CSS Georgia (1863)
CSS Georgia, also known as State of Georgia and Ladies' Ram, was built in Savannah, Georgia in 1862 and was originally designed to be an ironclad warship. Funding in the amount of $115,000 for her construction was provided by the Ladies' Gunboat Association.
Placed under command of Lieutenant Washington Gwathmey, CSN, she was employed in defending the river channels below Savannah, training her cannons against the Union advance. It is believed she lacked effective locomotive power for offensive engagement and was subsequently anchored in the Savannah River, protecting both Savannah and Fort Jackson as a floating battery rather than her intended design as an ironclad warship. CSS Georgia had only been in operation for 20 months when Sherman's March to the Sea ended in Savannah on December 21, 1864; on that day the Confederates chose to scuttle her rather than abandon the ship to the Union. During her service history Georgia never fired a shot in combat.
After settling to the bottom of Savannah River, the wreck lay unknown for more than 100 years; it was during a dredging operation in 1968 that the wreck site was discovered. As dredging continued over the years, the site was avoided; however, possible accidental impacts from dredging equipment and anchors intended to mark site location may have damaged the ironclad. Today, all that remains of Georgia are portions of her forward and aft casemate and remnants of her engines, including boilers, shafts, propellers, and condensers. Several cannon were found near the wreck as well, along with assorted ordnance.
By May, 2012, the Army Corp of Engineers had budgeted $14 million to raise the ironclad in order to accommodate further dredging of the river. Archeologists working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, aided by teams from the U.S. Navy, retrieved a 64-square foot section of Georgia from the bottom of the Savannah River on November 12, 2013.
According to news reports as recent as January 30, 2015, the wreck is to be recovered over a nine month salvage operation as part of an initiative to upgrade waterway access for deep sea vessels; as part of the operation the Savannah River approaches require dredging to 47 feet. The recovery of the ironclad offers an opportunity to research an otherwise forgotten piece of history. News reports allege that only one photograph of the Georgia was known to have been taken, and that has been missing for over thirty years. A photograph of the alleged picture was made in the 1980's, fueling debate as to its authenticity, but on April 13, 2015, John Potter (the person who took the photograph of the alleged photograph of CSS Georgia) confessed that the framed image was a hoax.
- Watts, Gordon P; James Jr, Stephen R. (February 2007). "In Situ Archaeological Evaluation of the CSS Georgia Savannah Harbor, Georgia" (PDF). Final Grant Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Anuskiewicz, Richard J; Garrison, Ervan G. (1992). "Underwater archaeology by braille: Survey methodology and site characterization modeling in a blackwater environment - A study of a scuttled confederate ironclad, CSS Georgia.". In: Cahoon, LB. (ed.) Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Twelfth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium "Diving for Science 1992". Held September 24–27, 1992 at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC. (American Academy of Underwater Sciences). Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Russ Bynum (May 5, 2012). "Civil War shipwreck in the way of Ga. port project". Associated Press. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Raquel (November 13, 2013). "A Piece Of Civil War History Raised From The Savannah River". WSAV-TV. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- Only known photo of Civil War ironclad the CSS Georgia is a FAKE: Man admits picture was a teenage hoax featuring a 2ft model
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