Cabinet of Vanuatu

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The Cabinet of Vanuatu (formally the Council of Ministers of Vanuatu) is the cabinet (executive branch) of the government of the Republic of Vanuatu.

The Constitution of Vanuatu (Art. 39(1)) specifies that "[t]he executive power of the people of the Republic of Vanuatu is vested in the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers". The number of Ministers must not "exceed a quarter of the number of members of Parliament" (Art. 40(2)). The Prime Minister, who is directly elected by Parliament, appoints other Ministers from among the members of Parliament (Art. 42(1)). The Council is "collectively responsible to Parliament" (Art. 43(1)).[1]

Current Cabinet[edit]

On 15 May 2014, several parties (including the Vanua'aku Pati and the Land and Justice Party) defected from the Carcasses coalition, and joined the Opposition to bring down the government through a motion of no confidence. Parliament then elected Joe Natuman as Prime Minister, with forty votes out of fifty-two. He named the following Cabinet:[2]

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Joe Natuman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister for Trade and Commerce
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malakula
Minister for Finance Maki Simelum Vanua'aku Pati Ambrym
Minister for Internal Affairs Charlot Salwai Reunification Movement for Change Pentecost
Minister for Education Bob Loughman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister for Health George Wells People's Progress Party Luganville
Minister for Justice Alfred Carlot Natatok Efate Rural
Minister for Climate Change James Bule National United Party Ambae
Minister for Lands Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries David Tosul Land and Justice Party Pentecost
Minister for Youth and Sport Don Ken Independent Malakula
Minister for Infrastructure Esmon Sae Melanesian Progressive Party Malakula

Previous Cabinets[edit]

Natapei Cabinet (2008-2010)[edit]

This Cabinet resulted initially from the September 2008 general election.[3] The following month, the Council was reshuffled to offer positions to the Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), which joined the ruling coalition.[4] In June 2009, the election to Parliament of Bakoa Kaltongga (the Minister for Foreign Affairs) was invalidated by the Supreme Court, leading to his dismissal from the Council of Ministers. On that occasion, Prime Minister Edward Natapei reshuffled his Cabinet again.[5][6] In December 2009, a new reshuffle[7] produced the following Cabinet:[8][9]

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister
Minister of Public Service
Edward Natapei Vanua'aku Pati Port Vila
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trades, Commerce and Industry
Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Minister of Justice and Women’s Affairs Bakoa Kaltonga Vanua'aku Pati Efate
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Sela Molisa Vanua'aku Pati Santo
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Paul Telukluk Namangi Aute Malekula
Minister of Internal Affairs,
Minister of Labour
Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Port Vila
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Serge Vohor Union of Moderate Parties Santo
Minister of Education Charlot Salwai Union of Moderate Parties Pentecost
Minister of Health Moses Kahu Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister of Foreign Affairs, External Trade and Telecommunications Joe Natuman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister of Agriculture Steven Kalsakau Union of Moderate Parties Efate
Minister of Ni-Vanuatu Business Dunstan Hilton People's Progress Party Banks & Torres
Minister of Sports and Youth Development Raphael Worwor Union of Moderate Parties Ambrym

Kilman Cabinet (2010-2011)[edit]

On 2 December 2010, Edward Natapei's government was ousted in a vote of no confidence, and Parliament elected Sato Kilman to replace him.[10] Kilman's initial appointments to his Cabinet are given below.[11][12]

A few days later, a reshuffle took place when members of the Union of Moderate Parties accepted positions in Cabinet in exchange for withdrawing their support from an immediate motion of no confidence in the new government. Charlot Salwai, vice-President of the UMP, replaced Yoan Simon as Minister for Education; and Serge Vohor, President of the UMP, replaced Harry Iauko (a dissident member of the Vanua'aku Pati[13]) as Minister for Infrastructure and Public Utilities. Simon became Minister for Justice, replacing Alfred Carlot, who lost his seat in Cabinet, while Iauko became Minister for Lands and Natural Resources, replacing Paul Telukluk (the only Namangi Aute MP), who was also removed from Cabinet.[14]

On 10 February 2011, Vohor and Salwai both resigned, along with Minister for Agriculture Marcellino Pipite, of the Republican Party; all three wished to protest over their respective parties having fewer seats in Cabinet then they had asked for. (The Republican Party had lost one when Carlot was removed in the reshuffle.) Following Vohor and Salwai's resignation from the government, the UMP announced it was joining the opposition once again, supporting Edward Natapei in his bid to reclaim the premiership by ousting Kilman in a new motion of "no confidence".[15]

On 18 February, there was another reshuffle, to consolidate the government's majority prior to an expected vote on a motion of confidence in Parliament. Backbencher Esmon Sae was appointed Minister for ni-Vanuatu business, replacing Ralph Regenvanu, who became instead Minister for Lands. Backbencher James Wango was appointed Minister for Agriculture, while Marcellino Pipite, who had rejoined the government, was appointed Minister for Education.[16]

On 10 March, Kilman sacked Justice Minister Yoan Simon, who had "reportedly backed the opposition’s plans for a motion of no confidence". To shore up the coalition, the Republican Party was invited to join the government once more. The Republican Party demanded the Lands Ministry, which Kilman consequently offered to Alfred Carlot. This meant reshuffling Lands Minister Ralph Regenvanu to the Ministry of Justice and Social Affairs.[17][18][19]

Initial Kilman Cabinet

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trade, Commerce, Industries and Tourism
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Quarantine and Fisheries Marcellino Pipite Republican Party Santo
Minister of Cooperatives and Ni-Vanuatu Business Development Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister of Education Yoanne Simon Labour Party Epi
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Port Vila
Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade George Wells National United Party Luganville
Minister of Health Ton Ken Independent Malekula
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Harry Iauko Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Tanna
Minister of Internal Affairs Dunstan Hilton People's Progress Party Banks/Torres
Minister of Justice Alfred Carlot Republican Party Efate
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Paul Telukluk Namangi Aute Malekula
Minister of Youth and Sports Morkin Stevens National United Party Tanna

Cabinet after final reshuffle (March 2011)

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trade, Commerce, Industries and Tourism
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Quarantine and Fisheries James Wango People's Progress Party Ambae
Minister of Cooperatives and Ni-Vanuatu Business Development Esmon Sae Melanesian Progressive Party Malekula
Minister of Education Marcellino Pipite Republican Party Santo
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Port Vila
Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade George Wells National United Party Luganville
Minister of Health Ton Ken Independent Malekula
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Harry Iauko Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Tanna
Minister of Internal Affairs Dunstan Hilton People's Progress Party Banks/Torres
Minister of Justice and Social Affairs Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Alfred Carlot Republican Party Efate
Minister of Youth and Sports Morkin Stevens National United Party Tanna

Vohor Cabinet (2011)[edit]

On 24 April 2011 (Easter Sunday), Parliament ousted Prime Minister Sato Kilman by twenty-six votes to twenty-five in a motion of no confidence. The Opposition had not formally proposed a candidate to replace him, and Parliament elected Serge Vohor (Union of Moderate Parties) as new Prime Minister. It was Vohor's fourth accession to the premiership.[20] He quickly named his new Cabinet (detailed below). Other than Vohor himself, it included only one minister from the Union of Moderate Parties (Charlot Salwai, who was given the Education portfolio), whereas the Vanua'aku Pati received four ministries. Eta Rory, the only woman in Parliament, was appointed Minister for Agriculture.[21][22]

However, Serge Vohor's election as Prime Minister, and therefore both his term in office and the tenure of his Cabinet, was voided by the Court of Appeal on 13 May. The Court deemed that his election was unconstitutional as he had only received votes from one-half of the members of Parliament (26 out of 52), rather than by an absolute majority.[23]

Members of the 2011 Vohor Cabinet

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Serge Vohor Union of Moderate Parties Santo
Deputy Prime Minister Joshua Kalsakau Labour Party Efate
Minister for Foreign Affairs Joe Natuman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister for Trade Sela Molisa Vanua'aku Pati Santo
Minister for Agriculture Eta Rory Family First Party Malekula
Minister for Finance Bakoa Kaltongga Vanua'aku Pati Efate
Minister for Health Willie Reuben Abel Vanua'aku Pati Tongoa
Minister for Lands Dominique Morin Republican Party Luganville
Minister for Internal Affairs Patrick Crowby National United Party Port Vila
Minister for Education Charlot Salwai Union of Moderate Parties Pentecost
Minister for Justice Ioan Simon Labour Party Epi
Minister for Ni-Vanuatu Business Paul Telukluk Namangi Aute Malekula
Minister for Sports Thomas Isom National United Party Banks/Torres

Kilman Cabinet (May–June 2011)[edit]

Following the voiding of Serge Vohor's brief premiership by the Court of Appeal on 13 May, the premiership reverted to its previous holder: Sato Kilman. Ralph Regenvanu stated that the ousted Kilman Cabinet was thereby fully restored: "Sato and his ministers remain the cabinet of Vanuatu and have always been. [...] [W]e have now taken back our offices."[23] Kilman's restored government, however, was supported only by twenty-four Members of Parliament, while Vohor was believed to have the support of twenty-seven, leaving Kilman's coalition in a precarious position.[24]

Over the following days, the government's side was somewhat strengthened as two members of Parliament defected from the Opposition, and were given Cabinet portfolios. Stephen Kalsakau (of Vohor's Union of Moderate Parties) switched sides a day after the Kilman government was restored, and was appointed Minister for Lands. On 17 May, Willie Reuben Abel joined the government as Minister for Health, replacing Don Ken, who was reshuffled to the ministry of ni-Vanuatu affairs.[25][26] Willie Reuben Abel was a member of the Vanua'aku Pati, but did not recognise the party's leadership, choosing instead to follow dissident leader Harry Iauko.[27] This 17 May Cabinet lasted until the Kilman premiership was voided the following month.

On 20 May, the government weathered a motion of no confidence, emerging with the support of 27 MPs - a majority of one. Kilman noted the potential for more instability if floor-crossing were to occur, adding that in that case, "we cannot have instability for the next twelve months, [so] it w[ould] be in the interest of the country to go back to elections, as soon as possible".[28]

Kilman's term was also voided by a ruling from Chief Justice Vincent Lunabek on 16 June, finding that Kilman's election in December 2010 had not been in conformity with the requirements for a secret parliamentary ballot set out in Article 41 of the Constitution. Natapei was restored with instructions from the court to convene Parliament for the election of a Prime Minister.[29][30]

Cabinet following reshuffle on 17 May 2011

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trade, Commerce, Industries and Tourism
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Quarantine and Fisheries James Nwango People's Progress Party Ambae
Minister of Cooperatives and Ni-Vanuatu Business Development Don Ken Independent Malekula
Minister of Education Marcellino Pipite Republican Party Santo
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Port Vila
Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade Alfred Carlot Republican Party Efate Rural
Minister of Health Willie Ruben Abel Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Shepherds
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Harry Iauko Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Tanna
Minister of Internal Affairs George Wells National United Party Santo
Minister of Justice and Social Affairs Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Stephen Kalsakau Union of Moderate Parties
(dissident)
Efate
Minister of Youth and Sports Morkin Stevens National United Party Tanna

Natapei interim Cabinet (June 2011)[edit]

With Sato Kilman's premiership having been declared null and void on 16 June 2011, Vanuatu briefly had an interim Prime Minister, Edward Natapei, tasked simply with convening Parliament for the election of a new Prime Minister.[29][30] Radio Australia noted that Natapei's "former ministers have become interim ministers until a new prime minister is elected".[31] Ironically, this included Sato Kilman as Deputy Prime Minister. See "Natapei Cabinet (2008-2010)", above.

During his interim, Natapei notably ordered all those who had served as ministers under Kilman to refund their salaries, on the grounds that they had not lawfully held office.[32]

On 20 June, Natapei reshuffled this caretaker Cabinet, producing the following:[33]

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister
Minister of Public Service
Edward Natapei Vanua'aku Pati Port Vila
Minister of Justice and Women’s Affairs Bakoa Kaltonga Vanua'aku Pati Efate
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Sela Molisa Vanua'aku Pati Santo
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Dominique Morin Republican Party Luganville
Minister of Internal Affairs Patrick Crowby National United Party Port Vila
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Joshua Kalsakau Labour Party Efate
Minister of Education Charlot Salwai Union of Moderate Parties Pentecost
Minister of Foreign Affairs Joe Natuman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Samson Samsen Republican Party Santo
Minister of Ni-Vanuatu Business Paul Telukluk Namangi Aute Malekula
Minister of Youth and Sports Eta Rory Family First Party Malekula

Kilman Cabinets (2011-2013)[edit]

On 26 June 2011, Sato Kilman was elected Prime Minister by Parliament, with twenty-nine votes to Serge Vohor's twenty-three, thus beginning his first lawfully recognised term as Prime Minister. He reinstated his previous Cabinet.[34] Four days later, Minister for Infrastructure Harry Iauko was convicted of aiding and abetting damage to property and aiding and abetting intentional assault, for an assault carried out on Marc Neil-Jones, publisher of the Vanuatu Daily Post. Sentenced to a fine, Iauko retained his Cabinet portfolios.[35]

On 16 January 2012, Kilman sacked his Minister for Justice and Social Affairs, Ralph Regenvanu, accusing him of disloyalty. Regenvanu said he had not been given a specific reason for his dismissal, but that it might have been due to his voting in Parliament against the government's decision for Vanuatu to join the World Trade Organisation.[36] Kilman appointed Charlot Salwai (UMP) in his place.[37]

In February 2012, the Union of Moderate Parties expelled Steven Kalsakau and Charlot Salwai (along with backbencher Raphael Worwor) from the party for having joined Kilman's government in defiance of the party's position. They now sit as independent members.[38]

On 20 March, Kilman sacked Health Minister Willie Reuben Abel, accusing him of under-performance in delivering better health services to the people.[39] On 10 April, however, he was reinstated.[40] On 12 April, Kilman gave Harry Iauko ministerial responsibility for Air Vanuatu as a specific portfolio in addition to his Infrastructure and Public Utilities portfolios. Iauko was a former Chairman of the Board of Management of Air Vanuatu.[41]

Following a general election on 30 October 2012, Kilman retained the confidence of the new Parliament to remain Prime Minister, formed a new coalition and appointed a new Cabinet.[42]

On 8 December, the Minister for Agriculture (and Vice-President of the People's Progress Party) Dunstan Hilton stepped down and was replaced by Kalfau Moli, Independent MP for Luganville. Kilman acknowledged that his deputy's consented "sacrifice" was intended to shore up the government's parliamentary majority by securing Moli's support.[43]

On 10 December, Minister for Infrastructure Harry Iauko died suddenly.[44] Tony Nari, Iauko Group MP for Pentecost, was appointed to replace him on 2 January 2013.[45]

On 20 March 2013, Minister for Justice and Social Welfare Thomas Laken and Minister for Ni-Vanuatu Business Marcellino Pipite crossed the floor to join the Opposition, along with six government backbenchers.[46] Lacking a majority with which to govern, Prime Minister Kilman resigned the following day, before a motion of no confidence could be brought against him.[47]

Cabinet on 30 November 2012

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trade, Commerce and Industry
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Quarantine and Fisheries Dunstan Hilton People's Progress Party Banks and Torres
Minister of Civil Aviation Samson Samsen Nagriamel Santo
Minister of Education, Youth and Sport Steven Kalsakau Reunification Movement for Change
(UMP dissident)
Efate
Minister of Finance Charlot Salwai Reunification Movement for Change
(UMP dissident)
Pentecost
Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade Alfred Carlot Natatok Efate Rural
Minister of Health Don Ken People's Services Party Malekula
Minister of Infrastructure, Public Utilities and Public Service Harry Iauko Iauko Group
(Vanua'aku Pati dissident)
Tanna
Minister of Internal Affairs Toara Daniel Kalo Green Confederation Shepherds
Minister of Justice and Social Welfare Thomas Laken Independent Tanna
Minister of Lands James Bule National United Party Ambae
Minister of Ni-Vanuatu Business Marcellino Pipite Republican Party Santo

Cabinet on 26 June 2011

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party Malekula
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Trade, Commerce, Industries and Tourism
Ham Lini National United Party Pentecost
Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Quarantine and Fisheries James Nwango People's Progress Party Ambae
Minister of Cooperatives and Ni-Vanuatu Business Development Don Ken Independent Malekula
Minister of Education Marcellino Pipite Republican Party Santo
Minister of Finance and Economic Management Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Port Vila
Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade Alfred Carlot Republican Party Efate Rural
Minister of Health Willie Ruben Abel Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Shepherds
Minister of Infrastructure and Public Utilities Harry Iauko Vanua'aku Pati (dissident) Tanna
Minister of Internal Affairs George Wells National United Party Santo
Minister of Justice and Social Affairs Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Stephen Kalsakau Union of Moderate Parties
(dissident)
Efate
Minister of Youth and Sports Morkin Stevens National United Party Tanna

Carcasses Cabinet (2013-2014)[edit]

On 23 March 2013, following Sato Kilman's resignation, Parliament elected Moana Carcasses Kalosil as Prime Minister.[48] Carcasses named the following Cabinet. He abolished the Ministry of Civil Aviation, re-established the pre-existing Ministry of Youth Development and Sports, merged the Ministry of Ni-Vanuatu Business Development and the Ministry of Trade into a new Ministry of Tourism and Commerce, and created a new Ministry of Planning and Climate Change, in line with his being the country's first government leader from the Green Confederation.[49]

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Confederation Port Vila
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister for Foreign Affairs
Edward Natapei Vanua'aku Pati Port Vila
Minister for Finance Willie Jimmy Liberal Democratic Party Port Vila
Minister for Education Bob Loughman Vanua'aku Pati Tanna
Minister for Lands, Geology, Mines, Energy and Water resources Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Party Port Vila
Minister for Infrastructure and Public Utilities Esmon Sae Melanesian Progressive Party Malekula
Minister for Internal Affairs Patrick Crowby Union of Moderate Parties Port Vila
Minister for Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry, Fisheries and Biosecurity David Tosul People's Progress Party Pentecost
Minister for Tourism and Commerce Marcellino Pipite Vanuatu Republican Party Santo Rural
Minister for Health Serge Vohor Union of Moderate Parties Santo Rural
Minister for Justice and Social Welfare Maki Simelum Vanua'aku Pati Ambrym
Minister for Youth Development and Sports Tony Wright Union of Moderate Parties Port Vila
Minister for Planning and Climate Change Adaptation Thomas Laken Independent Tanna

In May 2013, Carcasses sacked his Finance Minister, Willie Jimmy, "amid reports the veteran politician was in talks with the opposition about a possible defection", which Jimmy denied. Maki Simelum, who had been Minister for Justice, replaced him, while Silas Yatan (Greens, MP for Tanna) was given the Justice portfolio.[50]

On 5 July, Yatan himself was shuffled out of the ministry, a day after having publicly suggested that the death penalty should be reinstated to deter murderers. Carcasses rejected the suggestion, and made Yatan his parliamentary secretary, entrusting the Justice portfolio to Green MP Daniel Toara. The change was reportedly made to "lend balance to the regional distribution of portfolios, to ensure Shefa Province had a portfolio".[51]

On 11 July, Trade Minister Marcellino Pipite was sacked, for having reportedly supported a failed motion of no confidence against the government that he was a part of.[52] On 3 August, Daniel Toara was reshuffled to the vacant position of Minister for Trade, Tourism and Commerce, and Jonas James, until then the first deputy Speaker, was appointed Minister for Justice.[53]

On 27 December 2013, Interior Minister Patrick Crowby died, after several days in hospital for unspecified causes, at the age of 55.[54] On 20 February 2014, backbencher Christophe Emelee (MP for Torba; head of the Vanuatu National Party) was sworn in to replace him.[55]

On 26 February, following the defection of government MPs to the Opposition (including Justice Minister Jonas James[56]), Carcasses reshuffled his Cabinet to offer positions to Opposition members. Four Opposition MPs joined his government, in exchange for Cabinet positions. Stephen Kalsakau (Reunification of Moderate Parties) was appointed Minister of Climate Change. Paul Telukluk (Reunification of Moderate Parties) became Minister for Internal Affairs, replacing Christophe Emelee, who was reshuffled to the position of Minister for Justice. Daniel Toara was dismissed from his position as Minister for Trade, to make way for Willie Jimmy (Liberal Party). Tony Wright (Union of Moderate Parties), who had been Minister for Youth and Sports before defecting to the Opposition, regained his position upon re-defecting to the government.[57]

Thus, this was Carcasses' final Cabinet line-up before the fall of his government on 15 May 2014:

Portfolio Minister Party Constituency
Prime Minister Moana Carcasses Kalosil Green Confederation Port Vila
Deputy Prime Minister
Minister for Foreign Affairs
Edward Natapei Vanua'aku Port Vila
Minister for Finance Maki Simelum Vanua'aku Ambrym
Minister for Education Bob Loughman Vanua'aku Tanna
Minister for Lands, Geology, Mines, Energy and Water resources Ralph Regenvanu Land and Justice Port Vila
Minister for Infrastructure and Public Utilities Esmon Sae Melanesian Progressive Malekula
Minister for Internal Affairs Paul Telukluk Union of Moderate Parties Malakula
Minister for Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry, Fisheries and Biosecurity David Tosul People's Progress Pentecost
Minister for Tourism and Commerce Willie Jimmy Liberal Democratic Port Vila
Minister for Health Serge Vohor Union of Moderate Parties Santo Rural
Minister for Justice and Social Welfare Christophe Emelee National Torba
Minister for Youth Development and Sports Tony Wright Union of Moderate Parties Port Vila
Minister for Planning and Climate Change Adaptation Stephen Kalsakau Reunification of Moderate Parties Efate Rural

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of Vanuatu
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  6. ^ "Composition du gouvernement de la République du Vanuatu", French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
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