|Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6|
PDB rendering based on 2f9q.
|Symbols||CYP2D6 (; CPD6; CYP2D; CYP2D7AP; CYP2D7BP; CYP2D7P2; CYP2D8P2; CYP2DL1; CYPIID6; P450-DB1; P450C2D; P450DB1)|
|RNA expression pattern|
CYP2D6 a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. In particular, CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs. This enzyme also metabolizes several endogenous substances such as hydroxytryptamines and neurosteroids.
There is considerable variation in the efficiency and amount of CYP2D6 enzyme produced between individuals. Hence for drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 (that is are CYP2D6 substrates), certain individuals will eliminate these drugs quickly (extensive metabolizers) while others slowly (poor metabolizers). If a drug is metabolized too quickly, it may decrease the drug's efficacy while if the drug is metabolized too slowly, toxicity may result. Hence the dose of the drug may have to be adjusted to take into account of the speed at which it is metabolized by CYP2D6.
In addition, other drugs may function as inhibitors of CYP2D6 activity or inducers of CYP2D6 enzyme expression that will lead to decreased or increased CYP2D6 activity respectively. If such a drug is taken at the same time a second drug who is a CYP2D6 substrate, the first drug may affect the elimination rate of the second through what is known as a drug-drug interaction.
The CYP2D6 function in any particular subject may be described as one of the following:
- poor metabolizer – little or no CYP2D6 function
- intermediate metabolizers – metabolize drugs at a rate somewhere between the poor and extensive metabolizers
- extensive metabolizer – normal CYP2D6 function
- ultrarapid metabolizer – multiple copies of the CYP2D6 gene are expressed, and therefore greater-than-normal CYP2D6 function
A patient's CYP2D6 phenotype is often clinically determined via the administration of debrisoquine (a selective CYP2D6 substrate) and subsequent plasma concentration assay of the debrisoquine metabolite (4-hydroxydebrisoquine).
The type of CYP2D6 function of an individual may influence the person's response to different doses of drugs that CYP2D6 metabolizes. The nature of the effect on the drug response depends not only on the type of CYP2D6 function, but also on the extent to which processing of the drug by CYP2D6 results in a chemical that has an effect that is similar, stronger, or weaker than the original drug, or no effect at all. For example, if CYP2D6 converts a drug that has a strong effect into a substance that has a weaker effect, then poor metabolizers (weak CYP2D6 function) will have an exaggerated response to the drug and stronger side-effects; conversely, if CYP2D6 converts a different drug into a substance that has a greater effect than its parent chemical, then extensive metabolizers (strong CYP2D6 function) will have an exaggerated response to the drug and stronger side-effects.
Genetic basis of variability
The genetic basis for extensive and poor metaboliser variability is the CYP2D6 allele, located on chromosome 22. Subjects possessing certain allelic variants will show normal, decreased, or no CYP2D6 function, depending on the allele.
|CYP2D6 allele and enzyme activity|
Ethnic factors in variability
Ethnicity is a factor in the occurrence of CYP2D6 variability. The prevalence of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers is approximately 6–10% in white populations, but is lower in most other ethnic groups such as Asians (2%). In blacks, the frequency of poor metabolizers is greater than for whites. The occurrence of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers appears to be greater among Middle Eastern and North African populations.
This variability is accounted for by the differences in the prevalence of various CYP2D6 alleles among the populations–approximately 10% of whites are intermediate metabolzers, due to decreased CYP2D6 function, because they appear to have the non-functional CYP2D6*4 allele, while approximately 50% of Asians possess the decreased functioning CYP2D6*10 allele.
Inhibitors of CYP2D6 can be classified by their potency, such as:
- Strong inhibitor being one that causes at least a 5-fold increase in the plasma AUC values, or more than 80% decrease in clearance.
- Moderate inhibitor being one that causes at least a 2-fold increase in the plasma AUC values, or 50-80% decrease in clearance.
- Weak inhibitor being one that causes at least a 1.25-fold but less than 2-fold increase in the plasma AUC values, or 20-50% decrease in clearance.
- Wang B, Yang LP, Zhang XZ, Huang SQ, Bartlam M, Zhou SF (2009). "New insights into the structural characteristics and functional relevance of the human cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme". Drug Metab. Rev. 41 (4): 573–643. doi:10.1080/03602530903118729. PMID 19645588.
- Teh LK, Bertilsson L (2012). "Pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6: molecular genetics, interethnic differences and clinical importance". Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 27 (1): 55–67. doi:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-11-RV-121. PMID 22185816.
- Walko CM, McLeod H (April 2012). "Use of CYP2D6 genotyping in practice: tamoxifen dose adjustment". Pharmacogenomics 13 (6): 691–7. doi:10.2217/pgs.12.27. PMID 22515611.
- "Entrez Gene: CYP2D6 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6".
- Bertilsson L, Dahl ML, Dalén P, Al-Shurbaji A (February 2002). "Molecular genetics of CYP2D6: clinical relevance with focus on psychotropic drugs". Br J Clin Pharmacol 53 (2): 111–22. doi:10.1046/j.0306-5251.2001.01548.x. PMC 1874287. PMID 11851634.
- Llerena A, Dorado P, Peñas-Lledó EM (January 2009). "Pharmacogenetics of debrisoquine and its use as a marker for CYP2D6 hydroxylation capacity". Pharmacogenomics 10 (1): 17–28. doi:10.2217/146224126.96.36.199. PMID 19102711.
- Lynch T, Price A (August 2007). "The effect of cytochrome P450 metabolism on drug response, interactions, and adverse effects". Am Fam Physician 76 (3): 391–6. PMID 17708140.
- Droll K, Bruce-Mensah K, Otton SV, Gaedigk A, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF (1998). "Comparison of three CYP2D6 probe substrates and genotype in Ghanaians, Chinese and Caucasians". Pharmacogenetics 8 (4): 325–33. doi:10.1097/00008571-199808000-00006. PMID 9731719.
- Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH) 2004. ISBN 0-9578521-4-2
- Gaedigk A, Bradford LD, Marcucci KA, Leeder JS (2002). "Unique CYP2D6 activity distribution and genotype-phenotype discordance in black Americans". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 72 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1067/mcp.2002.125783. PMID 12152006.
- McLellan RA, Oscarson M, Seidegård J, Evans DA, Ingelman-Sundberg M (June 1997). "Frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 gene duplication in Saudi Arabians". Pharmacogenetics 7 (3): 187–91. doi:10.1097/00008571-199706000-00003. PMID 9241658.
- Flockhart DA (2007). "Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table". Indiana University School of Medicine. Retrieved on July 2011
- FASS (drug formulary): Swedish environmental classification of pharmaceuticals Facts for prescribers (Fakta för förskrivare), retrieved July 2011
- PHARMACOGENETICS AND PHARMACOGENOMICS. J. Steven Leeder PharmD, PhD Pediatric Clinics of North America - Volume 48, Issue 3 (June 2001). doi:10.1016/S0031-3955%2805%2970338-2.
- "Hydrocodone". Drugbank. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Hoskins JM, Carey LA, McLeod HL (August 2009). "CYP2D6 and tamoxifen: DNA matters in breast cancer". Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 (8): 576–86. doi:10.1038/nrc2683. PMID 19629072.
- Zhang W, Ramamoorthy Y, Tyndale RF, Sellers EM (June 2003). "Interaction of buprenorphine and its metabolite norbuprenorphine with cytochromes p450 in vitro". Drug Metab. Dispos. 31 (6): 768–72. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.6.768. PMID 12756210.
- FASS, The Swedish official drug catalog > Kodein Recip Last reviewed 2008-04-08
- Cockshott ID (2004). "Bicalutamide: clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism". Clin Pharmacokinet 43 (13): 855–78. doi:10.2165/00003088-200443130-00003. PMID 15509184.
- Foster BC, Sockovie ER, Vandenhoek S, Bellefeuille N, Drouin CE, Krantis A, Budzinski JW, Livesey J, and Arnason JT (2004). "In Vitro Activity of St. John's Wort Against Cytochrome P450 Isozymes and P-Glycoprotein ". Pharmaceutical Biology 42 (2): 159–169. doi:10.1080/13880200490512034.
- He N, Zhang WQ, Shockley D, Edeki T (February 2002). "Inhibitory effects of H1-antihistamines on CYP2D6- and CYP2C9-mediated drug metabolic reactions in human liver microsomes". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 57 (12): 847–51. doi:10.1007/s00228-001-0399-0. PMID 11936702.
- Smith G, Stubbins MJ, Harries LW, Wolf CR (1999). "Molecular genetics of the human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily". Xenobiotica 28 (12): 1129–65. doi:10.1080/004982598238868. PMID 9890157.
- Wolf CR, Smith G (1999). "Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6". IARC Sci. Publ. (148): 209–29. PMID 10493260.
- Ding X, Kaminsky LS (2003). "Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 43 (1): 149–73. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.43.100901.140251. PMID 12171978.
- Lilienfeld S (2002). "Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease". CNS Drug Reviews 8 (2): 159–76. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2002.tb00221.x. PMID 12177686.
- Yu AM, Idle JR, Gonzalez FJ (2004). "Polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6: humanized mouse model and endogenous substrates". Drug Metab. Rev. 36 (2): 243–77. doi:10.1081/DMR-120034000. PMID 15237854.
- Abraham JE, Maranian MJ, Driver KE, Platte R, Kalmyrzaev B, Baynes C, Luccarini C, Shah M, Ingle S, Greenberg D, Earl HM, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Caldas C (2010). "CYP2D6 gene variants: association with breast cancer specific survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients from the United Kingdom treated with adjuvant tamoxifen". Breast Cancer Res. 12 (4): R64. doi:10.1186/bcr2629. PMC 2949659. PMID 20731819.
- Abraham JE, Maranian MJ, Driver KE, Platte R, Kalmyrzaev B, Baynes C, Luccarini C, Earl HM, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Caldas C (2011). "CYP2D6 gene variants and their association with breast cancer susceptibility". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 20 (6): 1255–8. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0321. PMID 21527579.