State Council of the People's Republic of China

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"Central People's Government" redirects here. For the central government of the PRC during 1949-1954, see Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (1949–54).
State Council of the
People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国国务院
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg
Agency overview
Formed 27 September 1954
Preceding Agency Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government
Jurisdiction Government of the People's Republic of China
Headquarters Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Agency executives Li Keqiang, Premier
Zhang Gaoli, Liu Yandong, Wang Yang, Ma Kai, Vice-Premiers
Website http://english.gov.cn
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
China

The State Council (simplified Chinese: 国务院; traditional Chinese: 國務院; pinyin: Guówùyuàn), synonymous with the Central People's Government (Chinese: 中央人民政府) since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.[1] It is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency.[2] Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, five state councilors (of whom two are also ministers), and 25 additional ministers and chairs of major agencies.[3] In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.

Organization[edit]

The State Council meets once every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Politburo that meets weekly. The standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, and five other state councilors (one of whom serves as Secretary General of the State Council, and two of whom concurrently serve as ministers).

The vice-premiers and state councilors are nominated by the premier, and appointed by the president with National People's Congress' (NPC) approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms.

Each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councilor performs duties as designated by the Premier. The secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has relatively little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

Each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries.

In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council. The heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.

The State Council is formally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, and nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or greatly modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition.

The State Council and the Communist Party of China are also tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councilors are high-ranking members of the CCP. Although, as party members, they are supposed to follow party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the party they also have substantial influence over what those instructions are. This results in a system which is unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party effectively controlled the state. Rather, the party and state are fused at this level of government. The members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel.

There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were largely abandoned in the early 1990s.

As the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, and monitor their implementation; draft legislative bills for submission to the NPC or its Standing Committee; and prepare the economic plan and the state budget for deliberation and approval by the NPC. The State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels. With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council clearly acquired additional importance and influence.

The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, which is instead controlled by the Central Military Commission.

Principal officers[edit]

Li Keqiang Cabinet
Office Officeholder(s) Tenure
Premier Li Keqiang 2013-
Vice Premier(s) Zhang Gaoli (1st) 2013-
Liu Yandong (2nd) 2013-
Wang Yang (3rd) 2013-
Ma Kai (4th) 2013-
Secretary General Yang Jing 2013-
Finance Minister Lou Jiwei 2013-
Foreign Minister Wang Yi 2013-
Defense Minister Chang Wanquan 2013-
Education Minister Yuan Guiren 2009-
Commerce Minister Gao Hucheng 2013-
Health and Family Planning Commission Chairperson Li Bin 2013-
Development and Reform Commission Chairperson Xu Shaoshi 2013-
Transport Minister Yang Chuantang 2013-
Civil Affairs Minister Li Liguo 2013-
Labour Minister Yin Weimin 2013-
Central Bank Governor Zhou Xiaochuan 2002-

Organizational structure[edit]

General Office of the State Council[edit]

Ministries and Commissions under the State Council[edit]

  1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  2. Ministry of National Defense
  3. National Development and Reform Commission
  4. Ministry of Education
  5. Ministry of Science and Technology
  6. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  7. Ministry of Ethnic Affairs
  8. Ministry of State Security
  9. Ministry of Public Security
  10. Ministry of Supervision
  11. Ministry of Civil Affairs
  12. Ministry of Justice
  13. Ministry of Finance
  14. Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
  15. Ministry of Land and Resources
  16. Ministry of Environmental Protection
  17. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
  18. Ministry of Transport
  19. Ministry of Water Resources
  20. Ministry of Agriculture
  21. Ministry of Commerce
  22. Ministry of Culture
  23. National Health and Family Planning Commission
  24. People's Bank
  25. National Audit Office

Special Organization directly under the State Council[edit]

Organizations directly under the State Council[edit]

  1. General Administration of Customs
  2. State Administration of Taxation
  3. State Administration for Industry and Commerce
  4. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine
  5. State Administration of Radio, Film and Television
  6. General Administration of Press and Publication (National Copyright Administration)
  7. State General Administration of Sports
  8. National Bureau of Statistics
  9. State Forestry Administration
  10. State Administration of Work Safety
  11. State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO)
  12. National Tourism Administration
  13. State Administration for Religious Affairs
  14. Counselor's Office of the State Council
  15. Government Offices Administration of the State Council
  16. National Bureau of Corruption Prevention

Administrative Offices under the State Council[edit]

  1. Overseas Chinese Affairs Office
  2. Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office
  3. Legislative Affairs Office
  4. State Council Research Office
  5. Taiwan Affairs Office (also as a CPC institution), under CPC Central Committee
  6. State Council Information Office (also as a CPC institution), under CPC Central Committee
  7. 610 Office

Institutions directly under the State Council[edit]

  1. Xinhua News Agency
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences
  3. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  4. Chinese Academy of Engineering
  5. Development Research Center
  6. China National School of Administration
  7. China Earthquake Administration
  8. China Meteorological Administration
  9. China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)
  10. China Securities Regulatory Commission
  11. China Insurance Regulatory Commission
  12. State Electricity Regulatory Commission
  13. National Council for Social Security Fund
  14. National Natural Science Foundation
  15. State Archives Administration (also as a CPC institution), under General Office of CPC Central Committee

State Administrations and Bureaus under the Ministries and Commissions[edit]

  1. State Bureau for Letters and Calls, under General Office of the State Council
  2. State Administration of Grain, under National Development and Reform Commission
  3. National Energy Administration, under National Development and Reform Commission
  4. State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence, under Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  5. State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (China National Tobacco Corporation), under Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  6. State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs, under Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
  7. State Bureau of Civil Servants, under Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
  8. State Oceanic Administration, under Ministry of Land and Resources
  9. Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), under Ministry of Transport
  10. State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, under Ministry of Land and Resources
  11. State Post Bureau, under Ministry of Transport
  12. State Administration of Cultural Heritage, under Ministry of Culture
  13. State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), under Ministry of Health
  14. State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, under Ministry of Health
  15. State Administration of Foreign Exchange, under People's Bank of China
  16. State Administration of Coal Mine Safety, under State Administration of Work Safety
  17. National Administration for the Protection of State Secrets (also as a CPC institution), under General Office of CPC Central Committee
  18. State Cryptography Administration (also as a CPC institution), under General Office of CPC Central Committee
  19. China National Space Administration, a name reserved by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  20. China Atomic Energy Authority, a name reserved by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  21. State Language Commission, a name reserved by Ministry of Education
  22. National Nuclear Safety Administration, a name reserved by Ministry of Environmental Protection

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]