CX614

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CX614
CX614.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino(2,1-3',2')1,3-oxazino(6',5'-5,4)benzo(e)1,4-dioxan-10-one
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Investigational New Medicine
Identifiers
CAS number 191744-13-5 YesY
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 6451148
UNII 87V631480W YesY
Synonyms CX-614
Chemical data
Formula C13H13NO4 
Mol. mass 247.24662 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

CX-614 is an ampakine drug developed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals. It has been investigated for its effect on AMPA receptors.[1]

Chronic CX-614 treatments produce rapid increases in the synthesis of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF which has very important effects on synaptic plasticity [2] and may have applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

Acute CX-614 treatments activate local mRNA translation (new protein synthesis) within dendrites [3] and this is mediated by a fast upregulation of BDNF release. CX-614-dependent release of BDNF rapidly increases translation of proteins that are important for synaptic plasticity such as ARC/Arg3.1 and CaMKIIalpha.[3]

CX-614 has also been proposed as a treatment for conditions such as depression and schizophrenia,[4][5] but produces receptor downregulation following chronic administration, which might limit the potential for extended use.[6][7]

However, downregulation of AMPA receptors with prolonged CX-614 administration can be avoided by designing and using short and intermittent treatment protocols, which could still upregulate BDNF protein levels without reducing the levels of AMPA receptors.[8]

Importantly, such short and intermittent treatment protocols are neuroprotective against neurotoxicity induced with MPTP and MPP+ in cultured midbrain (mesencephalic) and hippocampal organotypic slices.[9]

These results uncovered the neuroprotective effects of CX-614 and indicated that opened the way for further experimentation with CX-614 as an important new treatment for Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease.

CX-614 has also been shown to reduce the behavioural effects of methamphetamine in mice, and may have application in the treatment of stimulant abuse.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arai AC, Kessler M, Rogers G, Lynch G (2000). "Effects of the potent ampakine CX614 on hippocampal and recombinant AMPA receptors: interactions with cyclothiazide and GYKI 52466". Mol. Pharmacol. 58 (4): 802–13. PMID 10999951. 
  2. ^ Lauterborn JC, Truong GS, Baudry M, Bi X, Lynch G, Gall CM (Oct 2003). "Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by ampakines". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 307 (1): 297–305. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.053694. PMID 12893840. 
  3. ^ a b Jourdi H, Hsu YT, Zhou M, Qin Q, Bi X, Baudry M (Jul 2009). "POSITIVE AMPA RECEPTOR MODULATION RAPIDLY STIMULATES BDNF RELEASE AND INCREASES DENDRITIC mRNA TRANSLATION". J Neurosci. 29 (27): 8688–8697. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6078-08.2009. PMC 2761758. PMID 19587275. 
  4. ^ Jin R, Clark S, Weeks AM, Dudman JT, Gouaux E, Partin KM (Sep 2005). "Mechanism of positive allosteric modulators acting on AMPA receptors". J Neurosci. 25 (39): 9027–36. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2567-05.2005. PMID 16192394. 
  5. ^ Lynch G (Feb 2006). "Glutamate-based therapeutic approaches: ampakines". Curr Opin Pharmacol 6 (1): 82–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2005.09.005. PMID 16361116. 
  6. ^ Jourdi H, Lu X, Yanagihara T, et al. (Jul 2005). "Prolonged Positive Modulation of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors Induces Calpain-Mediated PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 Protein Degradation and AMPA Receptor Down-Regulation in Cultured Hippocampal Slices". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 314 (1): 16–26. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.083873. PMC 1554891. PMID 15784649. 
  7. ^ Mitchell NA, Fleck MW (Apr 2007). "Targeting AMPA Receptor Gating Processes with Allosteric Modulators and Mutations". Biophys J. 92 (7): 2392–402. doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.095091. PMC 1864835. PMID 17208968. 
  8. ^ Lauterborn JC, Pineda E, Chen LY, Ramirez EA, Lynch G, Gall CM (Mar 2009). "Ampakines cause sustained increases in BDNF signaling at excitatory synapses without changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression". Neuroscience 159 (1): 283–295. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.018. PMC 2746455. PMID 19141314. 
  9. ^ Jourdi H, Hamo L, Oka T, Seegan A, Baudry M (Apr 2009). "BDNF mediates the neuroprotective effects of positive AMPA receptor modulators against MPP+-induced toxicity in cultured hippocampal and mesencephalic slices". Neuropharmacology 56 (5): 876–885. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.01.015. PMID 19371576. 
  10. ^ Hess US, Whalen SP, Sandoval LM, Lynch G, Gall CM (2003). "Ampakines reduce methamphetamine-driven rotation and activate neocortex in a regionally selective fashion". Neuroscience 121 (2): 509–21. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00423-8. PMID 14522010.