|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||154.59 g mol−1|
|Melting point||54 to 56 °C; 129 to 133 °F; 327 to 329 K|
|Boiling point||244.5 °C; 472.1 °F; 517.6 K|
|Solubility in water||insoluble|
|Flash point||88 °C; 190 °F; 361 K|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Riot control agent
Because of its significantly greater toxicity, it has largely been supplanted by CS gas. Even though CN is still supplied to paramilitary and police forces in a small pressurized aerosol known as “Mace” or tear gas, its use is falling as pepper spray both works and disperses more quickly than CN.
The term "Mace" came into being because it was the brand-name invented by one of the first American manufacturers of CN aerosol sprays. Subsequently, Mace became synonymous with tear-gas sprays in the same way that Kleenex has become strongly associated with tissue papers (a phenomenon known as a genericized trademark).
Like CS gas, this compound irritates the mucous membranes (oral, nasal, conjunctival and tracheobronchial). Sometimes it can give rise to more generalized reactions such as syncope, temporary loss of balance and orientation. More rarely, cutaneous irritating outbreaks have been observed and allergic contact permanent dermatitis.
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
- Levin, N.; Hartung, W. H. (1955), "ω-Chloroisonitrosoacetophenone", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 3: 191
- Ballantyne, B.; Swanston, D. W. (1978). "The comparative acute mammalian toxicity of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) and 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS)". Archives of Toxicology 40 (2): 75–95. doi:10.1007/BF01891962. PMID 350195.
- Treudler, R.; Tebbe, B.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Krasagakis, K.; Orfanos, C. E. (1999). "Occupational contact dermatitis due to 2-chloracetophenone tear gas". British Journal of Dermatology 140 (3): 531–534. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02724.x. PMID 10233281.
- Blain, P. G. (2003). "Tear Gases and Irritant Incapacitants: 1-Chloroacetophenone, 2-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile and Dibenz[b,f]-1,4-Oxazepine". Toxicological Reviews 22 (2): 103–110. PMID 15071820.
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