Instructions per second

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Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, synthetic benchmarks such as SPECint are now generally used to estimate computer performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse.

The term is commonly used in association with a numeric value such as thousand instructions per second (kIPS), million instructions per second (MIPS), Giga instructions per second (GIPS), or million operations per second (MOPS).

Thousand instructions per second[edit]

Before standard benchmarks were available, average speed rating of computers was based on calculations for a mix of instructions with the results given in kilo Instructions Per Second (kIPS). The most famous was the Gibson Mix, produced by Jack Clark Gibson of IBM for scientific applications. Other ratings, such as the ADP mix which does not include floating point operations, were produced for commercial applications. Computer Speeds From Instruction Mixes pre-1960 to 1971 has results for around 175 computers, providing scientific (Gibson) and commercial (ADP) ratings. For IBM, the earliest Gibson Mix calculations shown are the 1954 IBM 650 at 0.06 kIPS and 1956 IBM 705 at 0.5 kIPS. The results are mainly for IBM and others known as the BUNCH — Burroughs, UNIVAC, NCR, CDC, and Honeywell.

The thousand instructions per second (kIPS) unit is rarely used today, as most current microprocessors can execute at least a million instructions per second.

kIPS is also a common joke name for 16 bit microprocessor designs developed in undergraduate computer engineering courses that use the text Computer Organization and Design by Patterson and Hennessy (ISBN 1-55860-428-6), which explains computer architecture concepts in terms of the MIPS architecture. Such architectures tend to be scaled down versions of the MIPS R2000 architecture.

Millions of instructions per second[edit]

The speed of a given CPU depends on many factors, such as the type of instructions being executed, the execution order and the presence of branch instructions (problematic in CPU pipelines). CPU instruction rates are different from clock frequencies, usually reported in Hz, as each instruction may require several clock cycles to complete or the processor may be capable of executing multiple independent instructions at once. MIPS can be useful when comparing performance between processors made from a similar architecture (e.g. Microchip branded microcontrollers). However, MIPS are difficult to compare between CPU architectures.[1]

For this reason, MIPS has become not a measure of instruction execution speed, but task performance speed compared to a reference. In the late 1970s, minicomputer performance was compared using VAX MIPS, where computers were measured on a task and their performance rated against the VAX 11/780 that was marketed as a 1 MIPS machine. (The measure was also known as the VAX Unit of Performance or VUP. Though orthographically incorrect, the s in VUPs is sometimes written in upper case.) This was chosen because the 11/780 was roughly equivalent in performance to an IBM System/370 model 158-3, which was commonly accepted in the computing industry as running at 1 MIPS.

Many minicomputer performance claims were based on the Fortran version of the Whetstone benchmark, giving Millions of Whetstone Instructions Per Second (MWIPS). The VAX 11/780 with FPA (1977) runs at 1.02 MWIPS.

Effective MIPS speeds are highly dependent on the programming language used. The Whetstone Report has a table showing MWIPS speeds of PCs via early interpreters and compilers up to modern languages. The first PC compiler was for BASIC (1982) when a 4.8 MHz 8088/87 CPU obtained 0.01 MWIPS. Results on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo (1 CPU 2007) vary from 9.7 MWIPS using BASIC Interpreter, 59 MWIPS via BASIC Compiler, 347 MWIPS using 1987 Fortran, 1,534 MWIPS through HTML/Java to 2,403 MWIPS using a modern C/C++ compiler.

For the most early 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors, performance was measured in thousand instructions per second (1 kIPS = 0.001 MIPS).

zMIPS refers to the MIPS measure used internally by IBM to rate its mainframe servers (zSeries, IBM System z9, and IBM System z10).

Weighted million operations per second (WMOPS) is a similar measurement, used for audio codecs.

Timeline of instructions per second[edit]

Note: Bold highlight indicates the next step-up in terms of the highest known MIPS figures of their time.

Processor / System Dhrystone MIPS / MIPS D IPS / clock cycles per second D IPS / clock cycles per second / Cores per die Year Source
UNIVAC I 0.002 MIPS at 2.25 MHz 0.0008 0.0008 1951

[2]

Intel 4004 0.092 MIPS at 740 kHz
(Not Dhrystone)
0.124 0.124 1971 [3]
IBM System/370 158 0.64 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0736 0.0736 1972 [4]
Intel 8080 0.29 MIPS at 2 MHz 0.145 0.145 1974 [5]
MOS Technology 6502 0.43 MIPS at 1 MHz 0.43 0.43 1975 [6]
Intel 8080A 0.435 MIPS at 3 MHz 0.145 0.145 1976 [5]
Zilog Z80 0.58 MIPS at 4 MHz 0.145 0.145 S at 1 MHz 0.42 0.42 1977 [6]
Motorola 6802 0.5 MIPS at 1 MHz 0.5 0.5 1977 [7]
IBM System/370 158-3 0.73 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0839 0.0839 1977 [4]
VAX-11/780 1 MIPS at 5 MHz 0.2 0.2 1977 [4]
Fujitsu FACOM 230-75 APU 2 MIPS at 11 MHz 0.182 0.182 1977 [8][9]
Intel 8086 0.33 MIPS at 5 MHz 0.066 0.066 1978 [5]
Fujitsu MB8843 2 MIPS at 2 MHz 1 1 1978 [10]
Intel 8088 0.75 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.075 0.075 1979 [5]
Motorola 68000 1.4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.175 0.175 1979 [6]
Zilog Z8001/Z8002 1.5 MIPS at 6 MHz 0.25 0.25 1979 [11]
Intel 8035/8039/8048 6 MIPS at 6 MHz 1 1 1980 [12]
Fujitsu MB8843/MB8844 6 MIPS at 6 MHz 1 1 1980 [10]
Zilog Z80/Z80H 1.16 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.145 0.145 1981 [6][13]
Motorola 6802 1.79 MIPS at 3.58 MHz 0.5 0.5 1981 [7][14]
Zilog Z8001/Z8002B 2.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.25 0.25 1981 [11]
MOS Technology 6502 2.522 MIPS at 5.865 MHz 0.43 0.43 1981 [6][14]
Sega G80 (3 cores) 7.4 MIPS at 8 MHz 2.467 0.333 1981 [15]
Intel 286 1.28 MIPS at 12 MHz 0.107 0.107 1982 [4]
Motorola 68000 2.188 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.175 0.175 1982 [6]
Motorola 68010 2.407 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.193 0.193 1982 [16]
NEC V20 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1982 [17]
Namco Pole Position (7 cores) 8.141 MIPS at 3.072 MHz 1.163 0.379 1982 [18]
LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System (257 cores) 642.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 2.5 0.25 1982 [19]
Texas Instruments TMS32010 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1983 [20]
NEC V30 5 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.5 0.5 1983 [17]
Motorola 68010 3.209 MIPS at 16.67 MHz 0.193 0.193 1984 [16]
Motorola 68020 4.848 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.303 0.303 1984 [21]
Hitachi HD63705 2 MIPS at 2 MHz 1 1 1985 [22][23]
Intel i386DX 2.15 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.134 0.134 1985 [4]
Hitachi-Motorola 68HC000 3.5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.175 0.175 1985 [6]
Intel 8751 8 MIPS at 8 MHz 1 1 1985 [24]
Sega System 16 (4 cores) 16.33 MIPS at 10 MHz 4.083 0.408 1985 [25]
ARM2 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1986
Texas Instruments TMS34010 6 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.12 0.12 1986 [26]
NEC V70 6.6 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.33 0.33 1987 [27]
Motorola 68030 9 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.36 0.36 1987 [28][29]
Gmicro/200 10 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [30]
Texas Instruments TMS320C20 12.5 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [31]
Analog Devices ADSP-2100 12.5 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 1 1 1987 [32]
Texas Instruments TMS320C25 25 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [31]
Motorola 68020 10 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.303 0.303 1988 [21]
Motorola 68030 18 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.36 0.36 1988 [29]
Namco System 21 (10 cores) 73.927 MIPS at 25 MHz 2.957 0.296 1988 [33]
Intel i386DX 4.3 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.13 0.13 1989 [4]
Intel i486DX 8.7 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.348 0.348 1989 [4]
NEC V80 16.5 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.5 0.5 1989 [27]
Intel i860 25 MIPS at 25 MHz 1 1 1989 [34]
Atari Hard Drivin' (7 cores) 33.573 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.671 0.0959 1989 [35]
NEC SX-3 (4 cores) 680 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.7 0.425 1989 [36][37]
Motorola 68040 44 MIPS at 40 MHz 1.1 1.1 1990 [38]
Namco System 21 (Galaxian³) (96 cores) 1,660.386 MIPS at 40 MHz 41.51 0.432 1990 [39]
AMD Am386 9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.225 0.225 1991 [40]
Intel i486DX 11.1 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.336 0.336 1991 [4]
Intel i860 50 MIPS at 50 MHz 1 1 1991 [34]
Intel i486DX2 25.6 MIPS at 66 MHz 0.388 0.388 1992 [4]
DEC Alpha 21064 EV4 86 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.573 0.573 1992 [4]
DEC Alpha 21064 EV4 135 MIPS at 200 MHz 0.675 0.675 1993 [4][41]
MIPS R4400 85 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.567 0.567 1993 [42]
Gmicro/500 132 MIPS at 66 MHz 2 2 1993 [43]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 601 157.7 MIPS at 80 MHz 1.971 1.971 1993 [44]
SGI Onyx RealityEngine2 (36 cores) 2,640 MIPS at 150 MHz 17.6 0.489 1993 [45]
Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator (36 cores) 2,880 MIPS at 150 MHz 19.2 0.533 1993 [42]
Fujitsu-NAL Numerical Wind Tunnel (168 cores) 10,718.4 MIPS at 105 MHz 63.8 0.608 1993 [46][47]
ARM7 40 MIPS at 45 MHz 0.889 0.889 1994 [48]
Intel DX4 70 MIPS at 100 MHz 0.7 0.7 1994 [5]
Motorola 68060 110 MIPS at 75 MHz 1.33 1.33 1994
Intel Pentium 188 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.88 1.88 1994 [49]
Microchip PIC16F 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1995 [50]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e 188 MIPS at 133 MHz 1.414 1.414 1995 [51]
Atmel megaAVR 16 MIPS at 16 MHz 1 1 1996 [52]
ARM 7500FE 35.9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.9 0.9 1996
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603ev 423 MIPS at 300 MHz 1.41 1.41 1996 [51]
Intel Pentium Pro 541 MIPS at 200 MHz 2.7 2.7 1996 [53]
Hitachi SH-4 360 MIPS at 200 MHz 1.8 1.8 1997 [54][55]
IBM-Motorola PowerPC 750 525 MIPS at 233 MHz 2.3 2.3 1997
Zilog eZ80 80 MIPS at 50 MHz 1.6 1.6 1999 [56]
Intel Pentium III 2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz 3.4 3.4 1999 [49]
Sega Naomi Multiboard (32 cores) 6,400 MIPS at 200 MHz 32 1 1999 [57]
Freescale MPC8272 760 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.9 1.9 2000 [58]
AMD Athlon 3,561 MIPS at 1.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2000
Sony-Toshiba Emotion Engine (PS2) 6,000 MIPS at 294 MHz 20.408 20.408 2000 [59]
Silicon Recognition ZISC 78 8,600 MIPS at 33 MHz 260.6 260.6 2000 [60]
NEC SX-6 (Single Node, 8 cores) 44,208 MIPS at 500 MHz 88.416 11.052 2001 [4]
NEC SX-6 (128 Node, 1024 cores) 5,658,624 MIPS at 500 MHz 11,317.248 11.052 2001 [4]
ARM11 515 MIPS at 412 MHz 1.25 1.25 2002 [61]
NEC Earth Simulator (5120 cores) 28,293,540 MIPS at 500 MHz 56,587.08 11.052 2002 [62]
AMD Athlon XP 2500+ 7,527 MIPS at 1.83 GHz 4.1 4.1 2003 [49]
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2003
Microchip PIC10F 1 MIPS at 4 MHz 0.25 0.25 2004 [63][64]
ARM Cortex-M3 125 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.25 1.25 2004 [65]
Nios II 190 MIPS at 165 MHz 1.13 1.13 2004 [66]
MIPS32 4KEc 356 MIPS at 233 MHz 1.5 1.5 2004 [67]
VIA C7 1,799 MIPS at 1.3 GHz 1.4 1.4 2005 [68]
ARM Cortex-A8 2,000 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 2.0 2.0 2005 [69]
AMD Athlon FX-57 12,000 MIPS at 2.8 GHz 4.3 4.3 2005
AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual core) 14,564 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.3 3.6 2005 [70]
ARM Cortex-R4 450 MIPS at 270 MHz 1.66 1.66 2006 [71]
MIPS32 24K 604 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.51 1.51 2006 [72]
PS3 Cell BE (PPE only) 10,240 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.2 3.2 2006
Xbox360 IBM "Xenon" (Triple core) 19,200 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 6.0 2.0 2005
AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual core) 18,938 MIPS at 2.6 GHz 7.3 3.6 2006 [70]
Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800 (Dual core) 27,079 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 9.2 4.6 2006 [70]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX6700 (Quad core) 49,161 MIPS at 2.66 GHz 18.4 4.6 2006 [73]
MIPS64 20Kc 1,370 MIPS at 600 MHz 2.3 2.3 2007 [74]
P.A. Semi PA6T-1682M 8,800 MIPS at 1.8 GHz 4.4 4.4 2007 [75]
Qualcomm Scorpion (Cortex A8-like) 2,100 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.1 2.1 2008 [61]
Intel Atom N270 (Single core) 3,846 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 2.4 2.4 2008 [76]
Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770 (Quad core) 59,455 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 18.6 4.6 2008 [77]
Intel Core i7 920 (Quad core) 82,300 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 28.089 7.022 2008 [78]
ARM Cortex-M0 45 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.9 0.9 2009 [79]
ARM Cortex-A9 (Dual core) 7,500 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 5.0 2.5 2009 [80]
AMD Phenom II X4 940 Black Edition 42,820 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 14.3 3.5 2009 [81]
Fujitsu SPARC64 VIIIfx 113,471.314 MIPS at 2 GHz 113,471.314 7.092 2009 [59][82]
AMD Phenom II X6 1100T 78,440 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 23.7 3.9 2010 [78]
Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X (Hex core) 147,600 MIPS at 3.33 GHz 44.7 7.46 2010 [83]
Tianhe-1A (186,368 cores) 2,670,000,000 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 14,326.494 4.89 2010 [59][84]
ARM Cortex A5 1,256 MIPS at 800 MHz 1.57 1.57 2011 [69]
ARM Cortex A7 2,850 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 1.9 1.9 2011 [61]
Qualcomm Krait (Cortex A15-like, Dual core) 9,900 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 6.6 3.3 2011 [61]
AMD E-350 (Dual core) 10,000 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 6.25 3.125 2011 [85]
Nvidia Tegra 3 (Quad core Cortex-A9) 13,800 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 9.2 2.5 2011
Samsung Exynos 5250 (Cortex-A15-like Dual core) 14,000 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.0 3.5 2011 [86]
Intel Core i5-2500K (Quad core) 83,000 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 25.152 6.288 2011 [87]
Intel Core i7 875K 92,100 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 31.4 7.85 2011 [88]
AMD FX-8150 (Eight core) 108,890 MIPS at 3.6 GHz 30.2 3.78 2011 [89][90]
Intel Core i7 2600K 128,300 MIPS at 3.4 GHz 37.7 9.43 2011 [91]
Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3960X (Hex core) 177,730 MIPS at 3.33 GHz 53.3 8.89 2011 [92]
Fujitsu K computer (705,024 cores) 10,000,000,000 MIPS at 2 GHz 113,471.314 7.092 2011 [59][82]
AMD FX-8350 97,125 MIPS at 4.2 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [90][93]
Intel Core i7 3770k 106,924 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 27.4 6.9 2012 [90]
Intel Core i7 3630QM 113,093 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 35.3 8.83 2012 [94]
Intel Core i7 4770k 127,273 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 32.0 8.0 2013 [90][93][95]
Intel Core i7 5960x 298,190 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 99.3 12.4 2014 [96]

Historic data[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ted MacNeil. "Don't be Misled by MIPS". IBM magazine. 
  2. ^ US Steel News. 15-20. Industrial Relations Department of The United States Steel Corporation of Delaware. 1950–1955. p. 29. 
  3. ^ MCS4 > IntelP4004
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m http://www.jcmit.com/cpu-performance.htm
  5. ^ a b c d e http://web.archive.org/web/20120424231244/http://www.depi.itch.edu.mx/apacheco/asm/Intel_cpus.htm
  6. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.drolez.com/retro/
  7. ^ a b 2 cycles per instruction [1]
  8. ^ http://museum.ipsj.or.jp/en/computer/super/0003.html
  9. ^ http://homepage1.nifty.com/KSudou-NET/ks0D0D03.htm
  10. ^ a b 1 instruction per cycle [2]
  11. ^ a b 4 cycles per instruction [3] = 0.25 instructions per cycle
  12. ^ http://archive.org/stream/bitsavers_inteldataSngleComponent8BitMicrocomputerDataSheet1_846962/8048_8035_HMOS_Single_Component_8-Bit_Microcomputer_DataSheet_1980
  13. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20120219195401/http://www.cityofberwyn.com/simulation/gameHardware/G80ref1.20.txt
  14. ^ a b http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=735
  15. ^ Sega G80: Zilog Z80 @ 8 MHz [4] (1.16 MIPS [5]), 2× Intel 8035/8039 @ 3.12 MHz (6.24 MIPS [6])
  16. ^ a b 10% faster [7] than 68000 (0.175 MIPS per MHz [8])
  17. ^ a b NEC V20/V30: 250 nanoseconds per instruction @ 8 MHz [9]
  18. ^ Namco Pole Position: Zilog Z80 @ 3.072 [10] (0.445 MIPS [11]), 2× Zilog Z8002 @ 3.072 MHz [12] (1.536 MIPS [13]), 4× Fujitsu MB8843/MB8844 @ 1.54 MHz [14] (6.16 MIPS [15])
  19. ^ LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System: 257× Zilog Z8001 [16] at 10 MHz [17] (2.5 MIPS [18]) each
  20. ^ http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tms320ss16.pdf
  21. ^ a b MC68020 Product Summary Page
  22. ^ http://digital.hitachihyoron.com/pdf/1985/08/1985_08_05.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.datasheetarchive.com/dlmain/Datasheets-13/DSA-246134.pdf
  24. ^ 1 instruction per cycle [19]
  25. ^ Sega System 16: Hitachi-Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz (1.75 MIPS), NEC-Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS) [20] [21], Intel 8751 @ 8 Mhz [22] (8 MIPS [23]), Intel 8048 @ 6 MHz [24] (6 MIPS [25])
  26. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KzoEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT22
  27. ^ a b http://ipsj.ixsq.nii.ac.jp/ej/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=59745&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=8
  28. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KU7dCBpP7fsC&pg=PA130
  29. ^ a b MC68030 Product Summary Page
  30. ^ http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/tronvlsicpu.html
  31. ^ a b http://historyofracinggames.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/060-1987-drivers-eyes-1989-winning-run.pdf
  32. ^ http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheet/analogdevices/ADSP-2100KG.pdf
  33. ^ Namco System 21 hardware: 5× Texas Instruments TMS320C20 @ 25 MHz (62.5 MIPS [26]), 2× Motorola 68000 @ 12.288 MHz [27] (4.301 MIPS [28]), Motorola 68020 [29] @ 12.5 MHz (3.788 MIPS [30]), Hitachi HD63705 @ 2.048 MHz [31] (2.048 MIPS [32]), Motorola 6809 @ 3.072 MHz [33] (1.29 MIPS [34])
  34. ^ a b http://alacron.com/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=Inteli860_basedBusBoardsFT_200_VME&category=news
  35. ^ Atari Hard Drivin' hardware: [35] Motorola 68000 @ 7 MHz (1.225 MIPS [36]), Motorola 68010 @ 7 MHz (1.348 MIPS [37]), 3× Texas Instruments TMS34010 @ 50 MHz (18 MIPS [38]), Analog Devices ADSP-2100 @ 8 MHz (8 MIPS [39]), Texas Instruments TMS32010 @ 20 MHz (5 MIPS [40])
  36. ^ http://www.degruyter.com/dg/viewarticle/j$002fpiko.1990.13.issue-4$002fpiko.1990.13.4.205$002fpiko.1990.13.4.205.xml;jsessionid=2928071D864D5E4F9045C8A209E7AA94
  37. ^ http://www.top500.org/system/170813
  38. ^ MC68040 Product Summary Page
  39. ^ Namco System 21 (Galaxian³) hardware: [41] 80× Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 40 MHz (1600 MIPS [42]), 5× Motorola 68020 @ 24.576 MHz (37.236 MIPS [43]) Motorola 68000 @ 12.288 MHz (2.15 MIPS [44]), 10× Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz (21 MIPS [45])
  40. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sc0wyeolS8cC&pg=PA97
  41. ^ Digital's 21064 Microprocessor, Digital Equipment Corporation (c1992) accessdate=2009-08-29
  42. ^ a b http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=832
  43. ^ http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=623816
  44. ^ http://www.netlib.org/performance/html/dhrystone.data.col0.html
  45. ^ 24× MIPS R4400 (2040 MIPS), [46] 12× Intel i860 (600 MIPS) [47]
  46. ^ http://museum.ipsj.or.jp/en/computer/super/0020.html
  47. ^ http://www.fujitsu.com/global/Images/fujitsu-contribution-to-hpc.pdf
  48. ^ http://www.segatech.com/technical/saturnspecs/
  49. ^ a b c Tomshardware Cpu chart 2004
  50. ^ PIC16F84A
  51. ^ a b http://www.fermimn.gov.it/inform/materiali/evarchi/motorola/603e_fs.pdf
  52. ^ Atmel Corporation - Atmel AVR 8- and 32-bit - megaAVR
  53. ^ SiSoftware Zone
  54. ^ http://www.segatech.com/technical/cpu/
  55. ^ http://www.segatech.com/archives/january1998.html
  56. ^ "Zilog Sees New Lease of Life for Z80 in Internet Appliances". Computergram International. 1999. 
  57. ^ Sega Naomi Multiboard hardware: [48] [49] 16× Hitachi SH-4 at 200 MHz (5760 MIPS [50]), 16× ARM7 at 45 MHz (640 MIPS [51])
  58. ^ Freescale Semiconductor - MPC8272 PowerQUICC II Processor Family
  59. ^ a b c d http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/book97/ch3/processor.list.txt
  60. ^ http://www.datasheetarchive.com/ZISC78-datasheet.html
  61. ^ a b c d Anandtech ARM Cortex A7 architecture comparison
  62. ^ NEC Earth Simulator: 5,120× NEC SX-6 at 500 MHz (28,293,540 MIPS)
  63. ^ PIC10F200
  64. ^ Microchip Technology Debuts Industry’s First 6-Pin Microcontrollers: The World’s Smallest Microcontroller
  65. ^ ARM Cortex-M3
  66. ^ Nios II Performance Benchmarks
  67. ^ [52]
  68. ^ mini-itx.com - epia px 10000 review
  69. ^ a b ARM Cortex-A Series Comparison
  70. ^ a b c CPU Charts 2007 - Tom's Hardware
  71. ^ Cortex-R4 Processor
  72. ^ 24K
  73. ^ Synthetics, Continued - Tom's Hardware : Intel's Core 2 Quadro Kentsfield: Four Cores on a Rampage
  74. ^ Design Reuse - needs free registration
  75. ^ Merritt, Rick (5 February 2007). "Startup takes PowerPC to 25 W". EE Times. UBM Tech. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  76. ^ OC Workbench
  77. ^ Synthetic - Sandra CPU - Tom's Hardware : Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9770: Paper Tiger?
  78. ^ a b Tom's Hardware Cpu Charts 2010
  79. ^ Cortex-M0 Processor
  80. ^ EEE Journal
  81. ^ XtremeSystems Member Synthetic - Sandra CPU
  82. ^ a b K computer: 88,128× Fujitsu SPARC64 VIIIfx @ 2 GHz each
  83. ^ Overclock3D - Sandra CPU
  84. ^ http://www.top500.org/system/176929
  85. ^ Tom's Hardware
  86. ^ Samsung Exynos 5250 Announcement
  87. ^ http://www.guru3d.com/articles-pages/core-i5-2500k-and-core-i7-2600k-review,13.html
  88. ^ Tom's Hardware - Desktop CPU Charts 2011: Sandra 2010 Pro ALU
  89. ^ HardOCP Bulldozer Desktop Performance - Synthetic Benchmarks
  90. ^ a b c d http://www.cpu-world.com/benchmarks/browse/910_80,965_61,993_80,1035_96/?c_test=6&PROCESS=Show+Selected
  91. ^ Tom's Hardware - Benchmark Results: Synthetics
  92. ^ HardOCP - Synthetic Benchmarks
  93. ^ a b http://versus.com/en/amd-fx-8350-black-edition-vs-intel-core-i7-4770k
  94. ^ - Notebookcheck
  95. ^ http://www.notebookcheck.net/Intel-Core-i7-Desktop-4770K-Notebook-Processor.93553.0.html
  96. ^ http://techgage.com/print/core-i7-5960x-extreme-edition-review-intels-overdue-desktop-8-core-is-here/