CNN

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Cable News Network
Cnn.svg
Launched June 1, 1980
Owned by Turner Broadcasting System
(Time Warner)
Picture format 1080i (HDTV)
(HD feed downgraded to letterboxed 480i for SDTVs)
Slogan Go There
This is CNN
Country United States
Language English
Broadcast area United States
Canada
Headquarters CNN Center
Atlanta, Georgia
Sister channel(s) CNN International
CNN-IBN
CNN Airport Network
CNN Türk
CNN en Español
HLN
CNN Chile
TNT
Turner Classic Movies
Cartoon Network
Boomerang
TruTV
TBS
Website cnn.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV (USA) 202 (HD/SD)
1202 (VOD)
Dish Network (USA) 200 (HD/SD)
9436 (HD)
Bell TV (Canada) 500 (SD)
1578 (HD)
Shaw Direct (Canada) 140/500 (SD)
257/331 (HD)
SKY PerfecTV! (Japan) 679 (HD)
Cable
Available on most U.S. and Canadian cable providers Check local listings for channels
In-house (Washington) 12
Verizon FiOS 600 (HD)
60 (SD)
Satellite radio
Sirius 132
XM 122
IPTV
Bell Fibe TV (Canada) 500 (HD)
1500 (SD)
AT&T U-Verse / CenturyLink 1202 (HD)
202 (SD)
Google Fiber 101 (HD)
Streaming media
CNN.com/live Watch live (US cable subscribers only)

The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.[1] The 24-hour cable news channel was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner.[2][3] Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage,[4] and the first all-news television channel in the United States.[5]

While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta, the Time Warner Center in New York City, and studios in Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. to distinguish the American channel from its international counterpart, CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U.S. households.[6] Broadcast coverage extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms,[6] and the U.S. channel is also carried on cable and satellite in Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories.[7]

As of August 2013, approximately 98,496,000 American households (86% of cable, satellite and telco customers) receive CNN.[8]

History

Early history

The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. ET on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast.[9] Burt Reinhardt, the then executive vice president of CNN, hired most of CNN's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw.[10]

Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, and specialized closed-circuit channels (such as CNN Airport Network). The company has 36 bureaus (10 domestic, 26 international), more than 900 affiliated local stations, and several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for the Time Warner conglomerate's eventual acquisition of Turner Broadcasting System in 1996.

A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts. The channel, which later became known as "CNN Headline News" and then simply "HLN", eventually focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours.

Major events

Replica of the newsroom at CNN Center.

Challenger disaster

On January 28, 1986, CNN carried the only live television coverage of the launch and subsequent explosion of Space Shuttle Challenger, which killed all seven crew members on board.

Baby Jessica rescue

On October 14, 1987, an 18-month-old toddler named Jessica McClure fell down a well in Midland, Texas. CNN quickly reported on the story, and the event helped make its name. The New York Times ran a retrospective article in 1995 on the impact of live video news. "If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a moving picture is worth many times that, and a live moving picture makes an emotional connection that goes deeper than logic and lasts well beyond the actual event. This was before correspondents reported live from the enemy capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein held a surreal press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned. Before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory just a short time ago."[11]

Gulf War

The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "big three" American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, Peter Arnett, and Charles Jaco.

Operation Desert Storm as captured live on a CNN night vision camera with reporters narrating.

The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16, 1991 as follows:[12]

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside. ... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing...The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated. ... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

Because it was unable to immediately broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to the legendary CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II. Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide – a feat that led to the subsequent creation of CNN International.

The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of previously obscure reporters. Many of these reporters now comprise CNN's "old guard." Bernard Shaw became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer (now host of The Situation Room) and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as the ruthless reporter "Adriana Cruz" in the film Three Kings (1999). Time Warner later produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about the channel's coverage of the first Gulf War, which aired on HBO.

Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu) led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.

September 11 attacks

CNN was the first cable news channel to break the news of the September 11 attacks.[13] Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. ET and said:

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center.

Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employee on the air. He called into CNN Center from his office at CNN's New York bureau and reported that a commercial jet hit the Trade Center.[14]

Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9 a.m. ET as the second plane hit the World Trade Center and through an interview with CNN correspondent David Ensor, reported the news that U.S. officials determined "that this is a terrorist act."[15] Later, Aaron Brown anchored through the day and night as the attacks unfolded. Brown had just come to CNN from ABC to be the breaking news anchor.

Paula Zahn assisted in the September 11, 2001, coverage on her first day as a CNN reporter, a fact that she mentioned as a guest clue presenter on a 2005 episode of Jeopardy!

CNN has made archival files of much of the day's broadcast available in five segments plus an overview.

2008 U.S. election

The stage for the second 2008 CNN-YouTube presidential debate.

Leading up to the 2008 U.S. presidential election, CNN devoted large amounts of coverage to politics, including hosting candidate debates during the Democratic and Republican primary seasons. On June 3 and 5, CNN teamed up with Saint Anselm College to sponsor the New Hampshire Republican and Democratic Debates.[16] Later in 2007, the channel hosted the first CNN-YouTube presidential debates, a non-traditional format where viewers were invited to pre-submit questions over the internet via the YouTube video-sharing service.[17] In 2008, CNN partnered with The Los Angeles Times to host two primary debates leading up to its coverage of Super Tuesday.[18] CNN's debate and election night coverage led to its highest ratings of the year, with January 2008 viewership averaging 1.1 million viewers, a 41% increase over the previous year.[18]

2012 U.S. election

CNN again devoted large amounts of coverage to the 2012 U.S. Presidential campaign. Chief political correspondent Candy Crowley acted as moderator for one of the three debates between Mitt Romney and Barack Obama. Some conservatives viewed her as overly partisan/biased due to her attempts at correcting statements by both candidates on the 2012 Benghazi consulate attack.[19]

Programming

CNN's current weekday schedule consists mostly of rolling news programming during daytime hours, followed by more in-depth news and interview programs during the evening and primetime hours.

The network's morning programming consists of Early Start, an early-morning news program hosted by John Berman and Christine Romans, which is followed by New Day, the network's morning show, hosted by Chris Cuomo, Kate Bolduan and Michaela Pereira. Most of CNN's late-morning and early afternoon programming consists of CNN Newsroom, a rolling news program hosted in blocks by various anchors, but as of 2013, the network began to rework its daytime programming into more distinct programs, beginning with the spin-off of Ashleigh Banfield's hour-long block of Newsroom as Legal View in August 2013 (with an emphasis on legal issues and court cases), the introduction of Around the World, a new hour-long program focusing on international headlines, and a new hour of Newsroom hosted by Wolf Blitzer. Further changes to CNN's daytime lineup occurred on February 10, 2014, with the cancellation of Around the World, the move of Legal View to its former Noon ET time slot, the introduction of @ThisHour with John Berman and Michaela Pereira, and the re-launch of Blitzer's afternoon show as Wolf.[20][21][22]

CNN's late-afternoon and early-evening lineup consists of The Lead, hosted by Jake Tapper, The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer, and Crossfire, a panel debate program hosted by S. E. Cupp, Stephanie Cutter, Newt Gingrich and Van Jones. The network's evening and primetime lineup shifts towards more in-depth programming, including Erin Burnett OutFront,[23] Anderson Cooper 360°, along with the sports-related Unguarded with Rachel Nichols on Friday nights. In March 2014, a number of changes occurred to CNN's evening and primetime lineup, primarily to accommodate additional coverage of the flight MH370 disappearance; Crossfire was placed on hiatus from March 11 through May 1, the two Monday-night pilot series, The Don Lemon Show and Making the Case, were aborted shortly after their premieres, and as was previously planned, Piers Morgan Live was cancelled, airing its final episode of March 28, 2014. The 9 and 10 p.m. ET timeslots have since been occupied in the interim by various original documentary series such as Chicagoland, Death Row Stories, The Sixties, and occasional special reports.[24][25][26][27][28]

On April 11, 2014 during its upfronts presentation, CNN officially announced revisions to its primetime lineup, which will see the permanent shift to documentary-style series in the 9 p.m. timeslot to compete against the talk-oriented programming on other news channels, and a new live program at 10 p.m. known as CNN Tonight, which would be hosted by a rotating group of anchors (including Bill Weir and Don Lemon). The 9 p.m. time slot will alternate between documentaries, along with new series hosted by John Walsh, Lisa Ling, and Mike Rowe, and a new documentary series, The Jesus Code. Jeff Zucker explained that this new lineup was intended to attract a younger audience to the network, shifting away from a reliance on pundits. Zucker also noted that in the event of major news events, these programs can still be pre-empted for special coverage, acknowledging its successful coverage of the MH370 disaster.[29][30][31]

CNN's weekend lineup also consists primarily of Newsroom, along with the medical program Sanjay Gupta MD and the finance-oriented Your Money. Weekend primetime is dedicated mostly to factual programming, including the reality series Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown, along with topical documentaries and specials under banners such as CNN Presents, CNN Special Investigations Unit, and CNN Films. The network's Sunday-morning lineup consists primarily of political talk shows, including Inside Politics with John King, State of the Union with Candy Crowley, the internationally focused Fareed Zakaria GPS, and the media analysis program Reliable Sources.

On-air presentation

In December 2008, CNN introduced a new graphics package, a comprehensive redesign replacing the existing style that had been used since 2004. The design replaced the scrolling ticker that had been in use since 2001, with the ticker space now carrying headlines both manually put in and taken from the RSS feeds of CNN.com, and rebranded as 'the flipper'.[32] The CNN logo itself has remained relatively unchanged since the channel's launch, except that it was originally displayed in yellow (later changing to the current red), a 3-D 'shadow' effect was removed, and other design choices were made to acclimate the logo for both modern times and advances in graphical technology.

On January 10, 2011, CNN introduced its most recent graphics package, in conjunction with the network-wide switch to a 16:9 letterbox format from 4:3. Both of CNN's standard definition and high definition feeds now carry the same 16:9 format; however, video footage broadcast in standard definition on either feed is not pillarboxed, resulting in black bars on the top and bottom of the screen as well as the left and right.

The 'flipper' was retired on February 18, 2013 and replaced with a traditional right-to-left scrolling ticker once again, in line with Jeff Zucker's new leadership of the network. After a day with a blue background with white text, the ticker was reconfigured with blue text on a white background to match the look of the 'flipper'.[33]

Former programs

Program Terms Description
AC360° Later 2013–2014 An occasional spin-off of Anderson Cooper 360° which aired at 10–11 p.m. ET, that featured panel discussions on recent events led by Anderson. After being faced with irregular and inconsistent scheduling (sometimes being replaced by factual programs or re-runs of AC360° from earlier in the day), it was discontinued in February 2014.[34]
American Morning 2001–2011 A weekday morning news program which aired at 6–9 a.m. ET. Replaced by Starting Point.
Around the World 2013–2014 A weekday show which aired from 12–1 p.m. ET that focused on international headlines led by Suzanne Malveaux and Michael Holmes. Replaced by Legal View.[20]
Ballot Bowl 2008 Election news in 2008.
Both Sides with Jesse Jackson 1992–2000 A political talk show, hosted by civil rights leader and two-time presidential candidate Jesse Jackson, that aired Sundays. Each program began with a short taped report on the topic by CNN correspondent John Bisney. The show ran from 1992 to 2000.[35]
Burden of Proof 1995–2001 A show that discussed the legal issues of the day, hosted by Greta Van Susteren and Roger Cossack.
Campbell Brown 2008–2010 A political debate show hosted by Campbell Brown. Ended after Brown resigned from CNN.
Capital Gang 1988–2005 One of cable news' longest-running programs, focusing on discussion of the political news of the week. The original panelists were Pat Buchanan, Al Hunt, Mark Shields and Robert Novak. When Buchanan left CNN to run for president, Margaret Warner, Mona Charen and later Margaret Carlson and Kate O'Beirne became regular panelists. Capital Gang aired Saturday nights at 7 p.m. ET from 1988 to 2005.
CNN Daybreak 1980–2005 A first look at the day's stories that aired live from New York City at 5 a.m. ET.
CNN Live Saturday / CNN Live Sunday Unknown–2006 A look at what's making the news on the weekends, airing live from Atlanta. Anchored by Fredricka Whitfield from 12–6 p.m. ET and Carol Lin from 6–11 p.m. ET. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
CNN Live Today 2001–2006 Daily look at what's making the news, airing live from Atlanta Monday through Friday at 10 a.m. ET. Anchored by Daryn Kagan.
CNN NewsSite 2001 Anchored by Joie Chen from Atlanta that aired Monday through Friday at 4 p.m. ET. Integrated the news and internet.
CNN Saturday Night / CNN Sunday Night Unknown–2006 The channel's weekend evening news program, airing at 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. ET. Anchored by Carol Lin. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
CNN Sports Sunday Co-anchored by Bob Kurtz and Nick Charles.
CNN Tonight 2001 Anchored by Bill Hemmer at 10 p.m. ET and Catherine Callaway at 1 a.m. ET. Brought back in late 2009 to replace Lou Dobbs Tonight as a placeholder until new programming debuted in 2010.
Computer Connection Technological issues.
Connie Chung Tonight 2002–2003 Hosted by Connie Chung. Cancelled in March 2003.
Diplomatic License 1994–2006 Weekly program on CNN International hosted by Richard Roth, focusing on the United Nations.
Evans and Novak 1980–2002 Saturday night political interview program with Rowland Evans and Robert Novak. The name changed to Evans, Novak, Hunt & Shields in 1998 when Al Hunt and Mark Shields became permanent panelists. When Evans died in 2001, the name changed to Novak, Hunt & Shields for its final year on CNN.
First Evening News 2001 Bill Hemmer anchored the half-hour news show at 6 p.m. ET in June and 7 p.m. ET from July to September 10, 2001.
Freeman Reports One of the original programs from 1980. Host Sandi Freeman interviewed guests and took live telephone call-ins regarding current news events and other topics of interest. For a brief period, the program featured a live audience in Atlanta. Freeman's former time slot is now occupied by Larry King.
Future Watch Technological issues.
(Get To) The Point A panel discussion program featuring Donny Deutsch, Rick Reilly, Margaret Hoover, and Jason Taylor; announced and premiered on April 1, 2013 as a week-long trial.[36]
Global View 1994–1999 International policy interview show hosted by world affairs correspondent Ralph Begleiter, aired weekly on CNN (1994–1995) and CNN International (1994–1999). Program began with Begleiter package on subject, followed by lengthy interview with international figure and ended with brief "Reporter's Notebook" segment featuring insider tidbits from the host's extensive travel covering global politics. Produced by Pam Benson with Joann Sierra.
Greenfield at Large 2001–2002 Anchored by Jeff Greenfield in New York City that aired Monday through Friday at 10:30 p.m. ET.
In the Arena 2010–2011 Originally titled Parker Spitzer and hosted by Kathleen Parker and Eliot Spitzer, it was a program that discussed the day's news with top journalists and contributors which aired at 8–9 p.m. ET.
John King, USA 2010–2012 A program that discussed the day's political news.
Larry King Live 1985–2010 Hosted by Larry King, it was the most watched (and longest running) program on CNN which aired at 9–10 p.m. ET and PT, with over one million viewers nightly.[37]
Live From... A lively look at the day's stories airing live from Atlanta at 1 p.m. ET. Anchored by Kyra Phillips.
Live From The Headlines 2003 Was Paula Zahn's prime-time show after moving from her morning slot,[38] aired from 7–9 p.m. ET and was later co-hosted by Anderson Cooper; replaced by Paula Zahn Now in 2003.
Lou Dobbs This Week
Lou Dobbs Tonight 1980–2009 Anchored by Lou Dobbs, the program originally aired as Moneyline before relaunching as Lou Dobbs Tonight in 2003.
Newshour Daily news.
NewsNight with Aaron Brown 2001–2005 A hard-news program anchored by Aaron Brown which took an in-depth look at the main U.S. and international stories of the day. Was axed from CNN's schedule on November 5, 2005, leading to Brown's immediate resignation from CNN.
Newsstand 1999–2001 News magazine.
Next@CNN 2002–2005 A scientific and technology oriented program hosted by Daniel Sieberg. Aired on weekends.
On the Story Unknown–2006 CNN's interactive "week-in-review" series featuring an in-depth look at the story behind some of the week's biggest stories. Anchored by Ali Velshi. However, the show was suspended in June 2006, then later cancelled in July 2006.
Paula Zahn Now 2003–2007 Was a look at the current issues affecting the world, with former CBS and Fox News anchor Paula Zahn. The program's last broadcast was on August 2, 2007.
People in the News Unknown–2005 CNN's feature-format program with People magazine profiling newsmakers from politics, sports, business, medicine and entertainment. The program aired on weekends and was first hosted by Daryn Kagan and later by Paula Zahn.
People Now 1980–Unknown Another original program. Host Lee Leonard interviewed celebrities and discussed entertainment news in a one-hour program live from the CNN Los Angeles bureau. Leonard was replaced by Mike Douglas, who himself was replaced by Bill Tush in December 1982.
Piers Morgan Live 2011-2014 Live interview program which aired at 9–10 p.m. ET and PT, often featuring celebrity interviews led by Piers Morgan as a replacement for Larry King Live. The final show aired March 28, 2014.
Pinnacle with Tom Cassidy Unknown–2004 Business news and leaders.
The Point with Greta Van Susteren 2001–2002 Primetime news and interviews. Canceled when Greta Van Susteren moved to Fox News Channel.
Rick's List 2010 Anchored by Rick Sanchez from 3–5 p.m. ET, the host would discuss the day's news with viewers via social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Sanchez was fired from the channel after making controversial statements about Jewish people on a radio show (see Controversy for further details).
Science and Technology Week Unknown–2001[39] Weekly half-hour featuring scientific and technology reports and comments on the week's news on those subjects. Anchored most recently by Miles O'Brien.
Sonya / Sonya Live in L.A. 1987–1994 A weekday call-in show airing at 1 p.m. ET in the late 1980s and early 1990s, hosted by Dr. Sonya Friedman.
The Spin Room 2001 Tucker Carlson and Bill Press hosted a political talk show that aired at 10:30 p.m. ET.
Sports Tonight 1980–2001 A nightly sports news program co-anchored by Nick Charles and Fred Hickman.
Starting Point 2012–2013 A weekday morning news program which aired from 7–9 a.m. ET, anchored by Soledad O'Brien. Replaced by New Day.
Style with Elsa Klensch 1980–2000 Weekly half-hour show on Saturday mornings that featured news on style and fashion.
TalkBack Live 1994–2003 A call-in talk show with a live audience hosted most recently by Arthel Neville.
Wolf Blitzer Reports 2001–2005 A daily look at the day's stories that aired live from Washington at 5 p.m. ET. Replaced by The Situation Room in 2005.
Your Health Health news.

Staff

Main article: List of CNN anchors
Anderson Cooper, anchor of AC 360°
Richard Quest, London-based correspondent

On July 27, 2012, CNN president Jim Walton announced he was quitting at CNN after working there over 30 years. He remained with the network until the end of the year.[40] In January 2013, former NBCUniversal president Jeff Zucker replaced Walton.[41]

Political contributors

On January 29, 2013 James Carville, Mary Matalin and Erick Erickson were let go as contributors.[42]

Liberals:

Conservatives:

Political analysts

High definition

CNN HD is a high definition simulcast feed of CNN that broadcasts in the 1080i resolution format, it launched in September 2007.[43] All studio shows are broadcast in HD, as well as special events.

In late 2010, CNN/U.S. became is available in high definition to viewers in Japan under the name CNN HD. Whether this is a one-off case or the beginning of an international roll-out of CNN HD with more countries to come is unclear. Formerly during American Morning, CNN HD viewers saw weather forecasts in a graphical pillarbox on the sides of the screen (American cities on the right, and cities outside of the U.S. on the left). This feature was removed in November 2009.

The documentary Planet in Peril was CNN's first documentary program produced in HD, followed by Black in America (its sequel Black in America 2 also aired in HD). Its spinoff Latino in America was also broadcast in HD. CNN HD also used to display a CNN HD logo bug (the normal CNN logo with the letters "HD" in a different, gray colored font next to it) on the bottom left corner of the screen; it was last used on February 28, 2009.

Special events

All special event programming on CNN is broadcast in full HD. During primary and caucus nights, America Votes 2008 was produced in complete HD with Wolf Blitzer anchoring from CNN's main New York City studio, which was renamed the CNN Election Center. During this time, CNN HD viewers got additional information in the form of a pillarbox on each side of the screen such as poll numbers, charts and graphs. This also happened for the 2008 Democratic National Convention, the 2008 Republican National Convention, the 2008 United States Presidential Debates, the 2008 United States Vice Presidential Debate and the 2008 Election Day coverage on November 4, all of which were also shot in HD. Other special events such as Presidential speeches and press conferences are televised in HD.

The CNN Election Express bus, used for HD broadcasts.

CNN's political coverage in HD was given mobility by the introduction of the CNN Election Express bus in October 2007. The Election Express vehicle, capable of five simultaneous HD feeds, was used for the channel's CNN-YouTube presidential debates and for presidential candidate interviews.[44]

Coverage

Initial carriage of CNN in HD on cable and satellite providers was limited. DirecTV was the first provider to carry it, adding it mid-September 2007.[43] By June 2008, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cox Communications, AT&T U-verse, Rogers Cable, Midcontinent Communications, Bright House Networks and Dish Network began carriage of CNN HD.[45][46] CNN is also rebroadcast on the Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) during the midday and evening news in Barbados.

Other platforms

Online

International version in April 2011

CNN debuted its news website CNN.com (initially an experiment known as CNN Interactive) on August 30, 1995. The site attracted growing interest over its first decade and is now one of the most popular news websites in the world. The widespread growth of blogs, social media and user-generated content have influenced the site, and blogs in particular have focused CNN's previously scattershot online offerings, most noticeably in the development and launch of CNN Pipeline in late 2005.

In April 2009, CNN.com ranked third place among online global news sites in unique users in the U.S. according to Nielsen/NetRatings; with an increase of 11% over the previous year.[47]

CNN Pipeline was the name of a paid subscription service, its corresponding website, and a content delivery client that provided streams of live video from up to four sources (or "pipes"), on-demand access to CNN stories and reports, and optional pop-up "news alerts" to computer users. The installable client was available to users of PCs running Microsoft Windows. There was also a browser-based "web client" that did not require installation. In July 2007, the service was discontinued and replaced with a free streaming service.

The topical news program Judy Woodruff's Inside Politics was the first CNN program to feature a round-up of blogs in 2005.[48] Blog coverage was expanded when Inside Politics was folded into The Situation Room. Inside Politics later returned to CNN in 2014, this time hosted by the network's chief national correspondent John King.[49] In 2006, CNN launched CNN Exchange and CNN iReport, initiatives designed to further introduce and centralize the impact of everything from blogging to citizen journalism within the CNN brand. CNN iReport which features user-submitted photos and video, has achieved considerable traction, with increasingly professional-looking reports filed by amateur journalists, many still in high school or college. The iReport gained more prominence when observers of the Virginia Tech shootings sent-in first hand photos of what was going on during the shootings.[50]

In early 2008, CNN began maintaining a live streaming broadcast available to those who receive CNN at home.[51] CNN International is broadcast live, as part of the RealNetworks SuperPass subscription outside the U.S. CNN also offers several RSS feeds and podcasts.

On April 18, 2008, CNN.com was targeted by Chinese hackers in retaliation for the channel's coverage on the 2008 Tibetan unrest. CNN reported that they took preventative measures after news broke of the impending attack.[52][53]

The company was honored at the 2008 Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for development and implementation of an integrated and portable IP-based live, edit and store-and-forward digital news gathering (DNG) system.[54] The first use of what would later win CNN this award was in April 2001 when CNN correspondent Lisa Rose Weaver[55] covered, and was detained,[56] for the release of the U.S. Navy crew of a damaged electronic surveillance plane after the Hainan Island incident. The technology consisted of a videophone produced by 7E Communications Ltd of London, UK.[57] This DNG workflow is used today by the network to receive material world wide using an Apple MacBook Pro, various prosumer and professional digital cameras, software from Streambox Inc., and BGAN terminals from Hughes Network Systems.

On October 24, 2009, CNN launched a new version of their CNN.com website, revamping it adding a new "sign up" option where users may create their own user name, a new "CNN Pulse" (beta) feature along with a new red color theme.[58] However, most of the news stories archived on the website have been deleted.

CNN also has a channel in the popular video-sharing site YouTube, but its videos can only be viewed in the United States, a source of criticism among YouTube users worldwide.

In April 2010, CNN announced via Twitter its upcoming food blog called "Eatocracy," in which it will "cover all news related to food – from recalls to health issues to culture."[59] CNN had an internet relay chat (IRC) network at chat.cnn.com. CNN placed a live chat with Benjamin Netanyahu on the network in 1998.[60]

Films

Main article: CNN Films

In October 2012, CNN formed a film division called CNN Films to distribute and produce made-for-TV and feature documentaries. Its first acquisition was a documentary entitled Girl Rising, a documentary narrated by Meryl Streep that focused on the struggles of girls' education.[61]

Specialized channels

CNN en Español televised debate for the 2005 Chilean elections.
Post production editing offices in Atlanta.

Former channels

  • CNN Checkout Channel (out-of-home place-based custom channel for grocery stores that started in 1991 and shuttered in 1993)
  • CNN Italia[62] (an Italian news website launched in partnership with the publishing company Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso, and after with the financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, it launched on November 15, 1999[63][64] and closed on September 12, 2003)
  • CNN Pipeline (24-hour multi-channel broadband online news service, replaced with CNN.com Live)
  • CNN Sports Illustrated (also known as CNNSI; U.S. sports news channel, closed in 2002)
  • CNN+ (a partner channel in Spain, launched in 1999 with Sogecable)
  • CNN.com Live
  • CNNfn (financial channel, closed in December 2004)

Experiments

CNN launched two specialty news channels for the American market which would later close amid competitive pressure: CNNSI shut down in 2002, and CNNfn shut down after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNN and Sports Illustrated's partnership continues today online at CNNSI.com. CNN's former website now redirects to money.cnn.com, a product of CNN's strategic partnership with Money magazine. Money and SI are both properties of Time Warner, along with CNN.

Bureaus

CNN bureau locations
The CNN Center in Atlanta
CNN in New York City
CNN Center studios
Note: Boldface indicates that they are CNN's original bureaus, meaning they have been in operation since CNN's founding.

United States

Worldwide

Many of the following bureaus have been closed or – due to the financial crisis – their budget cut:

In parts of the world without a CNN bureau, the network will use local affiliate station reports which will be used to file a story.

Controversy

Main article: CNN controversies

In a joint study by the Joan Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University and the Project for Excellence in Journalism, the authors found disparate treatment by the three major cable channels of Republican and Democratic candidates during the earliest five months of presidential primaries in 2007: "The CNN programming studied tended to cast a negative light on Republican candidates – by a margin of three-to-one. Four-in-ten stories (41%) were clearly negative while just 14% were positive and 46% were neutral. The network provided negative coverage of all three main candidates with McCain faring the worst (63% negative) and Romney faring a little better than the others only because a majority of his coverage was neutral. It's not that Democrats, other than Obama, fared well on CNN either. Nearly half of the Illinois Senator's stories were positive (46%), vs. just 8% that were negative. But both Clinton and Edwards ended up with more negative than positive coverage overall. So while coverage for Democrats overall was a bit more positive than negative, that was almost all due to extremely favorable coverage for Obama."[65]

CNN is one of the world's largest news organizations, and its international channel, CNN International is the leading international news channel in terms of viewer reach.[66][67] CNN International makes extensive use of affiliated reporters that are local to, and often directly affected by, the events they are reporting. The effect is a more immediate, less detached style of on-the-ground coverage. This has done little to stem criticism, largely from Middle Eastern nations, that CNN International reports news from a pro-American perspective. This is a marked contrast to domestic criticisms that often portray CNN as having a "liberal" or "anti-American" bias.

As said by Ted Turner, founder of CNN, "There really isn't much of a point getting some Tom, Dick or Harry off the streets to report on when we can snag a big name whom everyone identifies with. After all, it's all part of the business." However, in April 2008, Turner criticized the direction CNN has taken.[68] Others have echoed that criticism, especially in light of CNN's drop in the ratings.

On April 24, 2008 beautician Liang Shubing and teacher Li Lilan sued commentator Jack Cafferty and CNN $1.3 billion damages ($1 per person in China), in New York, for "violating the dignity and reputation of the Chinese people". This was in response to an incident during CNN's "The Situation Room" on April 9, where Cafferty stated his opinion that "[the USA] continue to import their junk with the lead paint on them and the poisoned pet food" despite his view that "[the Chinese leaders were] basically the same bunch of goons and thugs they've been for the last 50 years". Further, amid China's Foreign Ministry demand for an apology, 14 lawyers filed a similar suit in Beijing.[69][70]

In June 2009, musician M.I.A. stated she did an hour-long interview with CNN condemning the mass bombing and Tamil civilian fatalities at the hands of Government forces in Sri Lanka in 16 weeks the same year, "and they cut it down to one minute and made it about my single Paper Planes. When I went to the Grammys, I saw the same reporter from CNN, and I was like, "Why did you do that?" And she said, "Because you used the G-word."" "Genocide. I guess you’re not allowed to say that on CNN," raising questions concerning CNN's coverage and commitment to free speech.[71][72]

On November 11, 2009, longtime CNN anchor Lou Dobbs resigned on air after discussions with CNN President Jonathan Klein, who had agreed to a release from his contract "that will enable me to pursue new opportunities." He had previously expressed to Klein that he wished to go "the opinion route". Dobbs' advocacy journalism-style coverage of immigration, Obama birthers and free trade topics has attracted controversy both to him and to CNN.[73][74]

On July 7, 2010, Octavia Nasr, senior Middle East editor and a CNN journalist for 20 years, was fired after she expressed on her Twitter account admiration for a liberal-minded Muslim cleric who had recently died, casting doubts on the company's commitment to freedom of speech.[75]

On October 1, 2010, CNN anchor Rick Sanchez was fired after remarks he made during an interview with comedian Pete Dominick at a radio show the previous day about prejudices he faced during his television career, at CNN and jokes about him by comedian Jon Stewart. Calling him a "bigot" before retracting this and describing him instead as "prejudiced" and "uninformed", the interviewer invoked Stewart's faith as an example of how Stewart was "a minority as much as you are". Sanchez stated his view that Jewish people were not an oppressed minority in America, and his view that "everybody that runs CNN is a lot like Stewart" before stating "And a lot of people who run all the other networks are a lot like Stewart."[76]

In October 2011, Amber Lyon told a European news service that she had been directed by CNN to report selectively, repetitively, and falsely in order to sway public opinion in favor of direct American aggression against Iran and Syria,[77] and that this was common practice under CNN. She subsequently reconfirmed this in detail, addressing the degraded state of journalistic ethics in an interview with American radio host Alex Jones,[78] during which she also discussed the Bahraini episode, suggesting paid-for content was also taken from Georgia, Kazakhstan, and other states, that the War on Terrorism had also been employed as a pretext to pre-empt substantive investigative journalism within the U.S., and that following the Bahrain reporting, her investigative department had been terminated and "reorganized", and her severance and employee benefits used as a threat to intimidate and attempt to purchase her subsequent silence.

Lyon had met with Tony Maddox, president of CNN International, twice about this issue in 2011 and had claimed that during the second meeting she was threatened and intimated to stop speaking on the matter.[79] Lyon spoke heavily on RT (TV Network) about this claiming that CNN reporters, headed by Maddox, have been instructed to over-cover Iran as a form of propaganda, and that CNN International has been paid by the Bahraini government to produce and air news segments intentionally painting them in a positive light.[80]

See also

References

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External links