C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is an 8.7 kDa protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL10gene. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family.
The three-dimensional crystal structure of this chemokine has been determined under 3 different conditions to a resolution of up to 1.92 Å. The Protein Data Bank accession codes for the structures of CXCL10 are 1lv9, 1o7y, and 1o80.
Baseline pre-treatment plasma levels of CXCL10 are elevated in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotypes 1 or 4 who do not achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) after completion of antiviral therapy. CXCL10 in plasma is mirrored by intrahepatic CXCL10 mRNA, and both strikingly predict the first days of elimination of HCV RNA (“first phase decline”) during interferon/ribavirin therapy for all HCV genotypes. This also applies for patients co-infected with HIV, where pre-treatment IP-10 levels below 150 pg/mL are predictive of a favorable response, and may thus be useful in encouraging these otherwise difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy.
^O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan JG (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet. Cell Genet.84 (1–2): 39–42. doi:10.1159/000015209. PMID10343098.
^Dufour JH, Dziejman M, Liu MT, Leung JH, Lane TE, Luster AD (April 2002). "IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; CXCL10)-deficient mice reveal a role for IP-10 in effector T cell generation and trafficking". J. Immunol.168 (7): 3195–204. PMID11907072.
^Booth V, Keizer DW, Kamphuis MB, Clark-Lewis I, Sykes BD (August 2002). "The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions". Biochemistry41 (33): 10418–25. doi:10.1021/bi026020q. PMID12173928.
^Swaminathan GJ, Holloway DE, Colvin RA, Campanella GK, Papageorgiou AC, Luster AD, Acharya KR (May 2003). "Crystal structures of oligomeric forms of the IP-10/CXCL10 chemokine". Structure11 (5): 521–32. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(03)00070-4. PMID12737818.
^Romero AI, Lagging M, Westin J, Dhillon AP, Dustin LB, Pawlotsky JM, Neumann AU, Ferrari C, Missale G, Haagmans BL, Schalm SW, Zeuzem S, Negro F, Verheij-Hart E, Hellstrand K (October 2006). "Interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducible protein-10: association with histological results, viral kinetics, and outcome during treatment with pegylated IFN-alpha 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection". J. Infect. Dis.194 (7): 895–903. doi:10.1086/507307. PMID16960776.
^Lagging M, Romero AI, Westin J, Norkrans G, Dhillon AP, Pawlotsky JM, Zeuzem S, von Wagner M, Negro F, Schalm SW, Haagmans BL, Ferrari C, Missale G, Neumann AU, Verheij-Hart E, Hellstrand K (December 2006). "IP-10 predicts viral response and therapeutic outcome in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 infection". Hepatology44 (6): 1617–25. doi:10.1002/hep.21407. PMID17133471.
^Askarieh G, Alsiö A, Pugnale P, Negro F, Ferrari C, Neumann AU, Pawlotsky JM, Schalm SW, Zeuzem S, Norkrans G, Westin J, Söderholm J, Hellstrand K, Lagging M (May 2010). "Systemic and intrahepatic interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 kDa predicts the first-phase decline in hepatitis C virus RNA and overall viral response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C". Hepatology51 (5): 1523–30. doi:10.1002/hep.23509. PMID20186843.
^Falconer K, Askarieh G, Weis N, Hellstrand K, Alaeus A, Lagging M (July 2010). "IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV". Scand J Infect Dis42 (11–12): 100824014139078. doi:10.3109/00365548.2010.498019. PMID20608766.
Farber JM (1997). "Mig and IP-10: CXC chemokines that target lymphocytes". J. Leukoc. Biol.61 (3): 246–57. PMID9060447.
Neville LF, Mathiak G, Bagasra O (1998). "The immunobiology of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10): a novel, pleiotropic member of the C-X-C chemokine superfamily". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.8 (3): 207–19. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(97)00015-4. PMID9462486.