CTIA – The Wireless Association
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|CTIA – The Wireless Association|
Logo of CTIA
|Type||Industry trade association|
|Location||1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036 United States|
|President||Steve Largent, President and CEO|
CTIA – The Wireless Association is an industry trade group that represents a wide variety of interests on behalf of the international wireless telecommunications industry. Its members include international cellular, personal communication services and enhanced specialized mobile radio providers and suppliers, and providers and manufacturers of wireless data services and products. CTIA originally stood for Cellular Telephone Industry Association.
The association advocates on behalf of the industry at all levels of government. It has been a vocal supporter to try to get more spectrum for the U.S. wireless industry as it sees a "looming spectrum crisis" on the horizon. It supports the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) National Broadband Plan, which calls for 500 MHz of spectrum to be made available for commercial wireless purposes in the next ten years. In addition, CTIA has played roles in repealing the Internal Revenue Service listed property rule for mobile devices, and by participating in the development of model state legislation that would make manual texting while driving illegal. It also supported the 2010 passage of the 21st Century Telecommunications Act, which ensured every American has access to wireless services. Regulatory activity that CTIA played a key part in involved the FCC's adoption of a "shot clock" ruling in November 2009 on tower siting applications, which helps to ensure that local zoning authorities respond to request in a timely manner. Other examples of CTIA advocacy efforts occurred when the association was instrumental in the passage of both the Electronic Communications Privacy Act and the Telecommunications Disclosure & Dispute Resolution Act.
Major activities 
CTIA's major services and functions on behalf of the wireless industry include:
- External and State Affairs - Liaison with state legislatures, regulatory entities and advocacy organizations on wireless communications issues.
- Government Affairs - Advocates on behalf of the wireless industry on Capitol Hill and at various Executive branch departments and agencies.
- Regulatory Affairs - The Regulatory Affairs Department is the chief representative of the wireless industry before the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and other federal government organizations that seek to regulate the wireless industry.
- Operations and Standards Setting - Provides services to help the industry with the complex task of testing and evaluating wireless devices and establishing standards for manufacture and operation. This includes defining and publishing test plans, authorizing and managing test labs, and defining and implementing device certification programs. Programs include:
- CCF Certification Program for CDMA devices for the global market - Within that program, CTIA manages a CTIA Certification Program for CDMA devices for the North American market.
- PTCRB Certification Program for GSM and UMTS Devices - CTIA administers the PTCRB Certification Program.
- Battery Certification Program - CTIA manages a program to permit operators and their suppliers to validate a Lithium Ion battery's compliance with the IEEE Standard for Rechargeable Batteries for Cellular Telephones, IEEE Std 1725 - 2006.
- Bluetooth Compatibility Certification Program - CTIA manages a program to evaluate the implementation, integration and interaction between Bluetooth–enabled mobile phones and accessories.
- Wireless Internet Development - Focuses on wireless data segment of the industry, including support for the industry's Wireless Internet Caucus (WIC).
- Short Codes- Provides Common Short Code (CSC) administration services to wireless services. CSCs are the short numeric codes to which text messages can be addressed from a wireless device. These five-digit or six-digit numbers, compatible across participating carriers, are leased by anyone interested in interacting with almost 293 million wireless subscriber connections. Wireless subscribers send text messages to short codes to access a wide variety of mobile content for delivery to their wireless devices. Applications range from sweepstakes and mobile coupons to tele-voting campaigns and a wide range of additional interactive wireless services.
- Voluntary Guidelines - Convenes and focuses wireless industry efforts to develop best operating practices and standards and to adopt voluntary guidelines in a number of areas of vital importance: a Consumer Code that is designed to help consumers make informed choices when selecting and managing their wireless service; Best Practices and Guidelines for Location Based Services that promote and protect user privacy; Wireless Content Guidelines to provide consumers with the information and tools they need to make informed choices when accessing content using a wireless handset; and Wireless Content Guidelines Classification Criteria that classifies mobile content based on existing criteria that's used to rate movies, television shows, music and games.
CTIA also supports industry initiatives such as Wireless AMBER Alerts; On the Road, Off the Phone, a teen-focused safe driving public service announcement campaign; text4baby, a free mobile educational service to promote the birth of healthy babies; and the "Be Smart. Be Fair. Be Safe: Responsible Wireless Use" program to help parents, educators, and policymakers teach kids about responsible mobile behavior, driving, and eco-friendly initiatives.
Industry metrics and trade shows 
CTIA provides a semi-annual industry survey that tracks trends and use patterns in the high-velocity growth market for new devices, new services and consumer choices. Conducted since 1985, these surveys cover direct employment, number of cell sites, major categories of industry revenues, the average local monthly bill, the average length of call and other metrics. The average local monthly bill includes voice and data usage and is developed on a weighted basis, to avoid skewing the figures. It is not an average of averages. No adjustments are made to these figures.
The survey tracks the growing trend toward consumers using more wireless data service, which includes statistics on wireless data revenues and wireless data traffic. The survey also develops information on the number of reported wireless subscriber units or "connections" for the responding systems, and an estimated total wireless connections figure for the United States taking into account non-responding systems, which is quite small, as CTIA receives responses from companies serving more than 95 percent of wireless subscriber connections.
The association also operates the industry's leading trade shows:
- CTIA Wireless
- CTIA Enterprise and Applications
Hardware certification 
CTIA provides equipment testing and hardware certification programs for its nearly 300 members in the United States, and coordinates voluntary industry efforts to provide consumers with information regarding wireless products and services. This includes industry guidelines and wireless accessibility for individuals with disabilities.
Board of Directors 
CTIA is governed by a 35-member Board of Directors composed of six officers and 29 directors. These individuals are elected to serve for a one-year term, effective January 1-December 31.
These are the 2011 Officers:
- Dan Hesse, Chief Executive Officer, Sprint Nextel Corporation - Chairman
- Ralph de la Vega, President and CEO, AT&T Mobility & Consumer Markets, AT&T - Chairman Emeritus
- Patrick Riordan, President and Chief Executive Officer, Cellcom - Vice Chairman
- Bret Comolli, Chairman, Asurion - Treasurer
- Mary Dillon, President and Chief Executive Officer, U. S. Cellular - Secretary
- Steve M Largent, President and Chief Executive Officer, CTIA
These are the 2011 Directors:
- Jim Balsillie, Co-Chief Executive Officer, Research In Motion
- Marty Beard, President, Sybase 365, Sybase, Inc.
- Matt Bross, Group Chief Technology Officer and Vice Chairman, Huawei Technologies
- Philip Christopher, President and Chief Executive Officer, Personal Communications Devices, LLC (PCD)
- Dallas Clement, Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Officer, Cox Communications
- Robert Dawson, President and Chief Executive Officer, SouthernLINC Wireless
- Ken Denman, Chief Executive Officer, Openwave Systems
- G. Edward Evans, Chief Executive Officer, Stelera Wireless, LLC
- Tony Holcombe, President and Chief Executive Officer, Syniverse Technologies
- Philipp Humm, President and Chief Executive Officer, T-Mobile USA
- S. Douglas Hutcheson, Chief Executive Officer, President and Director, Leap Wireless
- Jeff Hwang, President, LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc.
- Johnie Johnson, CEO & General Manager, Nex-Tech Wireless
- Peggy Johnson, Executive Vice President of the Americas and India, QUALCOMM, Inc.
- Greg Klimek, Vice President & General Manager, Mohave Wireless
- Andrew Lees, Senior VP, Mobile Communications Business, Microsoft Corporation
- Mark Louison, President, Nokia, Inc.
- Dan Mead, President and Chief Executive Officer, Verizon Wireless
- Bill Morrow, Chief Executive Officer, Clearwire Corporation
- Frank O'Mara, Chief Executive Officer, Allied Wireless Communications Corporation
- F.J. Pollak, President and Chief Executive Officer, TracFone Wireless
- Angel Ruiz, President and Chief Executive Officer, Ericsson, Inc.
- Mark Shockley, General Manager, North America Region for Mobile Devices, Motorola
- Ronald Smith, President, Bluegrass Cellular, Inc.
- E.Y. Snowden, President & CEO, Tatara Systems, Inc.
- Dale Sohn, President, Samsung Telecommunications America, L.P.
- Maurice B. Tosé, President and Chief Executive Officer, TeleCommunication Systems, Inc
- Charles Townsend, General Partner, Aloha Partners II, L.P.
- Robert Vrij, President, Americas Region, Alcatel-Lucent
- Wirt Yerger, III, Manager, Cavalier Wireless, LLC
CTIA was founded in 1984 as the Cellular Telephone Industries Association. In 2000, CTIA merged with the Wireless Data Forum and became the Cellular Telecommunications Internet Association. In 2004, the name was changed to CTIA – The Wireless Association to reflect that the wireless industry now included data and other communications services in addition to telephone service.
Policy issues 
CTIA's positions include:
- Accessibility & Disability: CTIA and the wireless industry are leaders in driving ever-growing choices and opportunities for all consumers, including persons with disabilities. Through AccessWireless.org, CTIA and its member companies collaborate with consumer organizations representing persons with disabilities and directly engage with consumers to assure continued progress in accessible wireless products and solutions.
- Broadband: Mobile providers do not just deliver mobile wireless broadband to the premises; they deliver broadband to the person. CTIA and the wireless industry recognize the value consumers place on their mobile broadband services and applications, and as a result, advocate that the regulatory and legislative framework for broadband remain flexible and thoughtfully focused on supporting the continued growth and innovation made possible by the wireless Internet to serve both the nation's and consumers' needs.
- Consumer Protection Standards: As part of the industry's pro-consumer stance, every major U.S. wireless carrier and most regional and local wireless service providers have committed to the voluntary "Consumer Code for Wireless Service". Since it was developed in 2003, the Code has been nationally recognized as the standard to make certain consumers are informed about their wireless service options, fees and choices. It establishes a baseline set of uniform expectations and ensures consumers have access to information to make educated decisions about wireless products and services.
- Contraband Cell Phones in Prisons: CTIA and the wireless industry vehemently oppose prisoners having access to contraband phones. The wireless industry and corrections community share the same goal of stopping the use of contraband cell phones by prisoners. Wireless carriers support attacking the underlying supply of and demand for contraband cell phones in prisons through lawful and currently available solutions, such as cell detection and managed access technologies. These non-interfering technologies have been successfully demonstrated and deployed across the country. In addition, CTIA supported the Cell Phone Contraband Act, which became law in August 2010 and punishes inmates, and anyone who supplies them with a device, while in prison.
- Emergency Preparedness/Business Continuity: Wireless companies are constantly evaluating, analyzing, and refining their response plans, and through natural disasters such as hurricanes, the wireless community has learned even more about emergency preparedness. The industry applies that knowledge in its efforts to retool and shape plans for future emergencies.
- Enhanced 911 (E-911): CTIA and its members are fully committed to ensuring access to E-911 services for customers on their wireless phones, and to improving E-911 services to all Americans regardless of the wireless technologies and services used. The wireless industry is investing substantially in the network capabilities needed to identify the location of wireless calls to 911, and to meet deadlines established by the FCC for deploying these enhanced technologies.
- Intercarrier Compensation (ICC): CTIA supports overhauling the current Intercarrier Compensation system because it is outdated, inefficient and does not reflect today's multi-dimensional telecom market. The ICC system dictates the financial and technical terms under which carriers exchange telecommunications traffic. CTIA advocates for a fair system called Mutually Efficient Traffic Exchange (METE), the optimal way to best serve consumers by allowing the market to work and, when limited regulation is necessary, eliminating distinctions between different types of technology platforms and encouraging efficiency.
- Kids & Wireless: Education is key to ensuring children and teens use cell phones in smart, safe, fair and responsible ways. CTIA and The Wireless Foundation developed the "Be Smart. Be Fair. Be Safe: Responsible Wireless Use" campaign in March 2010 to provide content for parents, educators and policymakers to help them teach kids about responsible mobile behavior, driving and eco-friendly initiatives.
- mHealth Solutions: Innovative wireless technology is reshaping the healthcare landscape in America and around the world. Whether it's through applications, developments or policies, wireless can provide consumers with even more value and better health. By reducing medical costs and errors, removing geographical and economic disparities and reinforcing consumer-focused and personalized healthcare, mHealth solutions are improving healthcare services for millions regardless of location, race, age, gender or disability.
- National Framework: CTIA believes policymakers should take a very cautious view toward regulating the vibrant mobile broadband ecosystem, including the wireless Internet, as numerous independent surveys and studies support the position that our industry leads the world in competition, innovation, value and overall customer satisfaction. Given the unique aspects of wireless broadband, from the technologies involved and complexities of network management to the pace of innovation and consumer demand for ever-increasing bandwidth and applications, policymakers need to recognize that this industry is delivering a level of service and value unimagined only a few years ago – and successfully doing so without government intervention. If additional legislative or regulatory support is needed to maintain this momentum, consumers will be best served if government action remains at the national level, and states are only allowed to take appropriate action relative to their laws of general applicability. Privacy: The wireless industry recognizes that safeguarding confidential information is one of the most important obligations providers have to their customers. CTIA and its members are leaders in developing guidance aimed at preserving the two pillars of customers' privacy rights – notice and consent.
- Safe Driving: CTIA believes that when it comes to using a wireless device behind the wheel, it's important to remember safety always comes first and should be every driver's top priority. That is why CTIA partnered with the National Safety Council to develop the On the Road, Off the Phone campaign. While mobile devices are important safety tools, there's an appropriate time and an inappropriate time to use them. The wireless industry generally defers to consumers and the driving legislation they support – whether that's hands-free regulations or bans on talking on mobile devices while driving. At the same time, CTIA and the industry believes text-messaging while driving is incompatible with safe driving, and supports state and local statutes that ban this activity while driving.
- Universal Service Fund: Everyone should pay their fair share of universal service, and the funds should be distributed in an equitable and non-discriminatory manner that recognizes consumer demand. At the same time, the Universal Service Fund (USF) should be no bigger than necessary to achieve the goals outlined by Congress. Consumers receive the most benefit from a limited USF system that ensures competitors have equal access to support.
- Wireless Industry Sustainability: The wireless industry's sustainability efforts include developing environmentally-friendly products and services, implementing energy-conscious measures in its network operations and business practices and educating consumers about cell phone recycling. Perhaps the single greatest contribution the wireless industry makes to being "green" is the efficiencies it offers for other companies so they can revolutionize their operations and reduce their environmental impact.
Keeping up with mobile broadband demand 
No two issues are more central to supporting the rapid expansion in development of mobile broadband services and products than the need to make spectrum available for mobile broadband and to ensure that net neutrality is not applied to wireless because there are inherent differences between mobile broadband versus other broadband services.
CTIA-The Wireless Association and the wireless industry believe that the U.S. must identify and allocate additional licensed spectrum for commercial wireless use in order to meet the growing demand by consumers and businesses for mobile wireless broadband services.
Spectrum is the backbone of the wireless industry – without it, the applications, speed, devices and other innovations of the wireless ecosystem could be in jeopardy. Even though the U.S. wireless industry is the world's most efficient commercial spectrum user, the explosive consumer demand for wireless broadband will quickly outpace carriers' network capacity. Each year, wireless carriers are investing billions of dollars to meet the insatiable consumer demand. Industry watchers agree that lack of spectrum is an urgent need.
FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski referred to spectrum as the "oxygen" needed to achieve universal broadband service, the key goal of the FCC National Broadband Plan (NBP), released in March 2010. That plan called for the allocation of 500 MHz of additional spectrum for the wireless industry. The NBP calls for 300 MHz of this spectrum to be made available within three years. In June 2010, President Barack Obama issued a memorandum in support of the NBP's spectrum goals. CTIA supports these announcements, and also supports the Radio Spectrum Inventory Act (S. 649) and its companion bill (H.R. 3125), which would require an inventory of radio spectrum bands managed by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the FCC. In April 2010, H.R. 3125 passed the House. Identifying where additional spectrum can be relocated for commercial wireless use is the first step in designating the valuable spectrum the wireless industry needs in order to continue to meet consumer's increasing demand. The evaluation process continues as part of the Obama administration's support for the National Broadband Plan.
In late 2009, the CTIA advocated to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for the destruction of over-the-air terrestrial television, which was just forced through a very expensive transition, so that its members could takeover the UHF radio spectrum for their own use. The National Association of Broadcasters and MSTV countered by noting that it is a waste of bandwidth to stream multiple copies of a TV show that could instead be watched on a mobile TV broadcast. The new free-to-air ATSC-M/H mobile standard for TV stations is competition to its own members' pay TV business model (FLO TV and video on demand).
Countering this view by the broadcast industry, in a December 2009 joint filing, CTIA and the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) proposed a common-sense approach to repurposing significant amounts of television broadcast spectrum that is particularly well-suited for mobile broadband. The reengineering approach outlined in the joint proposal would accomplish the following: enable broadcasters to move to more efficient network architecture; maintain free over-the-air television for consumers who choose that option; and free-up valuable spectrum for mobile broadband consumers.
CTIA's and CEA's position is that this transition would not cost broadcasters, nor would these upgrades impact consumers. While there are many challenges and complexities involved in this process, CTIA and CEA believe this proposal offers a feasible way to meet over-the-air television broadcasters' needs while recapturing significant amounts of spectrum for mobile broadband to enable next-generation wireless services.
Health effects 
CTIA is not a scientific or research organization, and defers to leading public health agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), when it comes to the discussion about mobile devices and any possible link to health effects.
Scientists have been studying cell phone use and possible health effects for many years. Leading global health authorities, such as the WHO, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have reviewed this research or have conducted their own, and have found that the available scientific evidence does not show that the use of wireless phones is associated with any health problems, including cancer.
The FCC, which regulates the use of wireless phones, has adopted safety standards governing radiofrequency (RF) fields from wireless phones, and has determined that all cell phones sold in the United States must meet the FCC's RF exposure standard. In adopting the current RF safety standards, the FCC stated that its standards represent the "best scientific thought and are sufficient to protect the public health". The FCC's RF standards governing wireless phones incorporate a 50 fold safety standard.
The FDA, which also has regulatory power over wireless phones and helped to develop and approve the FCC standard, has similarly concluded that "the weight of scientific evidence has not linked cell phones with any health problems".
The FCC, FDA, and other government agencies work cooperatively to monitor the ongoing scientific research to determine if the safety standards need to be adjusted.
The Interphone project, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, is the largest study of cell phone use and brain tumors ever undertaken and included substantial numbers of subjects using cell phones for 10 years or longer, found that "overall, no increase in risk...was observed with the use of mobile phones". Health and telecommunications agencies will continue to monitor ongoing research on the safety of cell phones. According to the FDA and WHO, among other organizations, the weight of scientific evidence has not effectively linked exposure to radio frequency energy from mobile devices with any known health problems.
Though some studies have concluded there is a link to an elevated risk, those studies have not been replicated and responsible expert authorities do not reach their conclusions based on the latest study. Instead, they base their conclusions on an evaluation of all of the relevant scientific research. Additional research can be used to fill gaps in the existing scientific work on this topic. For example, studies are being conducted on the effects of cell phone use by children and on even longer-term use. For more information about potential health effects of RF energy, see: the American Cancer Society, Food and Drug Administration, National Cancer Institute, World Health Organization and Federal Communications Commission.
Despite the evidence from these well-respected and highly credible organizations, some critics such as the Environmental Working Group (EWG) choose to ignore the decades of research. Instead, they state that "there is sufficient research that shows higher risk for brain and salivary gland tumors among heavy cell phone users. EWG encouraged consumers to look up their cell phone's radiation level, and to wear a headset when talking on the phone to limit their exposure".
The FCC says that "Even though no scientific evidence currently establishes a definite link between wireless device use and cancer or other illnesses, and even though all cell phones must meet established federal standards for exposure to RF energy, some consumers are skeptical of the science and/or the analysis that underlies the FCC's RF exposure guidelines. Accordingly, some parties recommend taking measures to further reduce exposure to RF energy. The FCC does not endorse the need for these practices, but provides information on some simple steps that you can take to reduce your exposure to RF energy from cell phones".
More information and links to other resources, including long-term health studies and RF exposure standards information, is available at a resource CTIA makes available to consumers.
Affiliate organizations 
- The Wireless Foundation isa 501(c)(3) organization that focuses on public interest and philanthropic programs and awards. This includes the joint effort with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children and the U.S. Department of Justice to deliver AMBER Alerts to wireless phones. Every year, the Foundation presents the VITA (Latin for "life") Wireless Samaritan Awards to honor people across the United States who have used their wireless technology to save lives, stop crime and help in other emergencies.
- MyWireless.org is a nonpartisan non-profit advocacy organization, made up of wireless consumers, businesses and community leaders from around the country, supporting reasonable pro-consumer wireless policies. MyWireless.org has now empowered more than 1.4 million consumer activists around the nation to help defeat unfair and excessive wireless taxes and regulations throughout the country. In 2009, MyWireless.org will continue to educate consumers about harmful wireless taxes, fees and regulations in their cities, states and in Washington, D.C., and provide the online education and outreach tools to make a difference in protecting their wireless freedom.
See also 
- "Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA)". Nf2g.com. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "AT4 wireless Authorized For Wi-Fi RF Performance Testing". Mwrf.com. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- "General information regarding the CTIA". Ctia.org. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- For Better Mobile Broadband, the U.S. Needs More Spectrum, Gigaom, August 17, 2009.
- FCC unveils National Broadband Plan, TheStreet.com
- Cell Phones Listed Property, Accounting Today
- SAMPLE LAW TO PROHIBIT TEXTING WHILE DRIVING, Distraction.gov, February 2010.
- Wireless Trade Association (CTIA) Applauds the Passage of S. 3304, Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology, September 29, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- FCC Adopts Shot Clock on Wireless Tower Siting, Broadcasting Cable
- CTIA Semi-Annual Wireless Industry Survey, CTIA.org. Retrieved December 9, 2010
- The Engadget Interview: Steve Largent, President and CEO, CTIA, Engadget, December 6, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010
-  Access Wireless.com, Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- "History of Wireless Communications (2000) – CTIA". Ctia.org. 2003-10-13. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- S. 1749: Cell Phone Contraband Act of 2010, Govtrack.us, Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Electronic Comment Filing System, FCC.gov, Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Technology and Science: Tech and Gadgets, MSNBC
- Unleashing America's Invisible Infrastructure, FCC.gov, October 21, 2010
- article2/0,2817,2353281,00.asp Wireless Industry Battles Net Neutrality Rules, September 24, 2009, PCMag.com
- For Better Mobile Broadband, the U.S. Needs More Spectrum, Gigaom, August 17, 2009
- Obama Backs More Spectrum for Wireless, Wired, June 28, 2010
- NTIA Identifies Federal Spectrum for Reallocation, National Journal, October 21, 2010
- Current Telecom Developments, Paul|Weiss, December 31, 2009
- CTIA–The Wireless Association Statement on the Interphone Study, CTIA.org, May 17, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- CTIA–The Wireless Association Statement on "The Health Effects of Cell Phone Use" Hearing CTIA.org, September 14, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study, International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;1–20. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Cell Phones and Cancer Risk, National Cancer Institute. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Risk? FDA.gov. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Wireless Devices and Health Concerns FCC.gov., September 20, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Radio Frequency Safety, FCC.gov, August 4, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Radiofrequency Energy Exposure and Health, Exponent, Page 8. April 27, 2004. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Research: Results to Date, FDA.gov, Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study Oxford Journals, March 8, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Cell Phone Radiation Research, Environmental Working Group. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- , Mobi-Kids
- Report Identifies Research to Bolster Knowledge of Any Potential Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices, The National Academies. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Limit Your Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation, Environmental Working Group, February 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
- Cell Phone Health Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2010.