.
Future of 88.1 and new Ryerson application
On September 28, 2011, Dufferin Communications, the owner of CIRR-FM 103.9 (PROUD FM) applied to the CRTC to move to 88.1 MHz, formerly held by CKLN-FM, and to increase its transmitter power. The CRTC issued a Broadcast Notice of Consultation inviting other interested parties to apply for the frequency as well. The deadline for applications was December 19, 2011. In total, 27 applications were received for the frequency; including Dufferin Communications, applications were also filed by MZ Media, Astral Media, Newcap Radio, Larche Communications, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Trust Communications, Intercity Broadcasting, CHIN Radio/TV International, La Coopérative Radiophonique de Toronto and numerous ethnic broadcasters, as well as a new student group from Ryerson University who have pledged to launch a new campus station that would be organized and governed very differently from CKLN.
- Matt Galloway - host of Metro Morning on CBLA-FM
- Tanya Kim - Ryerson graduate and former voice-over artist for CKLN promos and announcements circa 1998, current co-host of CTV's etalk
- Jeffrey Morgan - Authorized biographer of Alice Cooper and The Stooges
- Adam Vaughan - former CKLN station manager, later a municipal affairs reporter for CBLT and CITY-TV; now a city councillor
- CRTC revokes licence of Toronto campus radio station
- CKLN Radio Inc is dissolving but your favourite shows and hosts are moving to Radio Regent", ckln.fm website, December 20, 2011
- "CKLN: From revolution to radio silence; Ryerson's campus station may have lost its broadcast license, but volunteers hope its 30-year history can put 88.1 back on the dial" by Adrian Morrow, Globe and Mail, May 21, 2011
- "CKLN board ‘not going to lie down’ after licence revoked". Toronto Star, January 28, 2011.
- "Dead air for Ryerson community station". Toronto Star, April 16, 2011.
- "Ryerson radio vital to city's music life", Toronto Star, April 1, 1992
- "CKLN finally hires Station Manager". The Eyeopener, 2007-11-06.
- "CKLN gets new lease on life: Summer board elections end power struggle over Ryerson radio". The Varsity, September 7, 2009.
- "RYERSON STUDENT CAMPUS CENTRE (formerly Oakham House)". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- "CKLN Hire in Hot Water", eyeopener, January 29, 2008
- "Fightin’ words", eye magazine, February 27, 2008
- "CKLN tunes out volunteers", The Varsity, September 28, 2008
- "Out of tune at CKLN", Now Magazine, August 26-September 2, 2008
- "Deadlock and dead air on Ryerson's radio", eyeopener, September 9, 2008
- "Live Ryerson radio to hit the airwaves again". The Ryersonian, September 16, 2009.
- The Varsity (newspaper), "CKLN sues Ryerson, student union" February 23, 2009.
- "Levy: 'They've overstayed their welcome'", eyeopener, March 3, 2009
- "Students caught in the middle of conflict at CKLN 88.1 FM", Ryerson Free Press, April 14, 2009
- "CKLN Kicked Out Of SCC", eyeopener, August 6, 2011
- 2007-2008 FULL- AND PART-TIME UNDERGRADUATE CALENDAR, Ryerson University
- CRTC revokes licence of Toronto campus radio station. January 28, 2011.
- "CRTC yanks licence of Ryerson’s CKLN radio". The Globe and Mail, January 28, 2011.
- CKLN leadership battle continues. The Ryersonian, December 7, 2009.
- CRTC letter to Thomas Slahta, CKLN lawyer, May 5, 2010
- CRTC Transcript of Proceeding, May 12, 2010
- CRTC letter to CKLN June 2, 2010
- CRTC Notice of Hearing, October 13, 2011
- "CRTC nixes CKLN’s Licence", Now Magazine, January 29, 2011
- "National Campus And Community Radio Association Unhappy With CRTC Pulling CKLN's Licence". chartattack.com, January 31, 2011.
- ""CKLN Will Remain on the Air, For Now", torontoist, February 11, 2011
- "Ryerson radio station to appeal revoked licence", macleans.ca, February 3, 2011
- "Campus radio station remains on the air", Globe and Mail, February 12, 2011
- "CKLN appeal shutdown". Toronto Star, April 15, 2011.
- Ezra Levant, "CRTC's a dinosaur: The last thing Canadians need is this group regulating the web". Toronto Sun, April 19, 2011.
- "Troubled campus station off the air; CKLN was early voice of Canadian hip hop" by Cynthia Vukets and Ashante Infantry, Toronto Star, April 17, 2011
- "CKLN dead on the air - license pulled" Caribbean Camera, April 20, 2011
- Tuinstra-Harrison, Jacky. "Response to Caribbean Camera article". ckln.fm. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- COMMUNITY ALERT: CKLN Facing Eviction and Urgently Needs New Space by CKLN Station Manager CKLN. August 2, 2011
- "CKLN will move to online broadcasting". CBC News, August 4, 2011.
- "Goodbye CKLN", August 16, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "Life Rattle/CKLN radio program Updates" Life Rattle CKLN radio program Updates, August 20, 2011.
- "DD radio leaves CKLN 88.1 FM" September 30, 2011.
- "Diasporic Music on Uhuru Radio", September 11, 2011.
- "An End to CKLN Corp Looming". The Eyeopener September 13, 2011]
- Broadcasting Notice of Consultation CRTC 2011-625
- Calls for Broadcasting Licence Applications 2011. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.
- "Stations vie for vacant radio licence". The Globe and Mail, December 18, 2012.
- Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-485, Licensing of a new radio station to serve Toronto, CRTC, September 11, 2012
- "Welcome back Radio Ryerson". The Ryersonian. April 3, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Radio Ryerson searching for a new home". Canadian Unisversity Press. January 16, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "New radio station in the works at Rye". The Ryersonian. April 2, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "CKLN Off The Air". CBC Radio. January 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- "Dialing up CKLN". Now Magazine, December 2, 2010.
- CKLN history at Canadian Communications Foundation
- CKLN Chronology Now Magazine
- CKLN & Regent Park CBC Radio One Metro Morning interview
- Query the REC's Canadian station database for CKLN-FM